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a 


,— ‘SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 


UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


PROCEEDINGS 


UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


WV oltmase. XX VUE. 


PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 





WASHINGTON : 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
19038. 





ADVERTISEMENT. 


The publications of the National Museum consist of two series: 
Proceedings and Bulletins. 

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are 
intended primarily as a medium of publication for newly acquired 
facts in biology, anthropology, and geology, descriptions of new forms 
of animals and plants acquired by the National Museum, discussions of 
nomenclature, ete. A volume is issued annually or oftener for distri- 
bution to libraries, while in view of the importance to science of the 
prompt publication of descriptions of new species, a limited edition of 
each paper is printed in pamphlet form in advance. 

The present volume is the twenty-sixth of the series. 

The Bulletin, publication of which was begun in 1875, is a series 
of more elaborate papers, issued separately and based for the most 

art upon collections in the National Museum. They are mono- 
zraphic in scope, and are devoted principally to the discussion of 
warge zoological groups, bibliographies of eminent naturalists, reports 
of expeditions, ete. 

A quarto form of the Bulletin, known as the ‘* Special Bulletin,” has 
been adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed 
indispensable. 

The Annual Report of the National Museum (being the second vol- 
ume of the Smithsonian Report) contains papers chiefly of an ethno- 
logical character, describing collections in the National Museum. 

Papers intended for publication by the National Museum are usually 
referred to an advisory committee, composed as follows: Frederick 
W. True (chairman), William H. Holmes, George P. Merrill, James 
E. Benedict, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, Lester F. Ward, 
and Marcus Benjamin Garton), | 

ie oe S. P. LANGLEY, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Ill 





AiG On CONTENTS. 


Page. 
Basster, Ray 8S. The Structural Features of the Bryozoan 
Genus Homotrypa, with descriptions of Species from the 
Cincinnatian Group.—No. 1323. March 28, 1903¢_____- 565-591 
New species: Homotrypa cineinnatiensis, H. dumosa H. pulchra, 
H. grandis, H. libana, H. frondosa, H. communis, H. richmondensis, 
HT. nodulosa, H. austini, H. cylindrica, H. ramulosa, H. nitida, H. 
nicklesi, H. splendens. 
New varieties: Homotrypa curvata, var. precipta, H. flabellaris var. 
spinifera, H. wortheni var. intercellata, H. w. var. prominens. 
Bran, Barton A. Notice of a Collection of Fishes made by 
~H. H. Brimley in Cane River and Bollings Creek, North 
Carolina, with a Description of a New Species of Notropis 
(N. brimleyi).—No. 1339. July 6, 1903¢_____- eee ee ISON 


New species: Notropis brimleyi. 


. Notice of a Small Collection of Fishes, including a 
Rare Kel, recently received from H. Maxwell Lefroy, 
Bridgetown, Barbados, West Indies.—No. 1345. July 10, 
1903“ 163-964 


-_ 
~ 


Brenepicr, James E. Description of a New Genus and 
Forty-six New Species of Crustaceans of the Family Gala- 
theide, with a List of the Known Marine Species.—No. 
Summmmeitecemmner 29, 1902% 592% ee Sl 243-334 


New genus: Cervimunida. 

New species: Galathea californiensis, G. integra, G. paucilineata, 
Cervimunida princeps, Munida angulata, M. curvatura, M. curvipes, 
M. debilis, M. decora, M. flinti, M. hispida, M. honshuensis, M. media, 
M. mexicana, M. nuda, M. perlata, M. pusilla, M. quadrispina, M. 
sculpta, M. simplex, M. tenella, Munidopsis acuminata, M. baha- 
mensis, M. beringana, M. cylindropus, M. espinis, M. expansa, M. 
gilli, M. hastifer, M. mina, M. modesta, M. opalescens, M. tenuirostris, 
M. townsendi, M. verrilli, Uroptychus brevis, U. capillatus, U. granu- 
latus, U. jamaicensis, U. minutus, U. scambus, U. scandens, U. spini- 
ger, Plychogaster defensa. 

New names: Galacantha faxoni, Munidopsis acutispina. 





——. Revision of the Crustacea of the Genus Lepidopa.— 
uments {19034 eee. 889-895 


New species: Lepidopa websteri, L. deamex, L. mearnsi, L. richmondi. 





«Date of publication. 


VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


Page. 


CAUDELL, ANDREW Netson. Notes on Orthoptera from Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas, with Descriptions 
of New Species.—No. 1333. July 6, 19084 ..___._-..... 13-809 
New species: Heliastus guanieri, Melanoplus coloradus, M. latifercula, 
New variety: Psinidia sulcifrons var. amplicornus. 


. The Phasmide, or Walkingsticks, of the United 
States.——No.-11885. “July 9,/1903% 25 2 So as eee 863-885 
New subfamily: Timeminze. 
New genera: Parabacillus, Pseudosermyle, Megaphasma. 
New species: Pseudosermyle truncata, P. banksti, Diapheromera ariz- 
onensis, Timema californica. 


CLARKE, SAMUEL FEssENDEN. An Alaskan Corymorpha-like 
Hiydroid:—_No.1343., #July “11, 1903 ¢. 2. = eee 953-958 


Dati, WintiAM Heaney. Synopsis of the Family Astartide, 
with a Review of the American Species.—No. 1342. July 
TO), SOO Syne eile ee 925 ies 2 el ru geet es ee _. 9338-951 


New species: Astarte polaris, A. alaskensis, A. bennettii, A. soror, A. 


liogona, A. vernicosa. 


———. Synopsis of the Family Veneride and of the North 
American Recent Species.—No. 1312. December 29,1902¢. 335-412 

New species: Transennella stimpsoni, Tivela abaconis, T. nasuta, T. 

braziliana, Callocardia (Agriopoma) zonata, C. catharia, Cytherea 

( Ventricola) strigillina, C. (V.) callimorpha, C. (V.) magdalenz, 

Clementia solida, Pitaria tomeana, P. (Lamelliconcha) callicomata, 

Cyclinella singleyi, Chione mazyckti, C. (Lirophora) schottii, C. (L.) 


obliterata, C. (Timoclea) pertincta, Venus apodema, Paphia ( Pro- 


tothaca) staminea var. sulculosa, Psephidia ovalis. 


Fish, Prerre A. The Cerebral Fissures of the Atlantic 
Walrus.—No. 1325. April 9, 1903 ¢ 


Fisner, Wattrer K. A New Procelsterna from the Leeward 
Islands, Hawaiian Group.—No. 1322. January 29, 1908 ¢._ 559-563 
New species: Procelsterna saxatilis. 
Fow.er, Henry W. A Review of the Berycoid Fishes of 
Japan.——No. 1306.\. November 25, 1902.2 ©2. 25225 1-21 
(See also under JorpAN, Davip Srarr.) = | 
A Review of the Cepolide or Band-fishes of Japan.—- | 
NG, 1380...’ April 9;1903% ool son se hn ogee 699-702 | 
(See also under JorpAN, Davip Srarr.) | 
A Review of the Cobitide, or Loaches of the Rivers 
of Japan.—No. 1332. April 9, 1903.7. >. 2 ees T65-TT4. 


(See also under Jorpan, Davin Srarr. ) 





“Date of publication. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 
: Page. 
Fowtrer, Henry W. A Review of the Cyprinoid Fishes of 
eat NO lags... duly 6, 1903 =) 2292.2 use lle. 811-862 


(See also under Jorpan, Davip Srarr. ) 


. A Review of the Elasmobranchiate Fishes of 
Seon No. 1324." Mareh 30, 19034_... 22.2. 2---=------ 593-674 


(See also under Jorpan, Davip Srarr. ) 


A Review of the Siluroid Fishes of Japan.—No. 
SEP Uo Aan eky 2 oe et es eae Shhh O 897-911 


(See also under Jorpan, Davin Srarr. ) 


Gitt, THEopoRE. Note on the Fish Genera named Macro- 
mee NO, bot, duly 6, 19038% 2.0 | ie PE 2 1015-1016 


On some Fish Genera of the First Edition of Cuvier’s 
Réegne Animal and Oken’s Names.—No. 1346. July 11, 
TE al ae On papi. ciel Rive A See ee 965-967 


On some Neglected Genera of Fishes.—No. 1344. 
EN ea ey eres tre naa Mar. ee eh Ge 959-962 


On the Relations of the Fishes of the Family Lam- 
pridide or Opahs.—No. 1340. July 7, 1903¢____-..----- 915-924 


The Use of the Name Torpedo for the Electric Cat- 
Sere oNGr tes). April) 19030.) 22. foes oa Se 697-698 


Hay, Witi1am Perry. On a Small Collection of Crusta- 
ceans from the Island of Cuba.—No. 1316. February 2, 
RPI cs, ieee en CSE SF gest) t STL CNL a PUPAE AE ye TOE aoe: 429-435 


New species: Cirolana cubensis, Palemonetes eigenmanni, P. cubensis. 


Hinps, Warren Eimer. Contribution to a Monograph of 
the Insects of the Order Thysanoptera inhabiting North 
mnerica.— No. 1310: December 20, 1909¢._.-.... 2.2... T9242 


New genera: Pseudothrips, Scolothrips, Malacothrips, Eurythrips. 

New species: .Holothrips bicolor, Chirothrips crassus, C. obesus, Limo- 
thrips avenw, Sericothrips cingulatus, Euthrips fuscus, Raphidothrips 
fuscipennis, Heliothrips fasciapennis, Trichothrips ambitus, T. beachi, 
Cephalothrips yucce, Phleothrips uzeli, P. pergandei, Acanthothrips 
magnafemoralis, Malacothrips zonatus, Eurythrips ampliventralis, 
E. osborni, Cryptothrips aspersus. 


JorDAN, Davip Srarr. Supplementary Note on Bleekeria 
Mitsukurii, and on certain Japanese Fishes.—No. 1328. 
UNE) CIN teh regs cree ee ee TS No ee eS 693-696 


«Date of publication. 


Vill TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


Page. 
JORDAN, Davip Srarr, and Henry W. Fowrrer. A Review 


of the Berycoid Fishes of Japan.—No. 1306. November 
D5, A908 oe See ns Sek i Re ee 1-21 


New species: Paratrachichthys prosthemius, Holocentrus utodai. 
——. A Review of the Cepolide or Band-fishes of 
Japan.—No- 1330. “April 9;1903%.- ee eee 699-T02 
A Review of the Cobitide or Loaches of the 
Rivers of Japan.—No. 1332. " April 9,7 1903% 2-222 %65-T74 


New species: Elkis nikkonis, Orthrias oreas. 





— —-—. A Review of the Cyprinoid Fishes of 

Japan.—Nowl3s4e July 66,1903 % 224s eee eee 811-862 

New genera: Abbottina, Zezera, Biwia. 

New species: Acheilognathus cyanostigma, Abbottina psegma, Zezera 
hilgendorfi, Leuciscus phalacrocorax. 


A Review of the Elasmobranchiate Fishes of 
Japan —No; 1324. March 30, 1903: 324-2. See eee 593-674 


New genus: Zameus. 





New species: Cephaloscyllium umbratile, Squalus mitsukurti, Cen- 
troscyllium ritteri, Raja tengu. 
A Review of the Siluroid Fishes of Japan.— 
No. 13838341 iutlys fp UGO8 Ss ele te nee cee 897-911 
-—— and Epwin Cuapin Starks. A Review of the Fishes 
of Japan belonging to the Family of Hexagrammide. 
No; 1348: ted ulyy lo, MOOR@ ee glen ek iy ee ee 1003-1013 


New species: Hexragrammos aburaco. 





A Review of the Hemibranchiate Fishes of 
vapan—-No, 1308.2 December, 21900 8 ose Sean ee I-13 
New genus: .Holiscus. 
New species: Pygosteus undecimalis, Macrorhamphosus sagifue. 


———. <A Review of the Synentognathous Fishes of 
eapan.—-No. 139. February 4. 1905 9 on 2 ae eee 525-544 
New species: Hyporhampus kurumeus. 
-———. Description of a New Species of Sculpin from 
Japan.—=No.: 1326. cAprill 1003 ee eee 689-690 


New species: Cottunculus brephocephalus. 


Lucas, FrepEric A. Notes on the Osteology and Relation- 
ship of the Fossil Birds of the Genera Hesperornis, Har- 
geria, Baptornis, and Diatryma.—No. 1320. February 4, 
BIOS Oo Sete SE ak coe a tt JE Oe oe A 545-556 


New genus: /Hargeria. 





«Date of publication. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


Lyon, Marcus Warp, Jr. Observations on the Number of 
Young of the Lasiurine Bats.—No. 1314. January 26, 


McMorricu, J. Puayrarr. Note on the Sea Anemone, 
Sagartia paguri Verrill.—No. 1315. January 27, 1903 ¢ 


Maren, JoserH Henry. On the Identification of a Species 
of Eucalyptus from the Philippines.—No. 1327. April 11, 
RI eee lens Se Sart et tT 


Miter, Gerrit $., Jr. Mammals Collected by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott on the Coast and Islands of Northwest Sumatra. — 
Semen. Pebruaty 3.1903 % 29 es 

New genus: Lenothrix. 

New species: Tragulus amenus, T. jugularis, T. brevipes, T. russeus, 
Ratufa femoralis, R. nigrescens, R. lenata, Sciurus mansalaris, S. 
bancarus, S. saturatus, S. pretiosus, S. ubericolor, S. erebus, Mus 
simalurensis, M. surdus, M. domitor, M. catellifer, Lenothrix canus, 
Trichys macrotis, Macacus fuscus. 


Nnepuam, James G. A Genealogic Study of Dragon-fly 
avine Venation.—No. 1331. April 16, 1903¢.___ 22... 
Prentiss, DANIEL WEBSTER. Description of an Extinct Mink 


from the Shell-heaps of the Maine Coast.—No. 1336. July 
RRR sete eter gn ete os ht tte 
New species: Lutreola macrodon. 
Rarupun, Mary J. Descriptions of New Species of Ha- 
walian Crabs.—No. 1309. November 18, 1902 “ 


New species: Cyclograpsus henshawi, Ozius hawaiiensis, 


Japanese Stalk-Eyed Crustaceans.—No. 1307. 
November 28, 19024 


New species: Clibanarius japoniucs, Parapeneus akayebi, P. mogien- 


sis, P. dalei, P. acclivis, crangon hakodatei, Spirontocaris mororani, 
S. jordani, 8. prebnitzkii, Pandalus latirostris, Pandalopsis mitsukurii, 
Palemon macrodactylus. 

New name: Dardanus haanii. 


Ricumonp, Cuartes W. Birds Collected by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott on the Coast and Islands of Northwest Sumatra.— 
No. 1318. February 4, 1903¢ 


New species: Macropygia simalurensis, Spilornis abbotti, Pisorhina 
umbra, Palzornis major, Psittinus abbotti, Pelargopsis simalurensis, 
P. sodalis, Thriponax parvus, Macropteryx perlonga, Cyanoderma 
Sulviventris, Stachyris banjakensis, Malacopteron notatum, Hypothy- 
mis abbotti, H. consobrina, Tehitrea procera, Graucalus babiensis, G. 
simalurensis, Campephaga compta, Oriolus mundus. 

New names: Columba phasma, Corvus compilator. 





Ix 


Page. 


495-496 


427-428 


691-692 


437-484 


1038-764 


887-888 





“Date of publication. 


x TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


¢ : y , Page. 
ScnucHEertT, CHarzLes. On the Lower Devonic and Ontaric 


Formations of Maryland.—No. 1313. February 3, 19034. 413-424 


SHarper, Ricnarp W. Report on the Fresh-Water Ostracoda 
of the United States National Museum, including a Revi- 
sion of the Subfamilies and Genera of the Family Cypri- . | 
dide:—No 13417) Stlyo- 0S ee ia ee 969-1001 
New genus: Spirocypris. 
New species: Chlamydotheca mexicana, Spirocypris passaica. 


Srarks, Epwin Cuarry. A Review of the Fishes of Japan - 
belonging to the Family of Hexagrammid.—No. 1348. 
Duly AS UO as Steg ss Se A vires me eee ee 1008-1013} 


(See also under JorpAN, DaAvip Srarr. ) 
A Review of the Hemibranchiate Fishes of Japan.— 
Nos308:- December 2.1902 #22 ae ee eee 57-73) 
(See also under Jorpan, Davip Srarr. ) | 
A Review of the Synentognathous Fishes of Japan.— : 
No..1319; . February 4; 1003 2-2 ee eee 525-544 


(See also under Jorpan, Davip Srarr. ) 


Description of a New Species of Sculpin from Ja- 
pan-——No; 1326. April il Q03 72 ee ee 689-690. 


(See also under JorpAN, Davin Srarr.) 


Sreppinc, Rey. THomas R. R.  Amphipoda from Costa 
Rica,—_No, 1341> July 9190845 eee _ Je ve dee. ., 925-98 
New species: Talorchestia fritzi, Hyalella faxoni. | 
STEJNEGER, LEONHARD. Rediscovery of One of Holbrook’s 
Salamanders.—No. 1321. January 29, 1903¢_....._----- 557-558 





« Date of publication. 


Piso LeU ST RATIONS. 
TEXT FIGURES. 

Page. 
MRE a TIUUINS WOLOSHILCNIUUS > Ina Be ae Rae rele aes oon aaa cee sciasee 9 
EDEN en I ON Soe wr en oe ets Sees Se ees nie oS Reet 12 
EAD OCS AT 90 RE SS Re tO a ee 14 
IRATE TELL OL Cemer ae Seamer ree a va nne Se cee ge Dats ue BSL ewes seis 17 
Cryptolithodes expansus, outline of carapace ..-.-.-..------------------------ 32 
BERiA TEpONICUS, ANLETIOr POrtion |.) 2.2 .-2.-2-5-6---.---0--+4s---+---- 35 
DNC ORTamMAnIcHs, Nett ChElped ...--— sooSce eo = cos ce ee eee te tee cee 36 
Eepanarius japonicus, right cheliped.................---...+--------------- 36 
Clibanarius japonicus, outer face of first ambulatory leg on right side -...-.--- 36 
Parapenxus mogiensis, female; a, carapace; b, sixth segment of abdomen .--- - 40 
murapenzus mogiensis, petasma, ventral view .-.-..------------------------- 40 
DIES OINGOICNSES, CNELY CUM = 20. c seek ooncn ce se ee ssa opens -no= == 40 
Parapenzus dalei, female; a, carapace; b, sixth segment of abdomen ......--- 40 
mmncieus cae, petasma, ventral view -.:.-.-.-----:-------<---2++----6-: 40 
Ie etl CNCIV CUI > ee ole ers kee vin HS = eos ee eee ee secees 40 
Parapenus acclivis, female; a, carapace; b, sixth segment of abdomen -.--.--- 41 
REET tite hers, THELV CUM = 5... So eo ss oe koe soe eas eos Ses sce eee ae 41 
marapencscus acclivis, petasma, ventral view ......-.-------:--------------<-- 41 
Brangon hakodatei, a, carapace; 6, acicle; c, cheliped.--..--.---------------- 42 
Bumenrocaris mororant, carapace of female _.....:...--------------=-----+--+- 43 
Runmoedrisyordan, carapace of female... ...:.--...---+--2+----22----++--- 44 
Bairontocaris grebnitzkii, carapace of female ......-.-...---.------------------ 45 
mpirontocaris geniculata, carapace of female .....-....----------------------- 45 
meandalus latirostris, carapace, side view......---.----------+----------------- 47 
Pandalus latirostris, carapace and antenne, dorsal view.....---..------------ 47 
Pandalopsis mitsukurii, carapace, side view .....------ Se Sees ere hee 48 
Pandalopsis mitsukurii, carapace and antennze, dorsal view ---.-.------------ 48 

Palemon macrodactylus, a, carapace; b, acicle; c, chela of second pair; d, foot 
Seipimird pair ...:..........- PERERA FEY ee OP raat ont wee gay es 52 
EM hae ion ce oe ite Ae ee Mey we Gos = 62 
macrorhamphosus sagifue .....-.-......----------- el PACE aa ae ARE theese 69 
rar Ba Se MS rey ey ieee om ag isc a 
Meme henshann. madles:.- 2)... -4. 220-25 .02-- 22sec eee leen--dee- 75 
 Cyclograpsus henshawi, abdomen of male...........-.----------------------- 76 
IRINELCINE CTT SS cee Se ete Fee ee ee ene 77 
De ea ionsis, mnarein.or front... ...52--+-2s2.2.-.--<+.240555---5e024-2 77 
NI SREP NCTA ae ne eee Oe rt Se Le he cen Sa bee ces 247 
I IIMRIRSN USL UME 8 oo ee le Sa ok ee Oe kame 249 
-Cervimunida Sana AAC TRE eae Se ene I cme ne 250 
ENA ee Seer 2 8 Ck Sa ee a ON AE eau ee ee ee sane 253 
TSAR AS eae 254 

XI 


® 


-. 


XIT LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 


MONTAG MGUNUIPES 8. go. mie ero erss Wad stele a estar a ees et ee 
Marnidang@epilis..o 5. <= nob esdc cs cake ete eae s Jee oO eee eee oe eee 
MarnidaideCora x 'sc..2 oc Ses oi bc Bae os + ee eee a eee 
Muni FUNG «po cae cn ae eee ee ee eas soe ee ee eee 
Mamnida hispida. oo ...3 52h 2 c2 pee Sete ae ae Ee ee eee eee 
Manida honshuenss . 20) oe See ee ee eee ae 
Miuniddonediae oo.) e2 ko ee Gee See eet ee eee See eee 
(MUnidG MericOng 4s e BEE SSS Pe ee ee ee eee eee 
Marnida Nuddics s.8 <2. n= occ oc ee eee 
VRC DCR LOG esi eee ea aie ee 
Mania GO OUSULLG =r. Fes Boe en ee ee eee nee eee ee ee eee 
MATAR GUEDTAS DUNG. arse Se, rape was, SETS Soe ee 2 ne eee ane ie roe 


MUNIAODSIS QCUNINGLO: 42> 55> gee 2 = See eae eee eee ee 
Maidopsis (DONGMeNStS) 5s eee = Se = ee ee ee ee ee eerer 
Maimidopsis (Deringand:. Patan ne the ge ee eee eee 
IMUTICO SIS CYLUNOT OPUS Be are mote ae a oe ee ee 
Minidopsis C8pUNiss LSS ooo ey cies Soo tote wie cee = ee eee 
Miunidopsis e2panse 25222 25 5 ede es ss Be sone = see eee eee 
Maumidopsis guar c 2.2. vaso Dose een nae Se ee ese a ee eee ae es 
Mamidopsis hastifers. <3. 22 5550252 56s 252g ee eee See eee 
Munidopsis ming... 23323225 Sos Se sass Fa ee ee eee se aes ee 
Mamidopsis modest 02 - 2s. 152 5222255 See oe ee ee ee ee 
Munidopsis opdlescens: ..22 225 abe 2a cSseie sas 2 ee ein = See oo eee 
Moamidopsts: tenwirostis J..ca D2 22525 oS esos = eee ee 
Minvidopsis townsendiz 2 252282 foe ne Soa le eae eee See eee 
WiinidOpSISwvennellUana see ae eee eae Mie ag sie ane Ae a alone 
MOM CHUB COT ABIS = = r= cere SO 2 ea, < SOS is eee Aree eee 
OP CNUS COP ULGGU Sen — is ei raya hea wee eres ee 
Ui OMPICHRES: GROMULALUS oe os SS ae ene area ere Roe ee meets ate 
Oropiy chs JaMOneensis 2 ao ea 2k So 2 ee eee 
Unoptychis mvrgvus 20052 222. 22s Sate ae eee ee 
Uno DiUyCHUsPriniceps 227) f= Ss cis ae Sa ee ee ee eee ee 
Uroptijchs scambus.. 0225.2 22 oa 320d og see ten aa eee 
UropiyGhus SCONdENS: 22 Suc Pah) S i an eam eee 
WP ODL CHUS SPU OR 235 63.0.2 8 laos 2 om ee ot 
UCROUUSLET CefenSO 5522 = 25223.) So ee = ee a ee ee 
INDUCE GREG OT UC. Ooh 2 a Se bi ra aye a 
Mumida oreguria, YOUN® !.2o.2 2. <3 osee ccs Sane see ee Seis 
Mamidopsis OOMGUW 223 (ok a2 Bo ace Be ee Se aerate eee 
@rossisectionortentacle Of Sagan pagunie assess eee eee eee 
Longitudinal section of column wall of Sagartia paguri, showing sphincter 

HIMSGles Tose soe dec Poe ales SS ee eee 
GIT OLONG: CUDETESIS 2 a alr sess Sa 2 SS ek RS ee eee eae eee es 
PalemoncesCIQenManne 22. 2.250255 eee eee Bean ee 
Palemonetes cubensis; a, carapace; b, second antenna; c, eye; d, first antenna; 

e, mandible; f, third antenna; g, first chelate appendage; h, teeson and sixth 

abuominal appendage. <2.) = ce oa aoe ae em ee eee eee 
Northwestern Sumatra and adjacent islands...............-.-..---- 
Northwestern Sumatra and adjacent islands ....-....--.-.--------- 
EP POTRAMPUS UTUMNCUS 2a) 22 2 srs a coe ame e so eee eee eet 


Page. 4 


255 
256 
257 
259 
260 
262 
263 
264 
266 
267 
268 
270 
271 
273 
274 
278 
219 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 


453 
484 
524 
535 


i LIST OF TLLUSTRATIONS. 


BIN URCHTICOINOQUUS 220 Spa) oa nc\ See Se eects w Base Seda iecetscbetes 
EE ti Seren. vin ka So eee Me oe SS ase Scene See se ece shee 
Internal and external aspect of left quadrate of Hesperornis gracilis......----- 
Superior and inferior views of right pterygoid of Hesperornis gracilis ....-.-.- 
Seenecequachrymal of, Hesperormis regals -.% 0). $269. oo. oe oe bee on ee ee 
Right clavicle and part of right coracoid of Hesperornis regalis, natural size - - - 
Lateral, palatal, and dorsal views of the anterior portion of the cranium of a 

mons cornmorant, Phalacrocorax urile... 352 ecsoss beets ooo oe kebne 
Right coracoid and portion of left scapula of Baptornis advenus ......-------- 
Left humerus, radius, and ulna of Baptornis advenus...........---.....------ 
Seer epaceliaior. Baptornis advenus.o: 2s2 05 020.220 2h Seetie ne eu oke jake 
Rear Cea MV ONEOUES Sa\ on es Te en a See oe aalt Rowe ya Nein uals & 
RC CUM oni a” came A ts tee dae Chu a ono 
SCONE 2h gS gl EPR eo Si a 
Weanica eglantina: a, upper jaw; b, lower jaw; c, scale............-....----- 
moperusiucifer: a, upper jaw; b; lower jaw... 222-22 022-2225 Jack 
SME DNMID NI OT tert eect Meas. pia See Se Fete, ee Ge le 
EERE IVECO HL TaN 8 op a RO gn 
ete rch! ink ee, ee LS ee eee Le nou iL oe 
CSE SCL eter See hoe en ce ere Se a Re gn PE ere k 
DE poicd (rota a foetus) 2.02 oso fe a Ee ee es oe teed 
BMT PROCCUNUINSS to: 8S 2 dnt Me ty OR ie RAE ge SEN ete 
ER PARR ER UATUN ae Ne w Ma so Se ees ae ee Wo Go ee ea) 
RR ere een eee Sita oe hs oh a lugs 2 oe eel RS 


mre eran LOG: ween, Ree ee te oe, 28, Has has eka Sete Tee idee we 
Tracheation of the wings of two nymphs of Gomphus descriptus Banks, two 
Derek Ctae eset oa. Secon Andee! od He oe ogo hee snscecus ieee Ste 
Fore and hind wings of a grown nymph of Gomphus descriptus, showing 
og TERETE line Sele Se a caren 
Wenation of the imago of Gomphus descriptus...........2.....--------------- 
Pterostigmas: p, of Anawx junius Drury; q, of Miathyria marcella Selys; 1, of 
Neogomphus molestus Selys; s, of Uropetala carovei Selys; t, of Agrion mer- 
curiale Charpentier; u, of Anomalagrion hastatum Say; v, of Thore gigantea 
Selys; w, of Mecistogaster lucretia. Drury; x, of Caloptery« maculata Beau- 
vois; y, Microstigma sp. (?); 2, Microstigma rotundatum Selys, hind wing. - 
Tracheation of the nodal region of the nymphal wing of Anav junius Drury. . 
Tracheation of the nodal region of the nymphal wing of Libellula pulchella 
ise er cee cee NA RAN Oe Sede coc sg bodes aa iene ee 
Tracheation of the nodal region of the wing: a, of Didymops transversa Say; 
meee Corauicgasier diastatops Sely ss 222522324 2. ono Ss oe keen dade cn ce 
memes Or Lpigompiius paludosus Selys .: 2.2.2.2. --<225-c2-seeeeceeeseae see 
Wings of a fossil, undescribed, Agrionid genus, in the Museum of Compara- 
PRLS GS he eee ce as a 
Rmerncie rei rainemes Nyalind WATDY <4 2-8 s- bs c<0 cei oon a Sew eet ee eldoaenns: 
Diagram illustrating the behavior of the quadrangle in the Calopterygide ...-- 
Diagram setting forth the behavior of the triangle in the suborder Anisoptera - 
Bereo. Microdiplax.aencatula Selyso. 2.2. <2. soeccck 0s 2 Sco e ke cw ke cc ee. 
Diagram showing base of typical dragon-fly wing .................----.----- 
Diagram illustrating the procession of the triangle and the deflection of the 
anal vein and second cubito-anal cross vein in the fore wings of Libellulidx - - 
Diagram representing the recession of the triangle in the hind wings of the 
PINRO agree ee aes mera Se ee at he me ed 


666 
690 
693 
694 
695 


702 


706 


707 
708 


709 


712 


712 


716 
716 
V17 
ay 
718 
719 


720 


XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 





Page 

Forms:of the anal loop in the Anisoptera)=. 22s oe eee ee 722 
Wings of Neurothemis oculata Fabricius “2225222 on2- oes ee ee ee 724 
Wings of Fetragoneuria cynosura Say 22-2 Pe eceee ene eae eee 724 
Diagram illustrating the emergence of strong cross veins. ..-..--.------------ 726 
Diagram showing how hexagonal cells become rectangles and how cross veins 

become matched in transverse lines across the wing------.---.------------ 727 
Wings of Chalcopierys rutilans Rambur >> 2205-- 22a. fee ee ere ee ee 729 
Wings of Hagenius brevistylus Selysas 2s. sae ee eee eee 730 — 
Wings of Chlorogomphus magnificus Selys, female.......--..----------------- 733 
Wings: of Cordulegaster-sayi'Selys- 2223.0. S25 ee eee eee 734 
Wings of Phyllopetalia apicalis Selys: 2 52228542 Soa tae ee ee 734 | 
Wines of Agriogomphus sp.? occa S536 te ee ee ee 738 | 
Bases of wings of Petaluragiganted Leach S222 syne oo 739 
Wings of Tachopteryx hagent Selys 22-2. a oe ee ee eee 740 
Wings of an undescribed species of Neocordulia from Brazil. --.--- dee 741 
Base of wings of Isophlepia (fossil) in part after Deichmuller........--.-.---- 743 
Wing of Pseudophxarsp.? 5222 so 2 aciaiale nie ae ao ete 744 
Base of fore wing and a bit of hind wing of Rhinocypha sp.? .....-.---------- 744 
Calopteryx maculata Beauvois, fore wing and base of hind wing -...---------- 745 
Base of wings of. Thore gigantea Selys.. 222 4 See as eee = ee 746 
Hind: winevot (Cora incang Hagen a2 ee ae eee ee ee eee ee 747 
Wing of Megaloprepus-ceruleatus Drury — 2522 ee 2 a a ee 748 
Wings of Hemiphiehia mirabihs Selys\= 232-0 - 22 a 2 - a eee 749 
Diagram illustrating a typical (hypothetical) arrangement of the areoles in 

one of the wider spaces/of the wing: = 22-5 sa. Sa. 2 = ee ee ee ee eee 751 
Drawing of parts of wings, showing the actual ceil arrangement: a, Hpigom- 

pus paludosus: .b, Agrionoptera NHGis == 2. oe 2. ae ee me oe ee 752 
Wing ot) estatis- ainiwne Selys. coro ee eee eee cee eer reer 753 
Diagram (hypothetical) of the evolution of a brace for a unilateral fork; 

SUCCESSIVE Staves ss Sess oe Se A aes ae ce ete ote 754 
Wings of Neurobasis kaupu Brauer -\..o-18: sae eee oe oe ne oe eee 754 
Wing of Philoganga montana Selys'!2= = 2 0.2855 aes eee ee ee eee eee 755 — 
QUIS MEROVUS 2 ool ss wise se eS eae. bas oe ae ee ee oe ee Rise eee eee 768 © 
OPETs ORCAS oe Se eae ok VO SS SES eae rn etn perets eee 770 
PREUCOPCRUGINPUS ti pus. S22 DICE eo a eis oe mie ae a oe Ser oe 814 
WGRCULOGRatUs CYAROSLOMIG = 2 =e S22 TUS acta a ce meee eas aera 821 
LEM COGOMLOIMAYCUR. 20 Soe kok ah eae eee ee eee ee Ree eee eee ee 828 
TPUCOGAO OUI ee Ss on bh 8 BUN RE Se ee ee a eee ae 830 — 
TADUDIEUER PSCONUO tara Se ee eee 836 
Ongar asborind os i. 222 eos See a ee ee eee eee 842 | 
IB CUCISCUS, DALACT OCONOR (2 Oh ana ie i ee en ee ee eee 846 | 
UBCHURMULO: CENOCKETY ios = Sd io oh ie GER ee ee eee 858 | 
Palatal aspect of skull: a, Lutreola macrodon; b, Lutreola vison ingens; ¢, Lutreola 

BISON UEP COCEDNALUS a2 a ora as alos a Ra See mae tt ee 887 
Antennuls of Lepidopa miyops SS nte ss ee eee 850 | 
DOD UAOTHE VONUIBUL 5.2 Scns eee tain eo ee Oe ee ae ne oe ee eee a eee 892 
AGI COPE RECOBICTO = © 2 tno Se Sette nie Se oiace ore ee ee eee ee 892 
WPCA! WUYONS 0. bara ee ee See See se ie ae Se el 893 
Tenidepe deame, nabural gizeso.2 2 sb. 2. arise ene eee ee eee eee 893 
GOOG pH SCULEINONG Jone 5 eee ea oe ele Re ee ee tee 894 — 
WGCTRGODE MCATNSG os. at. oe enh Seen Seon ce eas ae Aa ee ee an 895 | 
OGIO PN MCRMIONGD 2 28 ko gate keke Soe ee oe a oe ee ee ee 895 


THUR ATACO TANSONNE 2. ee ae ee ee eee ee eee eee) peleyates 905 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Shoulder girdle of Antigonia rubescens. (From Starks) ...................... 
Shoulder girdle of Lampris guttata, inner view.........-...-..-.....-....... 
A restoration of the better specimen [of Hydroid], enlarged...._...........- 
Basal part of stem [of Hydroid], with the filament membrane partly torn and 

ee eet ince aa ey ety Py te io ed 
Camera outline of one of the peduncles of the gonophores [of Hydroid].-..._- 
Longitudinal section [of Hydroid] through the stem wall near its base ..... Ss 
Portion of last figure more highly magnified _.............................. 
Part of section [of Hydroid] through the basal part of a stem of ( orymorpha 

Rep ous. cons Holos ae ey es 
Portion of the same section, but a little higher up above the region of the basal 

cert aR ey erenn ies er ees BY a 


XV 


Page. 
910 
916 
919 
921 


954 


955 
955 
956 
957 


Facing page. 


OM ree ye Senn te ne SA ye 

Bee Os doUrdcos new atu ee ee 

MnPADUNOBS OCLOGTOMMUS 2 2-2 Se ee ee eee 

mre MORINGOCEDNGNUE = 2.2 SoS seo Lee eee eels 
PLATES. 

Bere orth American Piysanoptera - 22200200 200.2 0 oe ee 
Seeeeeest American: Venerag: 220-3 28. oo oo 
Sepeeee cen american Venerde:.. 02... ec meee aol yet 

i Hemales and young of Lasiurine bats................................ 
ieeeokull and teeth of Lenothriz canus, type -.........-.....2............ 
19. Part of interorbital region and palate in Ratufa pallizta and R. lanata-. 
@ 20. Cincinnatian species of Homotrypa ........................-..-...... 
meee Misukurina owstoni Jordan .-.....--. 2.5.22. -222-- cee eee... 
Ban tteral aspect of brain of walrus_:2_ 222.022.262.022 ec 
Beer locn aspect-or Wkaitl Ol walrus. . os. os. se 2.5 seek on con coco... 
pus Chasmichihys gulosus (misakius) ......2.....--2..--2-----2--2- 2. 
Meee racon-fy wing venation | -.. 2c. 2.1.22... 222-22. 
Seeeeme Amencan Orthopiera -2. 1202. a oes 
go-09. Walkingsticks of the United States _.................-...-...2-..... 
fume lalorchestia friet, Mew species. 2. o.oo en ok eo ek 
SepetUdlen a yarony, NEW EPECIeS.= <2. - 2. uote 8. - 2 eee 
eee tmicnlicamt, Resecypod@. 222522. ee ave Geb eee noe ae ke, 
eee rcmicsmay nertcarda. << eS a 
64. Chlamydotheca mexicana, new species..............-........-2--..... 
69. Herpetocypris reptans and Potamocypris SRONOGO IOs = Bat css ae ae 
66. Spirocypris passaica and Cypris virens...:.-...-..-....-..-.--........ 
RO upenie cee ee. eC Ue ae So 
68. Cypris pellucida and Cypria exsculpta ........-.--..-.--.-.------..... 
Beem CHeEMY COUEOM, AZICCO, ... ee Eos. 8 Pe ee oh eels 


242 
412 
412 
426 
484 
484 
592 
620 
688 
688 
696 
764 
810 
886 
932 
932 
952 
952 





3 #: 


Ne mae at 


A REVIEW OF THE BERYCOID FISHES OF JAPAN. 


By Davin Starr Jorpan and Henry W. Fow er, 
Of the Leland Stanford Junior University. 


The present paper contains a review of the species of Berycide and 
related families, found in the waters of Japan. It is based on material 
collected by Jordan and Snyder in the summer of 1900, and on material 
in the United States National Museum, largely collected by the United 
States Fish Commission steamer A/batross in 1900. 

The Berycoid fishes, as a whole, may be characterized by the presence 
of thoracic ventral fins, each with one spine and usually seven soft 
rays; head usually with conspicuous mucous cavities; air bladder in 
some species (Beryx, [Holocentrus) retaining its duct through life, 
in others (Zrachichthys, Polymixia) losing it with age; vertebre in 
species examined 24 to 30; shoulder girdle and pharyngeals normal, 
the post-temporal not fused with the cranium; no suborbital stay. 
The Beryces, as thus characterized, form a natural group among the 
Percomorphi, allied to Percoidei and Scombroidei, but marked as a 
whole by the occasional retention of the archaic characters of the per- 
sistent air duct and the increased number of ventral rays, both char- 
acters derived from the Haplomi, their immediate ancestors and pred- 
ecessors in the rocks as fossils. The group is a very old one in 
geologic time, older than any of the other Acanthopteri, the allies of 
Beryx, being among the earliest spiny-rayed fishes known. In the 
deep-sea forms the spinous dorsal is searcely developed, and the scales 
are usually either cycloid or wanting. In the species of tropical 
shores the spinous armature of fins and scales is better developed than 
in most of the percomorphous fishes. All, except Ap/hredoderus, are 
marine fishes, inhabiting the tropical shores or the abysses of the 
ocean. The pertinence of Polymixiide to this group has been ques- 
tioned, but according to Boulenger its skeleton is essentially Berycoid, 
although its curious barbels are almost exactly like those of J/u//us 
and U/pencus. } 

We remove the Zeid from the Berycoids, although having similar 
ventrals, because no other distinct likeness appears, and the post-temp- 
oral is attached to the skull asin the Chetodonts. The Monocentride 





PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. XXVI—No. 1306. 
Proc... M. vol. xxvi—02——-1 I 





2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. | 





are doubtless modified Berycoids, and we leave them in association, 
although recognizing no very close affinities. According to Boulenger, 
the Pempberidx, with the Bathyclupeid, are near allies of the Bery- 
coids, although having the ventral rays I, 5. Boulenger also places 
Aphredoderus among the Berycoid fishes with apparent justice. He 
further relegates Stephunoberyx and Malacosarcus to the Haplomi, an- 
arrangement which may be open to question. 


FAMILIES OF BERYCOIDEI. 


a. Ventral rays I, 6 to 1, 10, usually I, 7. 
b. Chin without barbels; branchiostegals mostly 8. 
c. Dorsal fin single, with 2 to 8 spines; anal spines | to 4. 
d. Anal fin, with 4 spines its base, much long r than the dorsal base; sub-— 
orbitals narrow; scales firm; ventral rays mostly I, 10_._-- Brrycips, I. 
dd. Anal fin relatively short, shorter than the dorsal; anal spines | or 2; ven- 
tral rays mostly I, 6, scales various; suborbitals usually broad, 
TRACHICHTHYIDA, II. 
cc. Dorsal fin deeply notched, with 10 to 13 strong spines; anal spines 4; scales 
4 TUPI VEY ROU G ee e Seoet eyee yk e yews ne eee Hoxocentrip», IIT. 
bb. Chin with 2 long barbels attached just behind symphysis of lower jaw; 
branchiostegals 4; dorsal fin continuous, with 5 spines; anal spines 3 or 4; 
scales moderate ctenoid; body deep, compressed; vertebrze 29, 
Potywixiup”, LV. 
aa. Ventral rays I, 3, the spine very large; dorsal spines isolated, the anterior very 
strong; body covered with a coat of mail formed of rough scales, 
Monocenrrip®, V. 


Family I. BERYCIDU. 


Body oblong or ovate, compressed, covered with ctenoid, or cycloid, 
foliate, or granular scales. Head with large muciferous cavities, cov- 
ered by thin skin. Eyes lateral, usually large. Nostrils, two on 
either side. Mouth wide, oblique. Premaxillaries protractile; max- 
illary rather large, usually with a supplemental bone. Suborbitals 
narrow, not sheathing the cheeks. Bands of villiform teeth on jaws, 
and usually on vomer and palatines; no canines; no suborbital stay. 
Opercular bones usually spinous. Branchiostegals 7 or 8. Gill-mem- 
branes separate, free from the isthmus. Gulls 4, a slit behind the 
fourth. Pseudobranchize present; lower pharyngeals separate. Gill- 
rakers moderate. Cheeks and opercles scaly. No barbels. Dorsal! 
fin continuous, with 2 to S$ weak spines; anal with + spines and many 
soft rays, much longer than the dorsal; ventral fins thoracic, mostly 
I, 7, the number of rays usually I, 10, always greater than I, 5; caudal 
fin usually forked. Pyloric cceca numerous. Vertebrie 24. Fishes 
mostly of the deep seas; the general color red or black. ‘This group 
is an ancient type, a great number of extinct species being now known, 
from the Upper Cretaceous and later rocks. The following skeletal 
characters are added by Boulenger, these applying also to the Trachich- 


“yo. 130. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISH ES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 3 


thyide and Holoc entuidee. Onex or more of suborbital Pons: with 
an internal lamina supporting the globe of the eye. Anterior vertebra 
without transverse processes; all or most of the ribs inserted on the 
transverse processes, where these are developed. 





a. Seales ctenoid; teeth villiform on jaws, palatines, and vomer; vertebrie 24; muzzle 
short; chin projecting; preopercle spineless; opercles serrated; dorsal spines 4 
to 7, graduated; anal rays IV, 26 to 30; ventrals I, 10.....-..--.------ Beryzx, 1: 


(eB ReReEYExae Cuvier: 
Beryx Cuvier, Regne Anim., 2d ed., I, 1829, p. 151 (decadactylus). 


Body deep, compressed, covered with rather large, ctenoid scales, 
which are regularly “arranged. Abdomen trenchant, but without 
enlarged scutes. Head large, with thin bones and high ridges with 
deep muciferous cavities. Snout short, the mouth oblique, the chin 
prominent; eye large; both Jaws, vomer, and palatines with villiform 
teeth. Opercles serrated, the opercle usually with spine; preopercle 
‘unarmed. Caudal forked; anal spines 4, soft rays 26 to 30; dorsal 
continuous, with 4 to 6 spines; ventrals with about 10 soft rays. Air 
bladder simple. Pyloric ceeca numerous. Deep-sea fishes, beautifully 
colored, chiefly scarlet. 

(Bépvé, Beryx, a Greek name of some fish, taken by Gesner from 
Varinus. ) 


fmescalecin lateral line 64 to 65; D. ITV, 16 to 19:2... 22. 22252. =5. 2 decadactylus, 1. 
mae ocales in lateral line 71 to 76;.D. IV, 13 to 15 -.-.-..-...---.--.-.-.-.splendens, 2. 


1. BERYX DECADACTYLUS Cuvier and Valenciennes. 


Beryx decadactylus Cuvier and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., IIT, 1829; p. 222; 
Madeira or Portugal.—Pory, Synopsis, p. 297.—GoopE and Bran, Oceanic 
Iehth., 1895, p. 175.—Srempacuner and D6DERLEIN, Fische Japans, I, 1883, 
p. 12; Tokyo.—Isurkawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 58; Tokyo.—Jorpan and 
EverMANN, Fish N. and M. Amer., I, 1896, p. 844.—SreinpacHNeErR, Ichth. 
Bericht., IV, p. 1, pl. 1; Canary Islands. 


Head, 24; depth, 23; D. IV, 16 to 20; A. III or IV, 27 to 30; P. HU, 
14 to 15: V.I,9to10. Lateral line 10 to 11, 70 to 73 (60 to 6: 2 Wiel 
out caudal scales 21 to 22. Body oblong, considerably compressed, 
its height greatest at the origin of the dorcale's scales sharply ctenoid, 
with a strong middle keel. The maxillary reaches almost to the oe 
eye very large, its upper limb impinging upon the upper profile of 
the head, and 24 in the length of the latter; operculum with an indis- 
tinct spine; the preorbital ppine about one-third the eye; snout about 








“According to Dr. Bc einen the genus Pe es is Should ae placed w an the 
Berycide. ‘‘Beryx and Pempheris agree so completely in structure, both external and 
internal, with the sole exception of the rays in the ventral fins (1, 5 in Pempheris) 
that I am inclined to doubt whether the difference between them should be regarded 
as greater than that between the former and Trachichthys.”” 


4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





two-fifths, and the inter orbitals space somewhat more than half the 
eye. The base of the dorsal exceeds its height, the latter two-thirds 
the head; the insertion of the anal is approximately in the vertical 
from the teeth to the twelfth dorsal ray, and its middle is slightly 
behind the ultimate ray of the dorsal; the distance of the insertion of 
the pectoral to the snout ts equal to the length of the base of the anal; 
the ventral is inserted under the axil of the pectoral, reaching the 
anal; caudal sirongly forked. Length, 37 em. (about 143 inches). 
(Dese eee after Giinther, Steindachner, Goode, Bean, Déderlein.) 

Deep seas; recorded from Portugal, Madeusr Japan, aad Cuba. No 
Japanese specimens veen by us. 

(déxa, ten; daxrvdos, finger.) 


2. BERYX SPLENDENS Lowe. 
KIMMEDAI (GOLDEN-EYE PERCH). 


Beryx splendens Lows, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833, p. 142; Madeira.—GoopE 
and Bran, Oceanic Ichth., 1895, p. 176.—SreiInDACHNER and D6DERLEIN, 
Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 12; Tokyo.—Jorpan and EverMAny, Fish N. and 
M. Amer., I, 1896, p. 844.—Jorpan and Snyper, Check List, 1901, p. 62; 
Yokohama. 

Head, 3; depth, 22: D. 1V 513; ALA. 2710 29: P16 tom Gave 
10 to 11. Scales 10-74-18, counted in the lateral line. Body elon- 
gate, compressed, and the deepest part forward; covered with mod- 
erate-sized scales, which are furnished with fine prickles, giving a 
somewhat rough touch. Head large, compressed, and many of the 
ridges or edges of the bones roughened or finely serrate; eye very 
large in front of the head above, 14 in the maxillary and 22? in the 
head; upper profile of the head slightly convex from the a of the 
snout; snout very blunt; lower jaw produced; mouth very oblique, so 
that the tip of the snout is level with the middle of the eye; the nos- 
trils close together on the snout in front of the eye; the posterior 
larger; the maxillary is expanded distally for a little more than half 
an eye diameter and does not reach to the margin of the eye behind; 
teeth of the jaws very fine and in bands; a short spine in front of che 
eye directed backward; symphysis with a slight knob below in front; 
snout a little less than half the eye and 14 in the interorbital space; 
interorbital space flat; gill-opening very large, the membrane free 
from the isthmus; gill-rakers long and slender, 6-16, the longest 
equal to half the eye. Dorsal spines weak, graduated to the fourth, 
which is the longest, though falling short of the first ray, which is the 
highest of the dorsal fin; the origin of the anal falls below the base of 
the posterior dorsal ray, the spines graduated to the third, which is 
the longest; soft anal highest at the first ray, then sloping down till 
about half as high, so that the posterior part of the fin is of uniform 
height; pectorals very long, equal to the base of the soft anal and 


No. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 5 


| reaching the base of the third soft ray; ventrals a little in advance of 
the dorsal but behind the pectorals and a little shorter than the latter 
in length; caudal forked, the lobes pointed; caudal peduncle com- 
pressed, two-thirds to three-fourths the length of the eye; lateral line 
high, inclined concurrent with the back, and running out on the base 
of the caudal; the rudimentary caudal rays, 3 or 4 sharp graduated 
spines above and below. 

Color in alcohol uniform pale; in life bright scarlet, silvery white 
below. This description from two specimens, length 10 inches, 
obtained by Mr. Otaki from outside the entrance to Tokyo Bay, where 
it is said to be not rare. Other specimens were obtained by Jouy near 

Yokohama. Form a little more slender than Atlantic specimens but 
otherwise similar. The species is known from Madeira and from the 
Gulf stream. 

(splendens, shining. ) 





Family Ul. TRACHICHTHYID®. 


This family is composed of deep-sea Berycoids differing from the 

- Berycidve in the short anal, shorter than the dorsal and usually with 1 

or 2 species. The dorsal is single, the ventral rays usually I, 6; the 

scales various, usually roughand deciduous; the belly compressed, with 

a serrated edge; suborbitals usually broad; vertebra, 26 to 28; color 
blackish; size, rather small. 


a. Trachichthyine.—Scales large, normally formed; teeth small. 
b. Vent normally placed, well behind the ventrals, the abdominal serree before it. 


c. Dorsal spines 7 or 8, strong, the median ones highest-...---- Gephyroberyx, 2. 





cc. Dorsal spines 6, slender, graduated. Yomer toothless; opercle entire; scales 
Texas genet er os Me a AEN eS ca gl age Ui Gyo, Se ape Rt eh Hoplostethus, 3. 

bb. Vent inserted well forward close behind the ventrals; the abdominal serrze 
DeninG=ttsvOmer LOOUMESS: :4 8 otect tt aseee eee eee ete oe Paratrachichthys, 4. 


2. GEPHYROBERYX Boulenger: 
Gephyroberyx BouLENGER, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., March, 1902, p. 203 (darw‘ni). 


Body rather short, covered with large rough, irregular scales; ven- 
tral ridge serrated; snout short, rounded; mouth oblique; eye large; 
very fine teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines. Vent far behind ven. 
trals. Branchiostegals 8; a strong spine on the shoulder girdle; one 
on angle of preopercle; a small one on the opercle; suborbital with 
radiating ridges; dorsal single, with 7 or 8 spines, strong and wide 
apart, the middle ones highest; ventral rays I, 6; caudal forked. 
Fishes inhabiting considerable depths, known from Madeira, India, 
and Japan. The genus is allied to Zyachichthys, differing in the 
stronger and more numerous dorsal species. 

(yedvpos, bridge: Beryx.) 


6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





3. GEPHYROBERYX JAPONICUS (Déderlein). 
Trachichthys japonicus DépERLEIN, Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 10; Tokyo. 


Head 24; depth 24... D. VII, 15; A-III, 12; PoE 14; Voi, 6; pores 
in the lateral line 30; abdominal serre 14. 

Body deep and compressed, and covered with small, rough ctenoid 
scales; the scales containing the pores of the lateral line a trifle | 
enlarged, and the scales on the front of the back very small. Head 
very deep and compressed, the ridges of the bones somewhat elevated 
and forming mucous cavities, over which are thin covering mem- 
branes; upper profile slightly convex, or nearly straight with the 
snout very obtusely rounded; eye small, its posterior margin a little 
nearer the gill-opening than the tip of the snout 83 in the ee ad, a little 
over 2 in the maxillary, and equal to the interorbital space; mouth 
very oblique, the maxillary extending to below the posterior part of 
the eye; nostrils large, the posterior the larger, directly in front of 
the anterior margin of the eye above, and the anterior about half an 
eye diameter distant; Jaws rough, and with a single series of small 
firm teeth along the edges; the lower Jaw projects and the symphysis 
is somewhat knobbed, so that it protrudes a little in front; vomerine 
teeth small; at the origin of the lateral line at the back part of the 
head above a sharp spine, another on the posterior margin of the 
opercle above, still another in front of the base of the pectoral, and 
one at the lower part of the preoperculum, the latter strong, long, and 
sharp; two small, short spines at the front of the snout; operculum 
strongly striate; interorbital space convex; gill-opening large; a 
rakers long, slender, pointed, seven-sixteenths; branchiosteg: ee 
gill-membrane free over the isthmus. The dorsal fin begins a short 
distance behind the gill-opening, the spinous part highest in the 
middle, then descending to the soft dorsal, which is also higher in 
front; first anal spines short, the third the longest; soft anal high in 
front, sloping behind; pectoral long, 12 in the head; ventrals short, 
not reaching the origin of the anal by half their length; caudal deeply 
emarginate, the lobes pointed; rudimentary caudal rays developed as 
6 spines above and below. Lateral line inclined from the upper part 
of the head to the base of the caudal; caudal peduncle three-fourths | 
of the eye; vent far behind ventrals, space from between the ventrals 
to the anus with a single series of bony scutes or serre. 

Color in alcohol, brown, the fins pale, the inside of the mouth 
blackish, and the peritoneum black. Length 4,°; inches. Here 
described from an example dredged by the United States Fish Com- 
mission steamer sl/batross in Suruga Bay at Station 3716. The species 
is otherwise known only from the description given by Dr. Déderlein 
of specimens from Tokyo, probably taken in Sagan Bay. Dr. Boulen- 


8; 


no. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 7 





gers speaks of the occurrence of Cap lnyrabicr rye iain Lowe (from 
Madeira) in Japan. He has doubtless reference to Gephyroberyx 
japonicus a species which needs comparison with G@. darwin, from 
which it differs, perhaps, in the presence of 7 instead of 8 dorsal spines. 


38. HOPLOSTETHUS Cuvier and Valenciennes. 


Hoplostethus Cuvirr AND VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., IV, 1829, p. 469 
(mediterraneus ). 

Body short and deep, much compressed. Head short, compressed, 
very blunt anteriorly, deeper than long, with very conspicuous 
mucous cavities. Eye very large. Mouth very oblique, the jaws 
equal when the mouth is closed. Maxillary long, broad behind, with 
a distinct supplemental bone, which reaches the posterior border of 
the eye. Teeth very fine, villiform, on jaws and palatines, none on 
the vomer. Suborbital with radiating ridges and a few spines; a ver- 
tical ridge on the front of the opercle. Opercle little developed, its 
spine small or obsolete; a strong spine at the angle of the preopercle; 
the long vertical limb of the preopercle finely serrated. Gill-mem- 
branes separate, free from the isthmus. Branchiostegals 8. Scales 
moderate or small, ctenoid; lateral line present, its scales enlarged; 
abdomen with a series of bony plates, each ending in a retrose spine. 
Dorsal fin continuous, sbort, the spines graduated, 6 in number; anal 
with 3 graduated spines; caudal forked, its rudimentary rays spinous; 
pectorals low, rather long; ventrals I, 6, rather short. Air bladder 
simple. Pyloric¢ ececa numerous. Vertebre 11+ 15. Deep-sea fishes, 
red in color. 

Boulenger, following Lowe, unites //oplostethus with Trachichthys. 
The difference is certainly sheht, //oplostethus lacking vomerine teeth 
and having 6 dorsal spines instead of 3. 

(Ozhov, armor: o7740s, breast.) 


4. HOPLOSTETHUS MEDITERRANEUS Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
HINCHIDAI (FLINT-PERCH). 


Hoplostethus mediterraneus Cuvier and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., IV, 
1829, p. 469; Mediterranean Sea.—Gitnruer, Cat., 1, 1859, p. 9 —JorDAN and 
GILBERT, Synopsis, 1883, p. 458.—GoopE and Bran, Oceanic Ichthyology, 
1895, p. 181.—IsHikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 58; Kai. 

Trachichthys pretiosus Lown, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1839, p. 77; Madeira. 

Hoplostethus japonicus H1LGENDORF, Sitz. Ges. Naturforschende Freunde, Berlin, 
1879, p. 78; Japan. 

Hoplostethus mediterraneus (var. ?) STEINDACHNER, Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 10, 
pl. 1; Tokyo. 


Head, 23 to 22; depth, 2 to 24; D., VI, 18 to 14; A., ILI, 9 to 10; 
Pe, le 14 ‘to te V., I, 6; ventral scutes, 9 to 15; scales, 28 to 29. 
Body ovate, deep, compressed, and covered with small ctenoid scales, 
except those of the lateral line, which are enlarged; above and on the 


8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





back in front the scales are exceedingly small. Head very large and 
deep, the ridges of the bones elevated and forming large mucous cay1- 
ties between covered with thin transparent membranes; upper profile 
roundly convex from the snout; eye very large, in the upper half of 
the head, its posterior margin nearer the gill-opening than the tip of 
the snout, 3 in the head, 2 in the maxillary, and a little more than the 
width of the interorbital space; mouth oblique, the maxillary extend- 
ing till a short distance from the posterior margin of the eye; nostrils 
large and directly in front of the upper part of the eye, like most of 
the exposed ridges of the head roughened; the lower jaw projecting 
and with a small protruding process at the symphysis; above the 
operculum, at the origin of the lateral line a strong spine, and another 
at the end of the preoperculum below, the latter very broad; 3 bony 
ridges cross over from the eye to the preoperculum; teeth small, fine, 
and in broad bands in the jaws, forming a series slightly enlarged 
inside; no vomerine teeth; interorbital space high and convexly 
rounded; opercles with many strive; gill-openings very large; gill- 
rakers 6+16, very long and slender, much larger than the gill-filaments; 
branchiostegals 8; gill-membrane free from the isthmus; dorsal a short 
distance behind the gill-opening; the spinous fin graduated to the last 
spine, which is as long as the eye, but not as high as the anterior soft 
dorsal rays, which are the highest part of that fin, and rounded; anal 
spines with the first 2 very short, and the third very long, though 
not equal to the longest anal rays; pectoral very long, shorter than the 
head, and reaching the origin of the soft anal; ventrals short, about 
1? in the head, and not reaching the anus; caudal deeply emarginate 
and with the lobes somewhat pointed; rudimentary caudal ravs devel- 
oped as 6 graduated spines above and below. The lateral line a series 
of large pores obliquely from the upper part of the head to the base 
of the caudal. Space from between the ventrals to the anus armed 
with a single series of backwardly directed serree. Caudal peduncle 
compressed and about equal to the eye. 

Color in alcohol brown, the fins pale, the inside of the mouth and 
the peritoneum black. Total length, 9 inches. Here described from 
specimens dredged in Sagami Bay by the U. 8. Fish Commission 
steamer Albatross. 

In young examples the ventrals reach the anus, the pectorals are 
longer, the preopercular spine is longer, and in the smallest examples, 
from Kishyu, the sides are scaly like the rest of the body. All the 
specimens have the single bony bridge across the preoperculum from 
one margin to the other at about one-fourth its height. 

Coasts of Japan in deep water; our specimens dredged in deep water 
by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer <A//atross in Sagami Bay, at 
stations 2339 and 2348 and at stations 3721 and 3738 in Suruga Bay. 
We also have a small specimen from Kishyu (Kii). 


» 


* 


“No. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID PISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 9 


\ = = 

M = 7 Pe, ~ a a. 
We are wholly unable to find any , difference betw een our specimens 

a bad the accounts given of the Mediterranean species, which is also well 


diffused in the deep waters of the Atlantic. 





4: PARATRACHICHTHYS Waite. 


Paratrachichthys W arr, Scient. Results, H. M. C. 8. Thetis, 1899, p. 64 (trailli7). 
This genus is allied to Gephyroberyx, differing in the anterior inser- 
tion of the vent, which is close behind the ventral fins; a series of bony 
serre behind the vent. Scales small, rough—ctenoid; no yomerine 
teeth; dorsal spines 6, graduated. Japan to Austral’a, in deep water. 
(rapa, near: Trachichthys.) 
5. PARATRACHICHTHYS PROSTHEMIUS Jordan and Fowler, new species. 


fread, 2¢; depth, 25; D. V1, 14; A. ILI, 9; P. 1,11; V. I, 6; ven- 
tral scutes, 9; scales, 54. Body elongate, ea and covered 





Fic, 1.—PARATRACHICHTHYS PROSTHEMIUS. 


with small, rough, ctenoid scales, those of the lateral line not espe- 
cially enlarged; above, on the front part of the back, the scales are 
very small. Head large, deep, and compressed, the ridges of the 
bones somewhat elevated and forming mucous cavities between which 
are thin covering membranes; upper profile roundly convex, the snout 
very obtuse, eye large, its posterior margin nearer the tip of the snout 
than the posterior margin of the gill-opening, 22 in the head; 14 in the 
maxillary, and greater than the interorbital space; mouth very oblique, 
the maxillary extending nearly to the posterior margin of the eye; 
nostrils large and directly in front of the eye; above, teeth of the jaws 
very fine and in broad bands; no vomerine teeth; lower jaw projecting; 
most of the protruding ridges of the head roughened; above the oper- 
culum, at the origin of the lateral line a sharp spine directed back- 


10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


ward, another on the posterior margin of the opercle above, and still 
another at the end of the preoperculum below; there are no distinct 
bony ridges connecting the eye with the anterior edge of the preoper- 
culum, and the latter is parallel with its posterior edge but not crossed 
by a bony bridge; interorbital space flatly convex; opercles with many 
strie; gill-opening very large; gill-rakers 6-15, very long and slender, 
much longer than the longest gill-filaments; branchiostegals, 8; gill- 
membrane free from the isthmus. Dorsal a short distance behind the 
eill-opening, graduated to the last spine, which is the longest and 
nearly equal to the eye; soft dorsal high in front and then sloping 
behind; anal graduated to the third and longest spine, which is not 
equal to the higher soft rays; pectoral small, 15 in the head, and reach- 
ing beyond the ventrals; ventrals short, about 13 in the space between 
their own origin and the origin of the anal; caudal emarginate and 
the lobes pointed; rudimentary caudal rays devoloped as 6 graduated 
spines above and below. The lateral line obliquely running from the 
upper part of the head to the base of the caudal. Caudal peduncle 
compressed, 2% in the head. Space from between the ventrals nearly 
to the origin of the anal provided with a single series of backwardly 
directed serre. Vent in front of the abdominal serre and between 
the ventrals. 

Color in aleohol brown, the fins all pale, blackish between the man- 
dibles and over the branchiostegal membranes; peritoneum black and 
some parts of the mouth blackish inside. Length, 2; inches. Here 
deseribed from a specimen dredged at station 3730 by the U.S. Fish 
Commission steamer A/batross in Suruga Bay. 

It is numbered 50575, U.S.N.M. 

(zpooepmios, forward, in allusion to the location of the vent.) 


FAMILY III. HOLOCENTRID. 
SOLDIER-FISHES. 


Body oblong or ovate, moderately compressed, covered with very 
strongly ctenoid or spinousscales. Head with large muciferous cavities, 
eye lateral, very large; preorbital very narrow; mouth moderate, 
oblique; premaxillaries protractile; maxillary very large, with supple- 
mental bone; bands of villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines. 
Opercular bones and membrane bones of head generally serrated or 
spinescent along their edges. Branchiostegals 8. Gill-membranes 
separate, free from isthmus. Gills 4, a slit behind fourth. Pseudo- 
branchie present. Gill-rakers moderate; no barbels. > Sides of head 
scaly. Lateral line ‘present. Dorsal fin very long, deeply divided, 
with about 11 strong spines depressible in a scaly groove; anal with 4 
spines, the third longest and strongest; ventrals thoracic, with 1 spine 
and 7 rays; caudal deeply forked, with sharp rudimentary rays or 


“yo. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. iB 


fulera at base. Vertebr: ee about 27. ae y lori ic coeca 8 to 25. Air blad- 
der large, sometimes connected with the organ of hearing. General 
color red. Young with the snout sharp and produced (constituting 
the nominal genera Rhynchichthys, Rhamphoberyx, and Rhinoberyx, 
based on peculiarities of immature examples). Skeletal characters 
essentially in Leryr, the fin spines much stronger. Gaily colored 
inhabitants of the tropical seas, abounding about coral reefs. 





a. Preopercle without conspicuous spine at its angle; scales very large (about 28) 


BS MCV UO tly nee ae intel ye Gt oe wae Sn Say ores a wee Ostichthys, 5. 
aa. Preopercle with a conspicuous spine; suborbital arch simply serrated; scales 
moderate, 38 tobomouth moderate .22 Sees ek ee Holocentrus, 6. 


5 OSPTICH EY S Jordan and Evermann. 


Ostichthys (Langsdorff Ms.) Cuvier and VaLencrennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ITT, 
1829, p. 174 (japonicus; name only, passing reference). 
Ostichthys JORDAN and EvERMANN, Fishes N. and M. Am.,1, 1896, p. 846 (japonicus). — 


This genus is closely related to //olocentrus, differing externally, in 
the absence of the large spine at the angle of the preopercle and espe- 
cially in the very rough surface of the large scales. In this regard it 
differs from Myripristis, which, while lacking also the preopercular 
spine, has the scales of //olocentrus. Holotrachys (lima), another 
genus with similarly rough scales, differs from Ostichthys in having 
the scales very much smaller, about 45 in the lateral line instead of 28, 
as in Ostichthys. 

y / ara ee > 

(ooTéov, bone; iyAus, fish.) 


6. OSTICHTHYS JAPONICUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 


KINDAI (GOLDEN PERCH); NISHIKIDAI (BROCADE PERCH); UMIKI- 
NUWO (SEA GOLD-FISH). 


Myripristis japonicus Cuvipr and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., III, 1829, 
p. 173, pl. tvur; Japan Coll. Langsdorff.—Scu.ece., Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 
1847, p. 23, pl. 1x a; Nagasaki.—GtnrueEr, Cat. Fish., I, 1859, p. 25; Japan, 
China, Ile de France.—STEINDACHNER, Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 14; Tokyo. 

Ostichthys japonicus JORDAN and EvErRMANN, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., X XV, 1902, 
p. 334; Formosa. 

Head, 23; depth, 24; D. X1I,13; A. 1V,11; P. 1,16; V. 1,7. Scales, 
4-28-7. Body deep and compressed, covered with fare scales which are 
provided with parallel striz forming a prickly edge behind, and some 
of the middle ones sharp and strong. Head, large, the ridges of the 
hones large and striate; upper profile convex; eye, large, above and 
in front, 34 in the head, about 15 in the maxillary, and 24 in the height 
of the preoperculum; the mouth is very large, inclined, the maxillary 
expanded distally, so as to fall very little short of an eye diameter, 
and reaching posteriorly beyond the eye; jaws large and powerful, 
the upper scooped out in front so that the symphysis of the mandible 


a 


12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





fits in; the lower jaw projects; teeth in small rough patches or bands 
in the jaws; nostrils close together, directly in front of the eye, and 


{ 


4 


ehh 


the posterior very large, + in the eye; lips thick, fleshy, and papillose;_ 
interorbital space 1% in the eye; very slightly elevated; opercle above 
with a strong, backwardly produced spine; 9 scales along the posterior — 
edge of the preoperculum on the operculum cheeks scaled; gill-— 
opening, very large, the membrane free from the isthmus; gill-rakers, — 


6, 11, very long, slender, pointed, and 13 in the eye. Dorsal inserted 
before the posterior edge of the gill-opening, third and fourth species 
longest and strongest, about 23 in the depth of the body; soft dorsal 


highest in front, nearly equal to the highest dorsal spines; the third — 
anal spine the longest to the eye, the soft part of the spine nearly as_ 





FIG. 2.—OSTICHTHYS JAPONICUS. 


high as the soft dorsal; pectorals low, a little in front of the dorsal, — 


not reaching the vent, and 1} in the head; ventrals below pectorals | 


shorter, and the spines a trifle shorter than the fourth dorsal spine. 


Lateral line inclined to the hase of the caudal from the upper part of — 


the head. Caudal peduncle rather thick, compressed, and 1% in the 
ventral spine. 

Color, in alcohol, pale; in life, bright crimson. Length, 134 inches. 
Here described from a specimen from Giran, Formosa. 


Of this fine large fish we have examined a living specimen in the — 


Asakusa Aquarium from Misaki, and another from Giran, Formosa. 
It is oceasionally taken off the rocky headlands of Southern Japan, 
but it is nowhere common. Our figure is taken from the Giran 
specimen. 


yo. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 13 





6. HOLOCENTRUS (Artedi) Seopoli. 


reo 


Holocentrum Arvrept, Seba, II], about 1738, nonbinomial (rubrum). 
Holocentrus Gronow, Zoophyl, 1763, p. 65 (rostratus, nonbinomial) . 
, pay}, >I \ 

Holocenthrus (Gronow) Scopout, Int. Hist. Nat., 1777, p. 449 (misprint). 

Holocentrus Buocw, Ichthyol., IV, 1790, p. 61 (sogo). 

Rhynchichthys Cuvier and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VII, 1831, p. 503 
(pelamidis; young). 

Rhinoberyx Giiu, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 237 (brachyrhynchus; 
young; scales said to be 25; may represent a distinct ey 

Holocentrum of authors Saat 


Body oblong, moderately compressed, the ventral outline nearly 
straight, the back a little elevated, the tail very slender. Head com- 
pressed, narrowed forward. Operculum with a strong spine above, 
below which the edge is sharply serrated; a strong spine at the angle 
of preopercle. Orbital ring, preorbital, preopercle, interopercle, sub- 
opercle, occiput, and shoulder girdle with their edges sharply serrate. 
Month small, terminal, the maxillary not extending to the middle of 
eye: the lower jaw projecting in the adult; in the young (which con- 
stitute the supposed genera Rhynchichthys and Rhinoberyx) the snout 
is much produced. Maxillary broad, striate, with a supplemental 
bone. Eye excessively large. Scales moderate, closely imbricated, 
the posterior margin strongly spinous. Lateral line continuous. 
Dorsal deeply emarginate, the spines usually 11, depressible in a 
groove; soft dorsal short and high; anal with 4 spines, the first and 
second quite small, the third very long and strong, the fourth smaller; 
caudal widely oe’ both lobes in the rudimentary rays spine- 
like; ventrals large, I, 7, the spine very strong. Species numerous, 
remarkable for the development of sharp spines almost everywhere on 
the surface of the body. 

(Ohos, whole; «évtpor, spine; spinous all over.) 

a. Scales 36 to 37. 

b. Color red, striped with white; spinous dorsal plain..........-.: spinosissimus, 7. 

bb. Color red, striped with black; spinous dorsal with black blotches. -alboruber, 8. 
aa. Scales 48; color red, striped with darker; base of pectoral and tips of caudal 

RRNA eee epee enn Sees ree eS SS Le Lena ed ee ee ittodai, 9. 


7; HOLOCENTRUS SPINOSISSIMUS Schlegel. 
ITTODAI (NUMBER ONE PERCH). 


Holocentrus spinosissimus SCHLEGEL, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 22, pl. vu, A; Naga- 
saki.—GUtnruHer, Cat. Fish., I, 1859, p. 41 (copied). 

Head, 23; ce Fes 1 Ale yee P tr Lcd es Ms a 
Seales 3-37 or 38-6. Body rather long, compressed, iad covered with 
large, striated scales, rather rough to the touch. Head compressed, 
and the upper protile somewhat convex; eye large, its posterior margin 
nearer the gill-opening than the tip of the snout, 2% in the head and equal 


14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 





to the maxillary; snout bluntly pointed, 2 in the eye; nostrils directly 
in front of the eye, and the posterior very large; mouth inclined, the 
maxillary expanded distally till it is 23 in the eye, and reaching below 
the first two-thirds of the eye; teeth in fine, roughened bands in the 
jaws; the lips rather thick and fleshy; the lower jaw projects but little; 
interorbital space concave above and equal to about three-fifths the: 
eye; bones on the head rough, striated, and with the edges serrated;; 
two opercular spines; preoperculum with its lower angle with a strong; 
backward spine; five rows of scales on the cheeks; preorbital spine» 
strong; gill-opening large; gill-rakers 7+-10, rather short and most of | 
them poorly developed. Dorsal before the edge of the gill-opening: 
and the pectoral, the third and fourth spines the highest; soft dorsal! 
highest in front and nearly as high as the spinous dorsal; third anal) 





WY 


Fic. 3.—HOLOCENTRUS SPINOSISSIMUS. 


spine yery strong and long, though not as long as the longest rays, 
which are in front; pectoral a trifle shorter than the ventral, and about 
equal to the third anal spine; ventrals a little behind pectorals and 
with their tips reaching for nearly two-thirds the space between their 
bases and the origin of the anal; caudal emarginate, the lobes distinct; 
rudimentary caudal rays several and developed as graduated spines 
above and below; lateral lines inclosed from the head to the base of 
the caudal; caudal peduncle compressed, about two-thirds the eye. 

Color plain brown in alcohol, with traces of 9 longitudinal silvery 
bands, and the cheeks and opercles silvery. Length 7 inches. Here 
described from two examples from Wakanoura. 

Color in life brilliant scarlet, with white stripes, one stripe extending 
obliquely below the eye. 


g no, 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. a5 





This beautifully colored fish is occasionally taken on rocky shores 
in the Kuro Shiwo, of southern Japan. Our specimens: are from 
Wakanoura, where it is common in the open water. 

(spinosissimus, most spiny.) 


8. HOLOCENTRUS ALBORUBER Lacépéde. 


? Sciena rubra ForskA&u, Deser. Anim., 1775, p. 48; Red Sea. 

? Perca rubra SCHNEIDER, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 90 (after Forskal). 

? Holocentrus ruber Rijpreuy, Atl., 1828, p. 83, pl. xxi, fig. 1; Red Sea. 

Holocentrum rubrum Gitnruer, Cat. Fish., I, 1859, p. 35 (in part?); Amboina, 
Japan, Louisiades, Philippines, China, India, Red Sea.—Buieeker, Atl. Ichth. 
IX, pl. m1, fig. 4. 

(Holocentrum rubrum Day, Fishes India, pl. x11, fig. 4, is apparently some other 
fish. ) 

Holocentrum rubrum Isuikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 58; Miyakoshima. 


279. 


Holocentrum alborubrum Lackprpr, Hist. Poiss., IV, 1803, p. 372; China Seas, 
from a Japanese print.—Ricuarpson, Ichth. China, 1846, p.-223; Canton. 

? Perca praslin LackrEpe, Hist. Poiss., IV, 1803, p. 418; New Britain. 

? Holocentrum orientale CuviER and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Poiss., III, 1829, p. 197; 
VII, p. 497; Red Sea, Pondicherry. 

? Holocentrum marginatum Cuvier and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Poiss., II, 1829, p. 
216; India. 


fee 2 depth oe: D., x1. 13s A. PV, 10; PLT 13d32 Ve, T, 7. 
Lateral line 3-36-7. Body elongate, compressed, and covered with 
rather large ctenoid scales. Head moderate, the upper profile strongly 
convex over the eyes; eye large, 23 in the head and impinging upon 
the upper profile; snout pointed, a little over half the eye; mouth 
terminal, inclined, the lower jaw slightly projects, and the maxillary 
does not reach the middle of the eye; teeth minute and in bands in the 
jaws; nostrils directly in front of the eye and the posterior very much 
the larger; cheeks with 4 rows of scales; interorbital space slightly con- 
cave; opercles with two strong spines; the preoperculum with a single 
strong spine below, and the preorbital spine short; head more or less 
striate, and with the edges of the bones more or less denticulate; gill- 
opening large; gill-rakers 6-10, slender, pointed, rather poorly devel- 
oped. Dorsal about over the pectorals, the spinous fin rather high, 
highest in the middle and in front; soft dorsal about over the spinous 
anal, the anterior rays the highest, but not as high as the anterior rays 
of the soft anal, which are also the highest of that fin; third anal spine 
strong, long, and at least equal to the highest anal ray; pectorals 
shorter than the ventrals, about 12 in the head; ventrals behind the 
pectorals; the spine alittle more than two-thirds the length of the fin, 
and its tip not reaching the vent; caudal forked, the lobes produced; 
rudimentary caudal rays as 4 graduated spines above and below. — Lat- 
eral line nearly concurrent with the back to the base of the caudal; 
caudal peduncle compressed, about 1+ in the eye. 

Color in alcohol brown, dark and deep above, the sides with about 





16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XXVI. 





9 longitudinal broad bands following the course of the scales; dorsal 
light, with the membrane between the first 3 spines, with a broad 
blackish band above, which is continued on the membrane of the rest 
of the fin as a broad black blotch in front of each spine; menwbrane, 
including the fourth anal spine to the first soft ray, black; edge of the 
caudal above and below brownish; the head above is more or less uni- 
form brownish; the lower surface of the body has a silvery appear- 
ance; membrane between the ventral spine and the first ray white. 

In life the species was deep red with white longitudinal stripes. 

Length about 5% inches. Here described from an example from 
Okinawa, Riukiu. 

Of this strongly marked species we have one specimen from Nafa, in 
Okinawa. It agrees fairly with Giinther’s description of //o¢ocentrus 
ruber, ov rather with the Japanese, Louisiade and Amboina specimens, 
having the anal spine 5 in total length, not 43, as in the Red Sea 
example, presumably typical of //. ruber. In Bleeker’s figure the 
preopercular spine is represented as much longer than in our examples. 
Day’s description and figure differ so much that we suppose them to 
belong to another species. In view of the uncertainty as to the iden- 
tity of the Japanese form with Holocentrus ruber of the Red Sea, we 
retain provisionally the name //olocentrus alboruber, which seems to 
admit of no doubt. The species may however prove fully identical 
with //olocentrus ruber. 

(albus, white; ruber, red.) 


9. HOLOCENTRUS ITTODAI Jordan and Fowler, new species. 


Head <3}; depth 26: <D.. XE 14 AS TV as Penk eee ee 
Lateral line 3-48-7. Body elongate, compressed, and covered with 
small, ctenoid scales. Head rather small, the upper profile strongly 
convex over the eyes; eye very large, 24 in the head, and impinging 
upon the upper profile; snout pointed, about 2 in the eye; mouth 
small, inferior and inclined, the maxillary not reaching to the middle 
of the eye; teeth minute and in bands on the jaws; nostrils directly in 
front of the eye and the posterior very much the larger; interorbital 
space slightly concave, cheeks with 5 rows of scales; opercles with 2 
strong spines; the preoperculum with a single strong spine below, and 
the preorbital spine short; head more or less striate and with the 
edges of the bones finally denticulate. Gill-opening large, the gill- 
rakers 5+11, slender, pointed, rather poorly developed. Dorsal about 
over the pectoral, the spinous fin rather high, highest in the middle; 
soft dorsal beginning over the origin of the spinous anal, the anterior 
‘ays the highest, but not as high as the anterior rays of the soft anal, 
which are also the highest of that fin; third anal spine strong, long, 
and equal to the highest soft ray; pectorals shorter than the ventrals, 
about 14 in the head and about equal to the third anal spine; caudal 


1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. Le 





srked, the lobes pr roduc ed; rudimentar y caudal - rays as ds graduated 
spines above and below. Lateral line inclined to the base of the cacdal; 
caudal peduncle compressed, about 14 in the eye. 
~ Color red in life, in alcohol brown, the sides with 11 white longi- 
tudinal bands following the course of the scales; spinous dorsal with 
a narrow white longitudinal band running not far from the base of 
the fin, above which in front is a broad blackish band, distinct between 
the first 3 spines only. 

Total length 44% inches. Here described from a specimen from 
Okinawa, Riukiu. 





% Fic. 4.—HOLOCENTRUS ITTODAT. 


Of this species we have a single example from Nafa, in Okinawa. 
Tt is apparently nearest to /Zolocentrus diadema, but it is markedly 
different in color. 

_ (éttodai, number one Tai or Porgy; /tto, meaning number one among 
many, (probably for its beauty.) 


Family IV. POLYMIXIIDZ. 


P BARBUDOS. 


_ Body rather elongated and compressed; scales not serrated; lateral 
line continuous with back; head compressed, and with a decurved pro- 
file; preoperculum serrated; mouth with a lateral and nearly horizon- 
tal cleft; teeth villiform, on both jaws and on palate; branchiostegal 
apertures large, the gill-membranes separate, free from the isthmus; 
branchiostegals 4; dorsal moderately elong ated, with several spines, 
increasing backward; anal opposite the posterior portion of dorsal, 
armed with 3 or 4 spines; pectorals with branched rays; ventral fins 
thoracic, each with a spine and 6 or Trays. Vertebre in increased 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 





= wre, ae 


18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XVI. 





number (29). The family is distinguished by the combination of chin 
barbels, increased number of rays, and small number of branchioste- 
gals. The increased number of ventral rays and the structure of the 
fins points plainly to Berycoid affinities. According to Boulenger, the 
skeleton is essentially that of Beryr, and the species resemble Mul- 
lide in the peculiar hyoid barbels, but in no other regard. 

A single genus, with a few species, inhabiting rather deep waters in 
the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. 


Wan POE WAVES AME On vic. 


Polymixia Lowe, Trans. Cambr. Phil. Soc., 1838, p. 198 (nobilis). 
Nemobrama VALENCIENNES, Berher-Webb and Berthelot, Ichth. Iles. Canar., 
1844, p. 40 (webbii). 
Dinemus Pony, Memorias II, 1860, p. 160 (venustus). 
Characters of the genus included above. 
(woXds, many; 757s, mixing; a mixture of the characters of many 
groups. ) 


10. POLYMIXIA JAPONICA Steindachner. 
GINME (SILVER EYE). 


Polymixia japonica STEtINDACHNER, Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 12, pl. 1v, fig. 2, 
1883; Tokyo.—Isurkawa, Prel. Cat.,-1897, p. 58; Tokyo. 

. Head 2% to 3; depth 23 to 2%; D., V., 33 to 34; A., IV, 15 to 16; 
P., I, 15 to 16; V., 1, 6. Scales 7-60-16. Body long, compressed, 
with the anterior profile convex and descending from the eye to 
the snout; posterior profile gradually descending to the caudal fin; 
posterior profile nearly straight. Scales small and rough. Head 
compressed and more or less scaly; eye large, 3 in the head and 12 
in the maxillary; snout short, very obtuse, produced, about 1% in 
eye and 3 in the maxillary; mouth large, inferior, the maxillary 
expanded distally until a little more than half the eye and reaching 
a short distance behind the eye; jaws with broad, rough patches of 
minute teeth; mandibular barbels reaching the ventrals in smaller 
specimens; suborbital narrow, about one-third the eye; nostrils close 
together in front of the eye, the posterior an elongate slit, the 
anterior rounded and covered by a flap; interorbital space convex 
scaled till even with the front margin of the eye, a little less than the 
eve and 2 in the maxillary; preoperculum and operculum scaly. Guill- 
opening large, the gill-rakers 5+-9, moderate, compressed. Origin of 
the dorsal nearer the tip of the snout than the base of the caudal; the 
spinous dorsal with weak spines, graduated to the last, which is the 
longest and more than half the length of the highest soft rays which 
includes the first 7 or 8, the rest of the soft dorsal being low and of 
uniform height; anal spines weak and graduated to the fourth or 
longest; first anal ray the longest, higher than the fourth anal spine, 
and similar in shape to the dorsal; pectorals low, short, reaching 


no. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. 19 





beyond the first dorsal rays and about equal to the maxillary; ven- 
trals short, beginning in front of the dorsal and extending for about 
four-ninths the distance between their own bases and the origin of the 
anal; caudal deeply forked and the lobes pointed. Lateral line oblique 
to the caudal peduncle, where it runs straight to the base of the 
caudal. — Caudal peduncle compressed and equal to the eye. 

Color in alcohol brown, above and on the back darker and richer; 
on the sides series of longitudinal stripes of silvery; base of the pec- 
toral black, together with the caudal lobes and the upper portion of 
the anterior soft dorsal rays; peritoneum black. 

Length 84 inches. Here described from examples from Misaki. 

Our numerous specimens were taken at Misaki on long lines by 
Kumakichi Aoki, the fisherman collector of the marine laboratory of 
the Imperial University of Tokyo. he species is sufficiently distinct 
from Polymixia lowe? of the Atlantic, having smaller scales and larger 
fins. It is known to fishermen as Génme or Silver Eye. 


Family V. MONOCENTRID 4. 
PINE-CONE FISHES. 


The characters of the family are those of the single genus, J/onocen- 
tris. Two species are known, Japanese and Australian. The single 
genus is notably unlike any other kind of fish whatever, but it seems 
to be nearest the Berycoids. 


8. MONOCENTRIS Schneider: 


Monocentris SCHNEIDER, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 100 (carimatus). 
Lepisacanthus LAckrEpE, Hist. Nat. Poiss., III, 1802, p. 321 (japonicus). 

Body short, deep, compressed, covered with very large bony scales, 
joined to form a coat of mail. Snout blunt, rounded, protruding 
beyond the mouth; mouth moderate, villiform; teeth on jaws and 
palatines, none on vomer; eye moderate; branchiostegals 8; opercular 
bones entire; suborbitals with radiating ridges. Dorsal spines iso- 
lated; soft dorsal moderate; ventrals reduced to a strong spine and 3 
soft rays. Caudal not forked. According to Boulenger, the skeleton 
of Monocentris show some affinity to that of the Berycidex, but differs 
considerably in ‘‘the total absence of ribs on any of the vertebra ante- 
rior to the seventh.” 

(uovos, one; KéVTPOY, spine.) 


11. MONOCENTRIS JAPONICUS (Houttuyn). 


MATSUKASA UWO (PINE-CONE FISH); MATSUKASAGO (PINE SCULPIN) ; 
TAIMUKO-NO-GENPACHI¢ (DICK, THE BRIDEGROOM FISH). 


Gasterosteus japonicus Houtruyn, Act. Soc. Harl., XX, 1782, pl. 11, p.329, Nagasaki. 
Scixna japonica (cataphracta) Tounpera, Nor. Act. Sei. Suec., XI, 1790, p. 102, 
pl. 111; Nagasaki. 


«@ Genpachi, a boy’s name corresponding to Tom or Dick. 


20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vou. xvi 


Monocentris cataphracta BLEEKER, Kon. Ak. Wet. Amob., 1853, p. 5; Kaminoseki, - 

Lepisacanthus japonicus Lacrerkpr, Hist. Nat. Poiss., III, 1802, p. 321 (after 

Houttuyn). i 

Monocentris japonicus CuvieR and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Poiss., 1V, 1829, p. 461, 

pl. xcvu; Japan (Coll. Tilesius)—ScuLeceL, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 50, 

pl. xxun, fig. 1; Nagasaki—SrremnpacHNer, Fische Japans, I, 1883, p. 9; Enos- 

hima, Nagasaki, Kanagawa, Philippines. 

Monocentris carinata SCHNEIDER, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 100, pl. xxiv; Japan (called 
Monocentris cataphracta on plate). 

Head 24 to 24; depth 1% to 14; D., V or VI; 11 to 12; A. 10; Pom 
13; V, 13; scales 2-12 to 14-4. Body deep, compressed, covered with 
large scales, which are very roughly striated and each with a median 
keel armed with a series of several backwardLy projecting short spines, 
so as to form 7 rows along the sides; there is a ventral keel stmilar to 
the scales along the sides. Head without scales but very rough, the 
ridges elevated and with papillose skin stretch ng from one to the 
other, leaving large mucous cavities underneath; the depth of the head 
about equal to its length; eye a little in front of the middle, 33 in the 
head, greater than the snout, and 1 in the interorbital space; nostrils 
directly in front of the eye, the posterior very much the larger; snout 
very round, obtuse, and projecting beyond the mouth; the mouth 
large, oblique, and inferior, with the maxillary extending to below 
the posterior margin of the eye; jaws without teeth; interorbital space 
roundly convex; gill-opening rather large, with well-developed flap 
and forming a free fold across the isthmus; gill-rakers somewhat 
numerous, slender, and at leastas long as half of eye; the skin between 
the jaws below is coarsely papillose or fringed; origin of the dorsal a 
little behind the gill-opening; spinous dorsal composed of at least 3, 
very often 4, very robust, strong, pointed spines, inclined alternately 
somewhat to one side of the body or the other, the first always the 
shortest, and the second always the longest, the other dorsal spines 
obsolete; soft dorsal high in the middle with rounded edge; anal high 
in front and sloping behind; higher than the soft dorsal; pectorals 
low, 14 in the head; ventral spine very strong, long, 14 in the head, 
and reaching the anus caudal with both lobes pointed, the edge emar- 
ginate; caudal peduncle a little less than the eye. 

Color in alcohol, pale brown; each scale with sixin at its base black- 
ish, forming a reticulated pattern as it shows along the edges; jaws, 
blackish; several blackish bands radiating from the eye and around 
the opercles. Total length, 5 inches. 

Here described from Nagasaki examples. 

Color in life, coppery brown above and on the fins; sides and below, 
coppery yellow; outlines of scales, blackish. 

This extraordinary little fish is rather common in clear waters with 
rocky bottom off the coast of Japan. Our numerous specimens are 
from Tokyo, Misaki, Wakanoura, Sagami Bay, Suruga Bay, Nagasaki, 
and Nafa in Okinawa. 





xo. 1306. JAPANESE BERYCOID FISHES—JORDAN AND FOWLER. ra) 


~ Houttuyn observes in regard to this species: ‘‘I have never seen 
the equal of it.” It is certainly one of the most aberrant of all known 
fishes. 
* SUMMARY. 
Faminy I. Berycrpa. 
1. Beryx Cuvier. 


1. decadactylus Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
2. splendens Lowe; Tokyo, Yokohama. 


Famity Il. TrRacnicnrayip®. 
2. Gephyroberyx Boulenger. 


3. japonicus (Déderlein); Suruga Bay. 
3. Hoplostethus Cuvier and Valenciennes. 


4. mediterraneus Cuvier and Valenciennes; Sagami Bay, Suruga Bay, Kishyu. 
4. Paratrachichthys Waite. 
5. prosthemius Jordan and Fowler; Suruga Bay. 
Famizty III. Honocenrrin». 
5. Ostichthys Jordan and Eyermann. 
6. japonicus (Cuvier and Valenciennes); Misaki, Giran. 


6. Holocentrus Scopoli 


“J 


. spinosissimus Schlegel; Wakanoura. 
8. alboruber Lacépede; Okinawa. 
9. ittodai Jordan and Fowler; Okinawa. 


Faminy IV. Potymiximpm. 
7. Polymixvia Lowe. 
10. japonica Steindacher; Misaki. 
Famity V. MonocentTriIp®. 
8. Monocentris Schneider. 


11. japonicus (Houttuyn); Tokyo, Misaki, Wakanoura, Suruga Bay, Nagasaki 
and Nata. 





JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS. 


By Mary J. Ratrupun, 


Second Assistant Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates. 


The collection here described was obtained by Dr. David S. Jordan 
and Mr. J. O. Snyder during the summer of 1900, while making a 
special investigation of the fishes of Japan under the auspices of the 
Hopkins Laboratory of Stanford University. The specimens were 
taken along shore, mostly in the seine. The new species number nine 
shrimps and one hermit crab. To show the relation of the species 
of Parapenxus of the velutinus type, descriptions of two additional 
species in the U. S. National Museum are included. 

The drawings were made by Miss Sigrid Bentzon. The type speci- 
mens are in the U. S. National Museum. 


Order DECAPODA. 
Suborder BRACHYURA. 
Family OCYPODID®. 
EUCRATE CRENATA de Haan. 


Cancer (Eucrate) crenatus be HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 5i, pl. xv, 


he 
Hucrate crenata Atcockx, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIX, 1900, p. 300, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanourst, Kii; 2 males, 1 female. 
CARCINOPLAX LONGIMANUS (de Haan). 


Cancer (Curtonotus) longimanus bE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 50, pu. 
Wyle nt orc ; 

Carcinoplax longimanus A.cocK, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXTX, 1900, p. 303, 
and synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii; 4 males, 3 females, large; 15 males, 13 females, 
medium. 


PROCEEDINGS U.S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. X XVI—No. 1307. 


bo 


24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 








CARCINOPLAX VESTITA (de Haan). 


Cancer (Curtonotus) vestitus bE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 51, pl. v, 
fig. 3. 

Carcinoplax vestitus Mune Epwarps, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), Zool., XVIII, 1852, 
p. 164 [128]. . 


Wakanoura, Kili; 6 males, 3 females. 


Family GRAPSID /#. 
HEMIGRAPSUS SANGUINEUS (de Haan). 


Grapsus (Grapsus) sanguineus DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 58, pl. 


9 


XvI, fig. 3: 
Heterograpsus sanguineus M1ItNeE Epwarps, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), Zool., XX, 1853, 
p. 193 [159]. | 


Tokyo, 9 males; Misaki, Sagami, 1 male; Wakanoura, Kii, 1 female. 
ERIOCHEIR JAPONICUS de Haan. 


Grapsus (Eriocheir) japonicus bE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 59, pl. 
XVII. : 

Eriochirus japonicus Minne Epwarps, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), Zool., XX, 1853, p. 
176 [142]. ; 


Aomori, Rikuoku; Same, Rikuoku; Wakanoura, Kii; Chikugo 
River, Kurume, Chikugo. 


PLATYGRAPSUS DEPRESSUS (de Haan). 


Grapsus (Platynotus) depressus DE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 68, pl. 
vill, fig. 2. 
Platygrapsus depressus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 104 [50]. 


Hakodate, Hokkaido. 


SESARMA (HOLOMETOPUS) HAMATOCHEIR (de Haan). 


Grapsus (Pachysoma) hematocheir pe HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 62, 
pl. vu, fig. 4. 

Holometopus hematocheir MitNe Epwarps, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), Zool., XX, 1853, 
p. 188 [154]. 


Mogi, near Nagasaki. 
Family PILUMNID/. 


LIAGORE RUBROMACULATA de Haan. 


Cancer (Liagore) rubromaculatus pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 49, 
pl. v, fig. 1.—Brrrno.tp, Abh. Konig]. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, ITI, 1845, p. 18. 


Wakanoura, Kii; 16 males, 9 females. 


Es 





=. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. 25 
: ATERGATIS OCYROE (Herbst). 


Cancer ocyroe Hersst, Natur. d. Krabben u. Krebse, III, Pt. 2, 1801, p. 20, pl. - 
Liv, fig. 2. 

Atergatis floridus Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VII, 1898, p. 98, and 
synonymy. 


Misaki, Sagami. 
XANTHO SCABERRIMUS Walker. 


Xantho scaberrimus Wacker, Jour. Linn. Soe. London, XX, 1887, pp. 109 and 
115, pl. vu, figs. 1-4. 

Xantho (Lophoxanthus) scaberrimus AvcocK, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VII, 
1898, p. 116. 


Wakanoura, Kii; 1 female. 


LEPTODIUS EXARATUS (Milne Edwards). 


Chlorodius exaratus M1tNr Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., I, 1834, p. 402. 

Leptodius exaratus A. Mitne Epwarps, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, LV, 
1868, p. 71. 

Xantho (Leptodius) exaratus Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VIT, 1898, 
p. 118, and synonymy. 


Misaki, Sagami. 
Family PORTUNID. 
OVALIPES BIPUSTULATUS (Milne Edwards). 


Platyonichus bipustulatus MitNe Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., I, 1834, p. 437, pl. 
xvu, figs. 7-10. 

Corystes (Anisopus) punctata DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 44, pl. m, 
fig. 1. 

Ovalipes bipustulatus RatHBuN, Proc. U. 8S. Nat. Mus., X XI, 1898, p. 597. 


Same, Rikuoku. 


LIOCARCINUS STRIGILIS (Stimpson). 


Portunus (Portunus) corrugatus be HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1885, p. 40 (not 
P. corrugatus Leach). 
Portunus strigilis Strmpson, Proce. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 388 [35]. 


Misaki, Sagami; Wakanoura, Kil; Nagasaki, Hizen. 

As compared to Z. corrugatus (Leach), LZ. strigilis is longer and 
narrower—length 0.85 to 0.87 of width; in Z. corrugatus, length 
0.79 to 0.8 of width. The antero-lateral margin is relatively longer 
than the postero-lateral. The median tooth of the front is more tri- 
angular, its sides at right angles to each other, tip acute; in L. corru- 
gatus the sides form an obtuse angle, which is bluntly rounded. 

Dimensions.—Male, length 22.6 mm., width 26.6 mm.; female, 
length 26.2 mm., width 30 mm. Stimpson’s type was very small, 
said to be 0.28 of an inch long, 0.3 of an inch wide. This is probably 


26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





an error, as in his, figure (unpublished) the carapace measures 13. 5 
mm. long by 15.5 mm. broad; the figure is enlarged twice, making 
the actual measurements 6.75 mm. by 7.75 mm., or 0.26 by 0.3 inch. 


PORTUNUS PELAGICUS (Linnzus). 


Cancer pelagicus Linnxus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, 1758, p.626. 

Portunus pelagicus Fasricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., 1798, p. 367. 

Neptunus pelagicus Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VII, 1898, p. 34, part; 
not all references to synonymy. 


Kawatana; 1 male, 1 female. 
PORTUNUS TRITUBERCULATUS (Miers). 


Portunus (Neptunus) pelagicus DE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 37, pls. 
Ix and x. 

Neptunus trituberculatus Mrers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), XVII, 1876, p. 221, 
and (5), V, 1880, p. 238. 

Neptunus (Neptunus) pelagicus var. trituberculatus ORrMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 
VII, 1893, p. 74. 

Wakanoura, Kii, 1 female; Yokohama, | male, 1 female, and Hako- 
date, 1 female, U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross; Japan, 3 
pales 2 females. 

This form seems to me specifically distinct from 2. pelagicus, of 
which 32 specimens have been examined. In /. trituberculatus, the 
granules of the carapace are much finer and more numerous. There 
isa very prominent lump on the postgastric and two on the cardiac 
region. The front has only two teeth between the inner orbital teeth, 
the two small teeth at the base of the epistomial spine being absent. 
‘The middle lobe of the supraorbital border is rounded, not dentiform 
nor spiniform. The anterior margin of the arm carries 4 (in one case 
3) spines. The length of the sixth abdominal somite in the male is 
greater than its proximal width; in 7. pelagicus less, or just equal to 
that width. The sternum of the female is coarsely eee carine 
of second and third abdominal segments laterally strongly produced 
in an acute tooth or spine. 


PORTUNUS GLADIATOR Fabricius. 


Portunus gladiator Fasricivs, Suppl. Ent. Syst., 1798, p. 368. 
Neptunus (Amphitrite) gladiator AucocK, load Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VIII, 
1899, p. 35, and synonymy. 

Wakanoura, Kii; 1 male, 1 female. 

Amphitrite media Stimpson, as figured by him in his unpublished 
report on the Crustacea of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, 
differs from /. gladiator in the nearly equal and equally advanced 
teeth of the front, the appressed and overlapping antero-lateral teeth, 
the shorter lateral spine. 


No. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. NT 


PORTUNUS HASTATOIDES Fabricius. 


Portunus hastatoides Fasrictus, Suppl. Entom. Syst., 1798, p. 368. 
Neptunus ( Hellenus) hastatoides Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VITT, 1899, 
p. 38, and synonymy. 
Wakanoura, Kii, 1 young male, | female; Nagasaki, Hizen, 4 males, 
5 females. 


CHARYBDIS JAPONICA (A. Milne Edwards). 


Portunus (Charybdis) 6—dentatus pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 41, 
pl. xu, fig. 1. Not Cancer sexrdentatus Herbst. 

Goniosoma japonicum A. Minne Epwarps, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, X, 1861, 
p- 373. 


Matsushima, Rikuzen; Tokyo; Wakanoura, Kii; Onomichi, Bingo; 
Nagasaki, Hizen. 
CHARYBDIS MILES de Haan. 


Portunus (Charybdis) miles pp Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 41, pl. x1, 
fig. 1. 

Charybdis (Goniosoma) miles Atcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VITT, 1899, 
p- 62, and synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kil. 
CHARYBDIS VARIEGATA (Fabricius). 


Portunus variegatus Fasricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., 1798, p. 364. 
Charybdis (Goniosoma) variegata Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VITI, 
1899, p. 60, and synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii, 1 male, 1 female; Nagasaki, Hizen, 2 males, 1 
female. 

The specimens have been compared witha photograph of Fabricius’s 
types in the museum at Copenhagen. 


CHARYBDIS TRUNCATA (Fabricius). 


Portunus truncatus Fasricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., 1798, p. 365. 

Portunus ( Thalamita) truncatus DE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 45, pl. 11, 
fig. 3, and pl. x1, fig. 8, male only. 

Goniosoma ornatum A. MiLNE Enwarps, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, X, 1861, 
pp. 376 and 385. Not G. truncatum A. Milne Edwards, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, X, 1861, pp. 380 and 385, pl. xxx1v, fig. 4. 

Charybdis ( Goniohellenus) ornata AucocK, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VITI, 1899, 
p. 64, and synonymy. 

Charybdis (Gonioneptunus) truncata BorrapDaILE, Fauna and Geog. Maldive and 
Laccadive Arch., I, 1902, p. 200. 


Wakanoura, Kii; Nagasaki, Hizen. 
The specimens were compared with a photograph of the Fabrician 
type. 


28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 





CHARYBDIS SUBORNATA (Ortmann). 


Portunus (Thalamita) truncatus DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 43, 
pl. xn, fig. 8, female only; 1849, p. 244. 

Portunus (Charybdis) truncatus, variectas, DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1838, 
p. 65, pl. xvi, fig. 2. 

Gonioneptunus subornatus OrtTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VII, 1898, p. 79, pl. 11, 
fig. 9. 

Charybdis (Gonioneptunus) truncata Atcocx, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VIII, 
1899, p. 67. Not Goniosoma truncatum A. Milne Edwards, Arch. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, X, 1861, pp. 380 and 385, pl. xxxrv, fig. 4. 


Wakanoura, Kii; Onomichi, Bingo. 
THALAMITA SIMA Milne Edwards. 


Thalamita sima M1tNr Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., I, 1834, p. 460.—Atcock, Jour. 
Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VIII, 1899, p. 81, and synonymy. 

Portunus (Thalamita) arcuatus pe HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1835, p. 43, pl. 1, 
fies 2 ple san, tose 


Misaki, Sagami; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


Family CANCRID. 
TELMESSUS ACUTIDENS (Stimpson). 


Cheiragonus acutidens Strmpson, Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 40 [37]. 
Telmessus acutidens BENEpDIcT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XV, 1892, -p. 228, pl. xxv, 
fig. 1, and synonymy. 


Mororan, Hokkaido; Hakodate, Hokkaido (many young); Aomori, 
Rikuoku. 


Family MAIID. 


HUENIA PROTEUS de Haan. 


Maja ( Huenia) elongata pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxim, figs. 4, 5.4 
Maja ( Huenia) heraldica pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxm, fig. 6.4 
Maja (Huenia) proteus pbk Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1859, p. 95. 
Huenia proteus Atcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIV, 1895, p. 195, and 
synonymy. 
Nagasaki, Hizen. 
PUGETTIA QUADRIDENS (de Haan). 


Pisa (Halimus) quadridens DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxtv, fig. 2, 1838.) 
Pisa (Halimus) incisa bk HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxiv, fig. 3, 1838. 
Pisa (Menaethius) incisa bE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. G. 
Pisa (Menaethius) quadridens be Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. a. 
Pisa (Menoethius) quadridens DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1839, p. 97. 
Pisa (Menoethius) incisus pk Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1839, p. 98. 
Pugettia quadridens Ravusun, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, 1894, p. 71, and 
synonymy. 
Hakodate, Hokkaido, and Misaki, Sagami; specimens of typical form. 





«Specific name corrected in text. 
» Pp. 65-72 and pls. xxiv, BE and Fr, Fauna Japon., Crust., appeared in 1838, accord- 
ing to Bull. Sci. Phys. Nat. Neerlande, Aug. 31, 1838. 


No. 1307. JAPANESE ee SYED A THBUN. 29 








DOCLEA CANALIFERA Stimpson. 
Doclea canalifera Srrmpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., IX, 1857, p. 217 [23].— 
‘ Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIV, 1895, p. 228. 
Doclea japonica OrtMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VII, 1893, p. 46, pl. ui, fig. 4.— 
Axcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIV, 1895, p. 227. 

Wakanoura, Kii; 3 males, 3 females. 

The two largest males agree with descriptions of 2). japonica; in 
the four smaller specimens, however, the spines are all better devel- 
oped, the posterior of the branchial spines being the largest one on 
the lateral margin. Stimpson’s description was based on a young 
male, of which a figure was made, but is yet unpublished. 


HALIMUS DIACANTHUS (de Haan). 4 
Pisa (Naxia) diacantha pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1838, pl. xxiv, fig. 1; 
1839, p. 96, and pl. « 


Hyastenus diacanthus Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LNIV, 1895, p. 210, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kili; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


MICIPPA PHILYRA (Herbst). 


Cancer philyra Hersst, Natur. Krabben u. Krebse, III, Pt. 3, 1803, p. 51, pl. 
Lyi, fig. 4. 

Micippa philyra Aucocx, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIV, 1895, p. 249, and 
synonymy. 

Wakanoura, Kii. 
MICIPPA THALIA (Herbst). 

Cancer thalia Hersst, Natur. Krabben u. Krebse, III, Pt. 3, 1803, p. 50, pl. 
LVI, fig 3. 

Micippa thalia Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIV, 1895, p. 251, and 


synonymy. 


Nagasaki, Hizen. 


Family PARTHENOPID ®. 
LAMBRUS VALIDUS de Haan. 


Parthenope (Lambrus) valida pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1839, p. 90, pl. xx1, 
fig. 1, and pl. xxu1, fig. 1. 
Lambrus validus ORTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VII, 1893, p. 414, and synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii. 
LAMBRUS LACINIATUS de Haan. 


Parthenope (Lambrus) laciniata pe HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1839, p. 91, pl. 
xxu, figs. 2 and 3 (valida on plate). 

Lambrus laciniatus OrtMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VII, 1893, p. 415, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii; Onomichi, Bingo; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


a] hive Eno. n ee — (ele Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 1897, p. 157) that Hyastenus 
isa synonym of Halimus. 


30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





Family CALAPPIDE. 


CALAPPA PHILARGIUS (Linnzus). 


nr 


Calappa philargius Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 145, and 


synonymy. 


Nagasaki, Hizen; 1 female. 


Family MATUTID. 
MATUTA LUNARIS (Forskal). 


Cancer lunaris Forsk&u, Descriptiones Animalium, 1775, p. 91. Not C. lunaris 
Rumph, 1705. 
Cancer victor Fasrictus, Ent. Syst., 11, 1798, p. 449. 
Matuta victor Fasricrus, Suppl. Ent. Syst., 1798, p. 369.—Axcock, Jour. Asiatic 
Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 160, and synonymy. 
Nagasaki, Hizen; 1 female. 
Matuta lunaris Al\eock® should be known as J/. planipes Fabricius. 
The original of Herbst’s pl. v1, fig. 44, is probably not extant: it was _ 
not to be found during my visit to the Berlin Museum in 1896, 


Family LEUC@SIID. 
PERSEPHONA FUGAX (Fabricius). 
Myra fugax Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 202, and synonymy. 
Wakanoura, Kii (numerous); Nagasaki, Hizen. 
I think that the genus Myra Leach is not distinct from Lersephona 


Leach. 
LEUCOSIDES LONGIFRONS (de Haan). 


Leucosia longifrons Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 220, and 
synonymy. 
Wakanoura, Kii; 1 male. 
Leucosides Rathbun, 1897,? was substituted for Leucosia Leach, not 
Leucosia Fabricius, restricted by Latreille. 


ARCANIA SEPTEMSPINOSA (Fabricius). 


Arcania seplemspinosa Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 265, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii. 
ARCANIA UNDECIMSPINOSA de Haan. 


Arcania undecimspinosa Avcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 266, 
and synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kil; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


«Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 161. 
»Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, p. 160. 


No. 1307. JAPANESE ees EYED ce ce 4NS—RATHBUN. 31 


Family DORIPPID. 


DORIPPE DORSIPES (Linnzus). 


Dorippe dorsipes Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 277, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


DORIPPE JAPONICA de Siebold. 
Dorippe japonica DE SteBop, Spicilegia Faunze Japonicee, 1824, p. 14.—FErRussac, 
Bull. des Sci., IV, 1825, p. 87.—pr Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 122. 
Dorippe callida pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxx1, fig. 1.¢ Not Fabricius. 
Wakanoura, Kii; 2 females. 
DORIPPE GRANULATA de Haan. 


Dorippe sima vB Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xxx1, fig. 2.¢ Not Milne 
Edwards. 

Dorippe granulata DE HAAN, Fautia Japon., Crust., 1839, p. te Not D. granu- 
lata Alcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, 1896, p. 27§ 

Minyako, Rikuzen; Wakanoura, Kii; Nagasaki, Hizen. 

D. granulata is very different from 2). facchino (Herbst). The 
surface of the carapace is covered with granules, especially dense on 
‘the branchial regions, smallest on the protogastric and frontal regions, 
absent from the sulci and from the margin of the gastric region. The 
width between the tips of the exorbital teeth is only half or less than 
half the greatest width of the carapace. The spine at the lower inner 
a gle of the orbit is very short, not nearly as advanced as the front. 
‘he roof of the endostomial canal projects as a slight rim beyond the 
front. The outer surface of the chelipeds is granulate except on the 
fingers, and, in the female and the smaller cheliped of the male, on 
the lower central and distal portion of the palm. The margins and 
‘arinee of the second and third pairs of legs, save on the dactyli, are 
granulate, the granules very fine on the propodi. 

Dimensions.—Male, length 28.3 mm., width 32.5 mm., exorbital 
width 14.6 mm., length of second ambulatory leg 76 mm. Female, 
Jength 24.6 mm., width 27.6 mm., exorbital w Gi 13.4 mm., length of 
second ambulatory leg 65 mm. 


Suborder ANOMURA. 
Family RANINIDA. 
RANINA RANINA (Linnzus). 
Cancer raninus LINN xs, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, 1758, p. 625. 
Ranina scabra, oii, and dentata of authors. 


Misaki, Sagami, 1 male, 1 female, Nagasaki, oe 1 male. 


“Specific name corrected in text. 


32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVIL 


Family DROMIID#. 
DROMIA DORMIA (Linnzus). 


Cancer Dormia Linnaus, Amcen. Acad., VI, 1763, p. 413; Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 
I, Pt. 2, 1767, p. 1043. 
Dromia Rumphii Avcock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX VIII, 1899, p. 137, and 

synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kii; 1 male. 
Family LATREILLIID. 
LATREILLIA VALIDA de Haan. 


Latreillia valida DB Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1839, p. 107, pl. xxx, fig. 1.— 
HEnpErsON, Challenger Rept., X X VII, 1888, p. 24. 
Wakanoura, Kil; 1 female with ova, lacking the chelipeds. The 
frontal spines have a subterminal spinule. 


Family LITHODID. 
CRYPTOLITHODES EXPANSUS Miers. 


Cryptolithodes expansus Miprs, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, pp. 21 and 47. 


Minyako, Rikuzen, 1 male. 

Length 51.6 mm., length of rostrum 9.5 mm., width 78.9 mm.; 

length measured from outer angle of orbit backward 45 mm. 
Carapace transversely oblong, without lateral angles, covered with 
minute vesicular sete springing from minute puncte, and also with 
larger puncte. There is a 
fm prominent protuberance on 
ee ne ae the cardiac region, and one 
; Ay on either side of it on the 
he branchial region, the three | 
/ forming a transverse series 
( and springing from a com-_ 
{ mon base. A similar prom- 
inence occupies the gastric 
WS region, and through it a 
median ridge runs on to the 
Boe De Ge a ial distal half of the rostrum. 
Saabs ie ee ee eras The anterior half of each 
lateral expansion is occu- 
pied by a low prominence which is tuberculated. The right expansion 
is a little larger than the left. The margin of the carapace is furnished 
with small blunt teeth or tubercles at irregular and remote intervals; 
these number about 34, the largest ones being at the outer angle of the 
orbit. The rostrum is moderately deflexed, projects well beyond the 
anterior margin of the carapace, is nearly as long as its width at base, 







No, 1507, JAPANESE STALK-EVED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. . 33° 





sides: eradually converging Dard slightly convex, extremity tr crea 
“save for a small median pabercics . 
_ The eyes reach half the length of the rostrum. The second segment 
of the outer antennie has a bispinose outer crest, one spine pointing 
forward, the other backward. The acicle is much broader than its 
axial length; its distal margin (which is directed obliquely) is concave. 
In the left cheliped (the right is missing), the basis and ischium are 
tuberculous below; merus tricarinate, the inner carina cut into 4 irreg- 
ular teeth, and continuing a similar carina on the ischium; the upper. 
‘surface of the carpus is rough, the inner margin and angle laminar, 
the outer carina blunt, a blunt tooth at lower distal angle. Palm and 
fingers tuberculous inside and out, a sharp carina on upper surface of 
palm, ending distally in an acute conical tooth, a blunt carina on lower 
margin of propodus. Fingers considerably longer than upper margin 
of palm, almost meeting when closed, dactylus carinated above, carina 
ending proximally ina lobe. The ischium of the ambulatory legs is 
provided with a tooth on the posterior distal angle of the upper mar- 
gin, this tooth increasing in size from the first to the third pair. Mar- 
gins of succeeding joints broadly laminate; the meri with 1 superior 
-and 2 inferior lamine, carpi with 1 superior, propodi and dactyli with 
‘Asuperior and 1 inferior. The legs in a natural position are concealed, 
but when extended, the last and half of the penult segment reach beyond 
the carapace. 
The length of the abdomen exceeds by a small particle its width at 
base. The first segment is very short, almost linear; its width is less 
than half the width of the second. The second has a median suture 
and each half is ventrally concave. The sutures between the lateral 
plates alternate with those between the segments. The third to sixth 
‘segments, inclusive, taken together are concave; the third is narrow 
and transversely suleate. 


; Family PAGURID2. 
DARDANUS Paulson. 


‘ Pagurus Fapricius, Syst. Entom., 1775, p. 410 (part).—Srrmrpson, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 233 [71]. 

Dardanus PAULSON, Crust. a Sea, 1875, p. 90. 

Pagurias Benepicr, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm. for 1900, IT, 1901, p. 141. 


Dardanus, a genus made by Paulson for Pagurus depressus Heller, 
is shown by Kossmann¢ not to differ from Pagurus (so called). The 
name Dardanus is therefore available in place of Pagurias Benedict, 
the name Pagurus having been transferred to the group called upa- 
gurus by Br andt. 


« Zool. Ereed Reise Rothen Meeres, 1877, p. 76, 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 3 





3b4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 


DARDANUS PUNCTULATUS (Olivier). 







Pagurus punctulatus Ourvier, Encye. Méth., Hist. Nat., Insectes, VIII, 1811, Pe 

641.—OrtTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VI, 1892, p. 286, and synonymy. 
Wakanoura, Kii; two specimens, one in shell of Pyrula reticulata 
Lamarck.“ i 
DARDANUS SCULPTIPES (Stimpson). : 


Pagurus setifer pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 209 (not Milne’ 

Edwards). é 
Pagurus sculptipes Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 246 [84].— 
OrtMaNN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VI, 1892, p. 287, and synonymy; X, a 


p. 2/0. 
Wakanoura, Kii; 12 specimens in shells of Doliwm variegatumy 
Lamarck, Ranella albivaricosa Roe, Fusus inconstans Lischke, Septa 
nodifera Lamarck, and Hemifusus tornatinus Gmelin. 


DARDANUS IMPRESSUS (de Haan). 
Pagurus impressus DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 207, pl. xurx, fig. 3. | 


Wakanoura, Kii; 1 male in shell of Doliwm fimbriatum Sowerby. 


DARDANUS HAANII, new name. 






Pagurus asper DE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 208, pl. xix, fig. 4.—) 
Srrupson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 246 [84]. Not P. asper 
Milne Edwards, 1848. 

Misaki, Sagami; 1 male, larger than the one figured by de Haan, in 
shell of Zurbo japonicus Roe. The thorax measures 28 mm. long, the 
larger hand 21.6 mm. long on its lower margin. 

The peduncle of the outer antenna is a little longer than the eye. 
The lower margin of the ischium of the left cheliped has a row of 3 
molariform tubercles. Lower inner margin of ischium and merus 
armed with stout irregular spines, one at the proximal end of merus 
much the strongest. Outer margin of merus denticulate; from this” 
margin a short row of tubercles extends along lower surface; upper. 
margin squamose, a terminal spine. Carpus spinose; 4 spines on inner 
margin, 4 smaller on anterior margin; 2 oblique intermediate rows, one 
of 5 spines terminating at inner distal angle, the other of 3 a 
lower distal margin in part cristiform and denuicaler 

The depth of the palm is greater than its width; lower margin 
marked by a sinuous line of strong molariform tuber alee lower half. 
of outer surface nearly smooth, densely punctate, and with fine 
granules near the margins; upper half of surface armed with tubercles” 
arranged for the most part in 4 or 5 longitudinal rows, with some. 
granules inkerspersed: near the EPRes ee they become stronger, ; 


« The shells mentpacde in ne paper were named ae Mr. C. T. Simpson. 





ey a a a Bl 


a 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. BD 


_and somewhat spiniform; the innermost row of 4 spines runs along the 

proximal three-fifths of the palm; the next row, of 4 spines also, 
occupies only the distal half. The pollex has a row of pearly granules 
near the upper margin; the opposing margins of the fingers are dentate, 
fitting neatly together, the proximal teeth very fine; the dactylus 
carries 3 rows of tubercles on its outer surface. 





PAGURUS MIDDENDORFFII Brandt. 
Pagurus (Eupagurus) middendorfii Branpr, in Middendorff’s Sibir. Reise, IT, 
Pt. 1, 1851, p. 108, pl. v, figs. 1-16. 
Eupagurus middendorffii Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p- 250 


[ss]. 
Eupagurus middendorffi ORT ANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VI, 1892, p. 301. 
Mororan, Hokkaido, 2 small; Hakodate, Hokkaido, 6 small, 
shells of Litorina (? sitehana Philippi) and Chlorostoma. 


PAGURUS, sp. 


Misaki, Sagami, in shells of Natica adamsiana Dunker and Lam- 
pana sp.; 2 young specimens of a species allied to P. sctosus (Bene- 
dict), P. hennerlyé (Stimpson), and P. constans 
(Stimpson). The carpus and palm of the right 
cheliped have longitudinal rows of spinules, 
those of the carpus larger than those of the 
hand, those of the margins scarcely larger 
than those on the dorsal face. 


CLIBANARIUS JAPONICUS, new species. 


Mororan, Hokkaido; 1 female (Cat. No. 
26151). 

Anterior and lateral portions of carapace 
rugose; there are about 19 tufts of hair, of 
which 13 tufts are arranged in a pear-shaped 
figure. Median tooth of anterior margin '® re ee 
more advanced than lateral tooth, and armed a, 
with a small spine, which is almost concealed beneath a tuft of bair; 
just below margin of lateral tooth there is also a small spine pointing 
outward. 

The inner portion of the eye-scales is suboval and entire; at the 
extremity below the margin is a small spine. Eyes slender, shorter 
than the front is wide. Antennular peduncle longer than eye; third 
segment a little longer than second, reaching to end of penult seg- 
ment of outer maxillipeds. (enewal peduncle not quite so long as 
eye; acicle slender, sickle-shaped, re eaching to middle of last segment. 
_ The chelipeds are more unequal than is usual in the genus. The 
left is the larger; the merus extends beyond the line of the eyes; its 
lower surface is bordered by spines within and without; superior 





36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





margin w with 2 2 dist: il spines, 3 smaller subterminal spines. The carpus 
is longer than broad, has 2 dorsal rows of spines; anterior margin 
spinose; outer face with a short row of spines at the upper distal end. 
The propodus is spinose above, the spines arranged in about seven 
uneven rows; the palm widens considerably distally; 
its inner margin is little more than half as long as the — 
dactylus; the tingers have each about 3 rows of spines 
above, their margins meet when closed, the tips cross. 
The spines have corneous tips. The cheliped is also — 
beset with bunches of hair arising near the bases of - 
the spines. 

The right cheliped reaches just to 
end of palm of left one; the merus 
falls short of the end of the eyes. 
The spines are smaller and are less 
definitely arranged in rows, the palm 
: widens very little toward its distal 
Fic. 3.—Cupanarius end, the dactylus is 1% times longer 

inpureD, ci, than inner margin of palm. 

The first ambulatory leg extends 4 
beyond left cheliped by half the length of dactylus; Fie. 4.—Crreanarts” 
both first and second pairs are stout, pilose above, = 2" on 
dactylus longer than propodus. The lower margin of 
the merus and the upper margin of the carpus of the first pair have a_ 
row of spines; dactyli of both pairs armed on inner face with several 
rows of dark spines. These legs are not striated, and in alcohol show 
no transverse bands of color. 

Dimensions.—Length of 
body 58 mm.; length of ceph-- 
alothorax 26.2 mm.; dis- 
tance from tip of rostrum to” 
cervical suture 16 mm.; 
width of anterior margin 11.1- 
mm.; leneth of eye-peduncles | 
9min.; length of propodus of » 
FIG. 5.—CLIBANARIUS JAPONICUS, OUTER FACE oF FIRST first ambulatory leg, right. 

AMBULATORY LEG ON RIGHT SIDE, & 13. side, Ae 4 mm. ; length of | 
dactylus of same 13.4 mm.; length of propodus of second ambula- 
tory leg, right side, 13.4 mm.; length of dactylus of same 15.6 mm.- 


Se ee ee ee ee 





ate 





DIOGENES EDWARDSII (de Haan). 

Pagurus edwardsii pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 211, pl. 1, fig. 1. 
Diogenes edwardsi ORTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., VI, 1892, p. 298. . 
Wakanoura, Kii (abundant), in shells of Cass/s japonica Roe, Lburna 
japonica Sowerby, Polinices ampla Philippi, Ranella albivaricosa Roe, 
Nassa gemmulata Lamarck, Siphonalia signum Roe and Turbo japon- 


2cus Roe. 
4 


ig 
~ NO. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. a 


Nagasaki, Hizen, in shells of S/phonalia signum Roe and Pusus 
inconstans Lischke. 

Nearly all of the crabs have an actinian“ attached to the outer surface 
of the larger palm, while the shells may carry one or more of the 
same species. 

SPIROPAGURUS SPIRIGER (de Haan). 
Pagurus spiriger pp Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 206, pl. xix, fig. 2. 
Spiropagurus spiriger Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V1, 1892, p. 297. 

Wakanoura, Kii (abundant), in shells of Pyrula reticulata Lamarck, 
Cassis japonica Roe, Dolium variegatum Lamarck ?, young, D. jimbri- 
atum Sowerby, Hburnea japonica Sowerby, Polinices ampla Philippi, 
Ranella albivaricosa Roe, Nassa gemmulata Lamarck, and Siphonalia 
signum Roe. Nagasaki, Hizen. 


Suborder MACRURA. 
Family PALINURIDZ. 
PANULIRUS JAPONICUS (de Siebold). 
Palinurus japonicus DE SiEBOLD, Spicilegia Faun Japonice, 1824, p. 15.— 


Ferussac, Bull. des Sci., IV, 1825, p. 87.—Dr Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 
1841, p. 158, pls. xx1 and X.it. 


Nagasaki, Hizen; 3 specimens of medium size. 


Family PEN AID. 
PENZUS CANALICULATUS (Olivier). 


Palemon canaliculatus Ourvier, Ency. Méth., Hist. Nat., Entom., VIII, 1811, 
p- 660. 

Penzxus canaliculatus Minne Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., I, 1857, p. 414. 

Penaeus canaliculatus Kisninovuyes, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 11, 
pls. rand vn, figs. 1, la, 1b, le. 

Penzxus canaliculatus var. japonicus Barr, Challenger Rept., X XIV, 1888, p. 245, 
pl. xxx; pl. xxxu, fig. 4; pl. xxxvu, fig. 2. 


Tokyo; Hiroshima, Aki. 
PENAEUS LATISULCATUS Kishinouye. 


Penaeus latisuleatus Kisninovuyer, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 12, 
pl.t, fie. 2; pl: vin, figs. 2, 2a. 


Nagasaki, Hizen; 1 male, 1 female. Also taken at Mogi by Dr. 
F. C. Dale, U. S.8. Palos, June 18, 1881, 1 male, 2 females; and at Tokyo 
by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, October, 1896, 1 
male, 1 female, the latter measuring 18.5 cm. long. 


@A description of this actinian, by Dr. J. Playfair MceMurrich, will be found later 
in this volume 


38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





PENA2US ASHIAKA Kishinouye. 


Penzus semisulcatus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 44 
[113]. Not P. semisulcatus de Haan. = 

Penaeus ashiaka Kisarnovuy®, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 14, pl. 
1; pl. vit, figs. 4, 4a, 4b (not 3, 3a, 3b). 


Tokyo: Wakanoura, Kii; Nagasaki, Hizen. Females only. \ 

This species is very near 7”. sem/sulcatus de Haan (not= P. monodon 
Fabricius, Kishinouye), but the posterior gastric tooth is further back; — 
the lateral grooves reach distinctly behind that tooth, while in P. sei7- 
sulcatus the grooves fade out near the last tooth; the thelycum is — 
slightly different; the telson is longer than the sixth segment, in 7. 
semisulcatus shorter. 


PARAPENAUS AFFINIS (Milne Edwards). 


i a al in lias 


Penxus affinis Mitnr Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., IT, 1837, p. 416. | 

Parapeneus affinis SmrrH, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, p. 176. 

Penaeus afinis Kisninovye, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 16, pl. rv, 
fig. 1; pl. vn, figs. 5, 5a, Sb, 5e. 


Onomichi, Bingo; 1 male, 1 female. 


PARAPEN EUS INCISIPES (Bate). 


Penxus incisipes Barr, Challenger Rept., XXIV, 1888, p. 257, pl. xxx1v, fig. 2. 
Penaeus incisipes Kisurnovuye, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 18, pl. rv, 
fig. 2; pl. vu, figs. 6, 6a, 6b. 


Wakanoura, Kii; Hiroshima, Aki; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


PARAPENAZUS JOYNERI (Miers). 


Penus joyneri Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), V, 1880, p. 458, pl. xv, figs. 8-10. 
Penaeus joyneri Kisnrnovye, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 19, pl. v, 


pl: vil, figs. 7, 7a, 7b, 7c. 


Tokyo; 2 males. 
PARAPEN AUS CURVIROSTRIS (Stimpson). 


Penxus curvirostris Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 44 [113]. 
Penaeus curvirostris Kisninovuys, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 23, 
pl. vi, fig. 4; pl. vir, figs. 10, 10a, 10b, 10e. 


Hakodate, Hokkaido; Aomori, Rikuoku; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


PARAPENAZUS LAMELLATUS (de Haan). 


Penaeus lamellatus bE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 193, pl. xvi, figs. 4, 5.— 
KisHinovuyek, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 25, pl. v1, fig. 1; pl. 
vil, fig. 12. 


Nagasaki, Hizen; 1 female. 








4 1307. JAPAN. ESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. 39 
% ~ a = = ae 
7 


PARAPENAUS AKAYEBI, new species. 


_  Penzxus velutinus Bars, Challenger Rept., XXIV, 1888, p. 253 (part). Not 
P. velutinus Dana. 
Penaeus velutinus Kisninouye, Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 26, pl. 
vi, Gig. 2° plo vin; fies. 11, 11a, 11d. 


I think that this species can not be Dana’s P. velutinus, as the max- 
illipeds are much shorter and the lateral spines of the telson are very 
large. Our species, however, coincides with some of the Challenger 
specimens collected in 8 fathoms in Japanese waters, labeled P. veluti- 
nus by Bate, and presented to the U. S. National Museum. The 
Japanese form is not that figured by Bate (pl. xxxn, fig. 1). His 
remarks “ indicate that he combined a number of species under the name 
velutinus. 

Kishinouye’ mentions, without description, the occurrence in 
Japan of some species very closely allied to that which he calls 

Penaeus velutinus,; there is one such species (see below) in the Jordan 
and Snyder collection, and two others in the U. 8. National Museum. 
The four species agree in their pubescence, in the lack of a carina on 
the carapace behind the gastric spine, and in the long lateral spines of 
the telson. 
— In Parapeneus akayebi (= Penaeus velutinus Kishinouye), the ros- 
trum is horizontal or nearly so, and in adults extends to the end or 
beyond the end of the second segment of the antennula. Dorsal 
spines 7 or 8, the posterior spine situated a little in front of the 
anterior third of the carapace (rostrum excluded). A pair of ventral 
“spines between the bases of the feet of the second pair. The sixth 
and seventh pleonic segments are elongate: the sixth segment is about 
three-fourths the length of the carapace. 

Dimensions.—Female, length 87.9 mm., length of carapace and 

rostrum 31.1 mm., length of carapace 17.5 mm., length of sixth 
pleonic segment, on median line, 14 mm. 
_ Localities. —Wakanoura, Kii (3 males, 1 female); Onomichi, Bingo 
(1 female); Kawatana (1 female); Nagasaki, Hizen (4 males, 1 female); 
Jordan and Snyder. coll. Japan; R. Hitcheock, coll. (1 male, 6 females; 
stypes, Cat. No. 26152), Mogi; Dr. F. C. Dale, U. 8. N., U.S. 5S. Palos, 
collector. 

This species, according to Dr. Kishinouye, is known in Japan as 
**akayebi.” 

| PARAPENUS MOGIENSIS, new species. 


The rostrum is straight, inclined slightly upward and does not 
extend quite to the end of the second antennular segment. Dorsal 





«Challenger Report, XXIV, 1888, p. 256. 
6 Jour. Fish. Bureau, Tokyo, VIII, 1900, p. 27. 


40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


spines 8 or 9, the posterior one situated at the anterior fourth of the 
carapace, or further forward than in P. akayeb:.. Ventral spines 
between the bases of the feet of 


the second pair rudimentary. The 
sixthand seventh pleonic segments 
are shorter than in 7. akayebi; 
the sixth segment is about three- 
. fifths as long as 
a 


the carapace; 
Fic. 6.—PARAPENE/US MOGIENSIS, FEMALE, xX 12; the 


seventh a 
a, CARAPACE; b, SIXTH SEGMENT OF ABDOMEN. : 


little longer 

than the sixth. The thelycum and petasma are dis- 
tinctive; the right branch of the latter is very broad 
at the end; the left branch is pointed at the end, 
and bears a few subter- & 
minal denticles. Fic. 7.—PARAPENEUS 

Dimensions.—Female, vate oe 
length 80.7 mm., length 
of carapace and rostrum 29 mm., length of 
carapace 18.1 mm., length of. sixth pleonic 
segment, measured on median line, 11.4 
mm. 

Type locality. —Mogi, Japan (with the 
preceding); Dr. F. C. Dale, U. 5S. N., U.S. S. Palos, June 18, 1881; 
2 males, 5 females. (Cat. No. 26153. 


PARAPENAZUS DALEI, new species. 

The rostrum is nearly horizontal, 

slightly convex or straight, and does not - @ 

extend beyond the Fic. 9.—PARAPENEUS DALEI, FEMALE, 
middle ot the second < 13; a, CARAPACE; 0, SIXTH SEGMENT 
antennular segment. 9 °° “"20"*% 

The dorsal spines are 7 (exceptionally 8), the pos- 
terior one at the anterior fourth of the carapace. A 
pair of ventral spines between the bases of the feet 
of the second pair. The 
sixth pleonic segment is 
longer than in P. mogien- 





Fig. 8.—PARAPENEUS MOGIENSIS, 
THELYCUM, x 43. 





Fic. 10.—PARAPENEUS SIS, but not so long as in 
DALEI, PETASMA, VEN- ) Pat Se, be cee Oe 
On hvnaW Sue. P. akayei; it is about 

two-thirds as long as the 


carapace. The left branch of the petasma has 





: 5 . e Fic. 11.—PARAPENEUS DALE™~ 
amuch more slender tip than in P. mogiensis, a eGo OCH: 


and the subterminal denticles are larger. 

Dimensions. —Female, length 57 mm., length of carapace and ros- 
tram 19 mm., length of carapace 12.5 mm., length of sixth pleonic 
segment, measured on median line, 7.9 mm. 


; 






0. 1307. eee STALK-EYVYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. 41 


Ei ocalitics. —Six sibs oe six fem: is were taReita at Mase with the 
“two preceding species, by Dr. F.C. Dale, U.S. N., U.S. 8. Palos, 
June 18, 1881; types (Cat. No. 26154). A somewhat larger male, of 
which the eeirien and the abdomen behind the third segment are 
lacking, was captured at Hakodate, Hokkaido, by Dr. Jordan and Mr. 


Snyder. 





PARAPENAZUS ACCLIVIS, new species. 


Rostrum ascending, reaching the end ora little beyond the end of 
the second antennular segment. Dorsal spines 8 or 9, the posterior 


a 





Fic. 12.—PARAPEN/US ACCLIVIS, FEMALE, x 13; a, CARAPACE; 64, SIXTH SEGMENT OF ABDOMEN. 


spine at the anterior fourth of the carapace. A pair of ventral spines 
between the bases of the feet of the second pair. The sixth pleonic 
segment is about seven-tenths as long as the cara- 
pace, and a little shorter than the seventh. The 
_petasma is most nearly related to that of P. akayeb’. 
| Dimensions.—Female, 
- length 85.4 mm., length of 

carapace and rostrum 30 

mm., length of carapace 18 
S mm., length of sixth pleonic 
Seric, 13.—PaRaPenmus accurvis, Segment, measured on me- 











Fic. 14.—PARAPEN2US 





i; THELYCUM, x 35. dian line, 13 mm. ACCLIVIS, PETASMA, 
% . VENTRAL VIEW, x 32. 
; Type locality. = 


Japan; rae ©.bale-Us S.No 058.8224 ae vine 18, 1881; 3 males, 
p2females. (Cat. No. 26155.) 


SICYONIA CRISTATA (de Haan). 





Hippolyte cristatus pw TLAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 10. (Specific 
name corrected in text. ) 
Sicyonia cristata DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 194. 
Nagasaki, Hizen. Mogi (Dr. F. C. Dale). 
Dorsal spines 7 or 8 (4 on the carapace proper); apex of rostrum 
_ tridentate. 


A SOLENOCERA DISTINCTA (de Haan). 

Z Penaeus distinctus pe HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 194. 

. Solenocera distincta Mirrs, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1878, p. 302; 1879, p. 22.— 
ae Koerset, SB. Ak. Wien, XC, Pt. 1, 1884, p. 314, pl. 1, figs. 1-7. 

( Wakanoura, Kii; one specimen. 

. 





rt : 


49 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


Family CRANGONID 4. 
CRANGON CRANGON (Linnzus). 


Cancer crangon Linnxus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, 1758, p. 652. 

Crangon vulgaris Fasricius, Suppl. Entom. Syst., 1798, p. 410. 

Crangon crangon ORTMANN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1895, p. 179 (not 
synonymy ). 

Same, Rikuoku; Jordan and Snyder; one specimen. Hakodate, 
Hokkaido; U.S. Fish Commission steamer <A/batross, several speci- 
mens. 

I have separated from (. crangon of Kurope the form occurring in 
America (Atlantic and Alaskan coasts) under the name C. septemspi-— 
nosa Say, on account of the antennal scale being narrower at the distal 
end, this margin sloping backward toward the inner end, instead of 
forward as in C. crangon,; the spine of the scale is also proportionally 
longer in C. septemspinosa, equaling or exceeding the distal width of 
the blade, while in C. crangon the spine is usually shorter than the 
distal width of the blade. 

Japanese specimens resemble the European rather than the Ameri- 
san species. The scale is about two-thirds as long as the carapace 
(rostrum excluded). The length of the palms of the chelipeds varies 
from 2.4 to 2.8 times the width. 

CRANGON PROPINQUUS Stimpson. 
Crangon propinquus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 25 [94]. 

Aomori, Rikuoku; 4 specimens. 

Rostrum narrow, exceeding the eyes, slightly spatulate. Scale 
measured on outer margin about five-sixths as long as carapace, exclu- 
sive of rostrum; spine more advanced than the blade. The palms of 
the chele are about 33 times as long as wide, and the distal margin 

against which the dactylus folds, is directed 
obliquely at an angle of about 45 degrees. 
The third and fourth segments of the pleon 
Pieris ; are bluntly carinate. The telson is nearly 
as long as the carapace (rostrum excluded). 
The sixth segment and the telson are flat- 
tened above, and incompletely and indis- 


b . 
tinctly suleate. 
uw CRANGON HAKODATEI, new species. 
Fic. 15.—CRANGON HAKODATET; 
a@, CARAPACE, X28; 5, ACICLE, X32; Dorsal surface pubescent, except on the 


: x 31. : . . . 
Sega oeee oe abdominal carine. One median gastric 


spine. Rostrum not exceeding the eyes, gradually tapering, tip round- 
ing. Secale (measured on outer margin) four-fifths as long as carapace, 
exclusive of rostrum; spine projecting beyond the blade as far as the 


JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. 43 




























distal width of the blade. The outer maxillipeds reach to the extrem- 
a of the acicular a Palms of aaa - times as ne as wide; 


— Dimensions.—Female, length of body from tip of rostrum to tip of 
telson 44.5 mm., length of carapace from tip of rostrum 12.2 mm., 


Family ALPHEID/. 
ALPHEUS RAPAX Fabricius?, Coutieére. 


? Alpheus rapax Fasricrus, Suppl. Entom. System., 1798, p. 405. 

Alpheus brevicristatus pn Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 1. (Specific 
name corrected in text.) 

Alpheus malabaricus pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 177. 

Alpheus rapax Courmsre, Ann. Sci. Nat. (8), Zool., IX, 1899, p. 14. 


Ee Beerye 0 (1); Misaki, Sagami (3); Nagasaki, Hizen (2 specimens). 
ALPHEUS BREVIROSTRIS (Olivier). 


Palemon brevirostris OLivier, Encye. Méth., Hist. Nat., Entom., VIII, 1811, 
p. 664; Tabl. Encyc. Méth., 1818, pl. cccxrx, fig. 4 

Alpheus rapax DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 177, pl. xiv, fig. 2. Not 
A. rapax Fabricius. 

Alpheus digitalis Dk HAAN, Fauna Japon., p. 178, pl. xiv, fig. 4 

Alpheus brevirostris CoutrhrE, Ann. Sci. Nat. (8), Zool., IX, 1899, p. 14. 


— Wakanoura, Kii; Onomichi, Bingo; Nagasaki, Hizen. A good 


Family HIPPOLYTID. 
SPIRONTOCARIS MORORANI, new species. 


— Very close to S. dalli Rathbun. Differs as foilows: The dorsal 
‘carina is armed with 4 equal larger spines (instead of 3), of which 
3 are on the carapace proper and one over 

the base of the eye; Sanat of Be ros- 


the tip and ae. it appear bifid. The 

rostrum is a little shorter than in S. alli, F164. 16.—srmowrocaris MoRORANT, 
reaching half way between the end of the Weegee ce oe 
antennular peduncle and the end of the antennal scale. Of the two 
supraorbital spines one is situated well behind the other; the anterior 
is neariy as strong as the posterior. The basal scale of the antennula 
eaches just to the end of the second segment. The antennal scale is 
arrower at the end than in S. da//i; the laminar portion is separated 
by a deep narrow slit from the spine. The outer maxilliped extended 


4+ PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 


reaches just to the end of the acicle; it is furnished with exopod and 
epipod; also the first three feet with epipods, as in S. da//¢.  Dactyli 
of last three feet longer than in S. da///, being more than one-fourth 
the length of their respective propodi. The sixth segment of the 
abdomen is much shorter than in S. dd//7, being less than half the 
length of the carapace (rostrum excluded). 

Dimensions. —Female, length 33.5 mm., length of carapace and 
rostrum 11.8 mm., of rostrum 5.1 mm. 

Type locality.—Mororan, Hokkaido; 1 female (Cat. No. 26157). | 


~ 


SPIRONTOCARIS JORDANI, new species. 


Near S. rectirostris (Stimpson) of which I have at hand one specimen 
from Fusan, Korea (P. L. Jouy, collector, 1885), and one specimen 
from Hakodate Bay, Japan, 115 fathoms (station 3656, U. S. Fish 
Commission steamer A/batross). 

In S. jordan? the rostrum extends barely to the end of the antennal 
peduncle, nearly straight and horizontal, slightly convex above, nar- 
row, of about even width throughout, armed with 8 spines above, of 

which 2 are behind the orbit, and 1 beneath, 

subterminal; the posterior spine is situated 

at the anterior fifth of the carapace; at its 

posterior base there is a rudiment of another 

¢ spine. As in SN. rectirostris there is no su- 

praorbital, an antennal, a very small ptery- 

gostomian spine. The antennular scale 

reaches to the end of the second anten- 

nular segment; the antennular peduncle to the middle of the antennal 

scale; this scale is very broad at its extremity, the blade exceeds the 

spine. The outer maxillipeds overreach the scale by half the length 

of the last segment. They are destitute of an exopod, but are provided 

with an epipod, as are also the first three pairs of feet. The third 

pair of feet overreach a little the first pair, their dactyli are one-fourth 

as long as their propodi. The sixth segment of the abdomen is three- 

fifths as long as the carapace (rostrum excluded). ‘Telson as long as 
the inner uropod, much shorter than the outer one. 

Dimensions. Female, length 46.5 mm., length of carapace and 
rostrum 13.2 mm., of rostrum 5 mm. 

Type local’ty.—_akodate, Hokkaido; 1 female (Cat. No. 26158). 


Fig. 17.—SPIRONTOCARIS JORDANI, 
CARAPACE OF FEMALE, X 22. 


SPIRONTOCARIS GREBNITZKII, new species. 


Near S. stylus (Stimpson), but stouter. Rostrum nearly as long as 
the rest of the carapace, reaching to end of antennal scale, straight, 
acute. Dorsal carina arising at the middle of the carapace, armed 
with 8 equal and equidistant spines, 2 of which are behind the orbit, 
the posterior one at the anterior fifth of the carapace, the anterior 
spine just before the middle of the rostrum. Lower margin armed 


Ke 


Jength of carapace and rostrum 18.5 mm., 


| No. 1307 JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. 45 





with 2 or 3 spines, the posterior of which is just anterior to the distal 
of the superior spines. A strong antennal, a minute pterygostomian 
spine. Eyes very small. Antennular peduncle falling short of the 
middle of the antennal scale; basal scale of antennula reaching about 


to middle of second segment. Antennal scale three-fourths as long as 


carapace; blade much exceeding spine. The maxillipeds reach just to 
end of scale, are devoid of an exopod, but provided with an epipod, 
as are the first three pereiopods. ‘The sixth segment of the abdomen is 
a little more than half as long as the carapace. 

The telson is shorter than the subequal uro- 

pods, and is armed with 4 pairs of lateral 

spinules. 


Dimensions.—Female, length 545mm... Fic. 18.—SPIRONTOCARIS GREB- 
NITZKII, CARAPACE OF FEMALE, 
< 12. 

of rostrum 8.7 mm. 


Type locality.—One specimen was secured by Dr. Jordan and Mr. 
Snyder at Mororan, Hokkaido, but as it is imperfect, I have taken for 
the type another from the same locality collected a few years ago 
by N. Grebnitzki (Cat. No. 26159). 


SPIRONTOCARIS GENICULATA (Stimpson). 


Hippolyte geniculata Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 34 
[103]. 

Mororan, Hokkaido; Jordan and Snyder; 6 small. 

Miura, Atami District, March, 1890; F. Sakamoto; 2 females with 
ova. Called ‘* Kushakoshi ebi or grass-belt shrimp.” 

Rostrum longer than the carapace (measured on median line from 
posterior margin to line of orbits), not quite reaching tip of antennal 
scale, straight, horizontal, acuminate, armed with 4 or 5 teeth above, 

1 or 2 of which are behind the orbit, and 
5 to 8 teeth below, 1 or 2 of which may 
be subterminal. A strong antennal, no 
supraorbital nor pterygostomian spine. 


_ -FiG. 19.—Srimontocaris Gextcurata, The antennular peduncle reaches abou 


CARAPACE OF FEMALE, x 132. : p 2 . 
; : one-third the length of the acicle; its basal 


scale extends a little beyond first segment. The antennal peduncle 
reaches to end of second segment of antennular peduncle; the acicle is 
a little longer than the carapace, extremity very oblique, blade exceed- 


ing by far the spine. The outer maxillipeds and the fifth pair of 


pereiopods reach just to the end of the antennular peduncle; the second 
pair of pereiopods to the middle of the acicle. The maxillipeds have 
an epipod but no exopod; the pereiopods are destitute of epipods. 
The abdomen is bent at a right angle at the third segment; in pro- 
file the angle is rounded; the posterior part of the third segment is 


Strongly compressed. This compression and angulation is very well 


marked in the adult females from Miura, much less so in the specimens, 








46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 


two-thirds the size, from Mororan. The sixth segment is three-fifths 
as long as the carapace, and four-fifths as long as the telson. Telson 
shorter than ‘uropods, of which the inner is shorter than the outer: 
‘lateral spines 3 or 4. 

Dimensions.—Female with ova: Length 60.1 mm., length of carapace 
and rostrum 21.8 mm., length of rostrum 11.4 mm. 


PLATYBEMA PLANIROSTRE (de Haan). 


Lysmata planirostris bp HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. O.@ 

Hippolyte planirostris Dk HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 7.¢ 

Cyclorhynchus planirosiris Dp HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 175. 

Rhynchocyclus planirostris Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, 
p- 27 [96].—Musrs, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 55. 5 

Rhynchocyclus mucronatus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, 
p. 28 [96]. ; 

Platybema planirostris Barn, Challenger Macrura, 1888, p. 578. 


vine 


Hakodate, Hokkaido; 2 females with ova. ; 

In both these specimens the posterior median spine is rudimentary, — 
being present in the shape of a smooth rounded lobe. In the only” 
specimen provided with a rostrum, the teeth above the point number 
15, those below 12. Anterior margin of carapace behind the antenna 
armed with about 9 pectinated spines. Antennal flagellum nearly as_ 
long as body. The carpus of the first pair of feet is not carinate” 
above, and is provided with a tooth at the upper distal end. Carpus” 
of second pair triarticulate, first and third articles equal, both together 
nearly as long as second. 


a od ae 


Family PANDALID. 
PANDALUS HYPSINOTUS Brandt. 


Pandalus hypsinotus Branpt, in Middendorff’s Reise in den aussersten Norden 
und Osten Sibiriens, II, Zool., I, 1851, p. 125. 


ee ee | 


Mororan, Hokkaido; one young specimen about 25 mm. long. This” 
locality is an extension of the range, the species having a distribution 
from Bering Sea southward, on the one hand to the Straits of Fuca” 
and on the other to the Kurile Islands. i 


A figure will be given in the forthcoming report on the Decapoda 
of the Harriman Expedition. 
PANDALUS LATIROSTRIS, new species. ; 

; 


Carapace and rostrum as long as the abdomen, lacking one-fourth 
of the telson. Rostrum one-third longer than the carapace, basal half 
horizontal, terminal half slightly ascending, broad at base, gradually 
tapering, a prominent smooth lateral carina. Dorsal carina arising at 
the middle of the carapace, armed with a series of 16 to 18 movable 
spines, of which 4 or 5 are behind the orbit, the posterior spine at 








a Generic name changed in Errata. 4 







NO. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. 47 


about the anterior sixth of the carapace, anterior spine near the mid- 
| dle of the rostrum; in addition, there is one subterminal immovable 
spine, occasionally two. Extremity of rostrum spiniform. Lower 
limb rather deep in front of the eye, gradually diminishing anteriorly, 
-armed with 10 to 13 immovable spines. Antennal spine strong; 
_pterygostomian spine much smaller, but well marked. Eyes of mod- 
erate size, corne dilated, reddish brown in alcohol. 

 Pedunele of antennules reaching about one-third the length of the 
antennal scale; basal scale half as long as first segment, second seg- 
ment about one-third longer than third. Outer flagellum reaches to 








Fig, 20.—PANDALUS LATIROSTRIS, CARAPACE, SIDE VIEW, x 1}. 


the end of antennal scale, slender terminal portion two-fifths as long 
_as thickened basal portion; inner flagellum one-half longer than outer. 
Peduncle of antennx reac fine just to the end of the second segment 
of the antennular peduncle, the scale reaches not quite to the end of the 
“rostrum, the end of the blade is very obliquely rounded and over- 
“reaches considerably the outer spine; the flagellum is as long as the 
body, exclusive of the telson. 

The outer maxillipeds reach only to the middle of the antennal 
seale, and are rather stout; the first pair of feet reach to the middle 
of the last joint of the maxillipeds. Of the second pair, the right 


x 
* 





it 


> 





Fic. 21.—PANDALUS LATIROSTRIS, CARAPACE AND ANTENN#, DORSAL VIEW, 12. 


mined bis 


foot is stouter and shorter, reaching as far as the first pair; the left 
Toot exceeds the faciieped by the length of the chela and half the 
ast carpal joint, and exceeds the third pair but little; the fourth and 
fifth pairs are successively shorter than the third, and nearer the same 
3 length than the third and fourth; the dactyli are contained a little 
more than three times in their propodi; the latter are not essentially 
‘different i in the sexes. 
_ The abdomen is smooth; the third segment is very little produced 
over the fourth. The infero-posterior angle of the fourth, fifth, and 
xth segments is armed with a spine. Sixth segment twice as long 
wide, and two-thirds as long as the telson, which is armed with 5 







: 
48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 


or 6 spinules on each side. The telson may be a little longer or shorter 
than the inner uropods; the outer uropods longer than the inner. 

Dimensions.—Female, length 127 mm., length of carapace and 
rostrum 60.5 mm., length of rostrum 34.5 mm, 

Localities. —Mororan, Hokkaido; Jordan and Snyder; 18 specimens, 
males and females, types (Cat. No. 26160). Two specimens were col- 
lected previously at the same place by N. Grebnitzki. Tokyo, 1 
young; Jordan and Snyder. 

In four instances the acicle on one side is a little longer than thaton 
the other, though both are regular in shape. 


PANDALOPSIS MITSUKURII, new species. 


Slender. Carapace as long as the abdomen, lacking half the telson. 
Rostrum one and two-thirds times as long as the rest of the carapace, 





Fig. 22.—PANDALOPSIS MITSUKURIT, CARAPACE, SIDE VIEW, X 12. 


basal half horizontal, terminal half slightly ascending, slender. Dorsal 
carina blunt, armed with 8 to 10 movable spines, of which 2 or 3 are 
behind the orbit, the posterior spine at- the anterior fifth of the cara-_ 
pace, and marking the end of the carina; anterior spine but little in’ 
front of the posterior third of the rostrum; ventral spines 13 to 18, 
becoming distally very small and appressed; tip of rostrum trifid. 
Antennal spine strong, the margin of the carapace retreating rapidly 
~ from that point; pterygos- 
aR tomian spine two-thirds) 
as large. Eyes small, | 
cornee little dilated, of au 
dark bluish-gray color in- 
alcohol, a small black ocel-- 
lus behind the corneal 
margin and on the upper 
outer surface. 

The peduncle of the an- 
tennules reaches about two-fifths the length of the antennal scale; 
second segment nearly twice as long as third; basal scale small, reach- 
ing only to middle of cornea; inner flagellum a little longer than outer 
and barely attaining the end of the rostrum. Peduncle of antennz 
reaching to the middle of second antennular segment; the flagellum 
may equal the length of the body, excluding the telson. The scale 
extends to about the distal third of the rostrum, oblong, very little 
tapering, extremity of blade oblique, projecting beyond the spine. 














Se D285 


Fic. 23.—PANDALOPSIS MITSUKURII, CARAPACE AND ANTENN®, 
DORSAL VIEW, xX li. 


NO. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. 49 





The outer maxillipeds a1 are 1 rather stout, and when extended lie along 
three-fifths of the antennal scale; the antepenult segment has a narrow 
laminar expansion below. ‘The first pair of feet attain the end of the 
penultimate joint of the maxilliped; the merus joint has the expansion 
characteristic of the genus. The feet of the second pair are equal, 
carpus 11 or 12 jointed, the proximal and the distal joint elongate, the 
intermediate joints short and subequal; the chele exceed the maxilli- 
peds by the length of the fingers. The third pair reach scarcely 
beyond the second pair; the fourth and fifth pairs are much shorter 
and there is little difference in their length; the fifth pair reaches as 
far as the first pair; the propodi are three times as long as the dactyli 
in the third pair, four times as long in the fifth pair, intermediate in 
the fourth pair. 

The abdomen is strongly bent at the third segment, which is later- 
ally compressed, forming a rounded carina. The fourth, fifth, and 
sixth segments are armed with a postero-inferior spine. Sixth seg- 
ment three-fifths as long as carapace and four-fifths as long as telson, 
the latter armed with 4 or 5 spinules on each side. Telson a little 
shorter than the uropods, of which the inner pair are shorter than the 
outer, 

Dimensions.—Female: Length 105 mm., length of carapace and 
rostrum 45 mm., length of rostrum 28.1 mm. 

Type locality.—Mororan, Hokkaido; Jordan and Snyder; 55 speci- 
mens, types (Cat. No. 26161). Two specimens had been taken previ- 
ously at the same locality by N. Grebnitzki. 

The specific name is given in honor of Prof. K. Mitsukuri, of the 
University of Tokyo. 


Family ATYIDZ. 
XIPHOCARIS COMPRESSA (de Haan). 


? Ephyra compressa DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 186, pl. xvi, fig. 7. 
Xiphocaris compressa OrRtTMANN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 400, and 
synonymy. 
Lake Biwa, Matsubara, Omi; many specimens about 1 inch long; 
Jordan and Snyder. 
Tsushima Island, Japan; P. L. Jouy, May, 1885, 1 female with ova. 
Near Fusan, Korea, in fresh-water streams; P. L. Jouy, 1 specimen. 


=i 22 


CARIDINA DENTICULATA de Haan. 
Hippolyte denticulatus pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 8. (Generic 
name changed in text. ) 
Caridina denticulata pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 186.—OrTMANN, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 406. 
The rostrum extends either to the middle of the third antennular 
Be omont, to the end of that segment, or even beyond it. The dorsal 


Proc. vols xxvr—02—— 4 


Ce ae Meee ES Oe ap ee 


50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 








spines are 14 to 18, 3 or + behind the orbit, ventral spines 4 to 6, ter- 
minal third of rostrum unarmed. The maxillipeds reach nearly to the 
end of the antennular peduncle; the first pair of feet not quite to the 
end of antennal peduncle; the carpus is about one and a half times as 
long as wide, longer than the palm of the hand; the fingers longer than 
the palm. The second pair of feet reach to the end of the antennal 
peduncle; carpus and propodus subequal in length, palm enlarged dis- 
tally, shorter than the fingers. The propodus of the fifth pair of feet 
is three times as long as the dactylus. 

A female with ova measures 22.8 mm. long; the eggs are 0.9 mm. 
long. 

Kurume, Japan; Jordan and Snyder, July 23; 1 female with ova. 
Near Fusan, Korea, in fresh-water streams; P. L. Jouy; many 
specimens. 

This species is very close to, perhaps identical with, C. pareparensis 
de Man,” from Celebes, which has a shorter rostrum, with only 2 
inferior teeth. | 

CARIDINA LEUCOSTICTA Stimpson. 


Caridina leucosticta Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 28 [97].— | 
OrtTMANN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 406. 
Atya wyckii Hickson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.(6), I, 1888, p. 357, pls. xtm and xtv. | 
Caridina wyckt ORTMANN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p. 405, and synonymy. — 
Kurume, July 23; about 25 specimens. é 
In most of the specimens the rostrum is broken off near its base; in _ 
none is the tip perfect. | 
Dorsal spines 17 to 23 (2 on carapace); ventral spines 14 in the only — 
specimen where complete (Stimpson says 10). Anterior third or 
fourth unarmed above, except near the tip, where there is at least one 
spine. Antennal spine high, quite above the antenna. The color and— 
white spots described by Stimpson are not visible in the preserved 
specimens. 







Family PALASMONID 2. 
PALAMON JAPONICUS (Ortmann). 


Leander longirostris var. japonicus ORTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V, 1891, p. 519, 
pl. xxxvit, figs. 14, 14z. 
Matsushima, Rikuzen; Enoshima, Sagami; Kawatana; Nagasaki, 
Hizen. 
The reference of the name Palemon longirostris to Say by Milne 
Edwards,’ and later by de Man¢ and Ortmann,” is founded on a cleri- 
cal error. Say’ described only two species of Palemon, both Ameri- 


@ 





«Weber's Zool. Ergeb. Reise Niederl. Ost-Indien, II, 1892, p. 379, pl. xxi, fig. 25. 
b Hist. Nat. Crust., II, 1837, p. 394. 

¢ Notes Leyden Mus., ITI, 1881, p. 141. 

4 Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V, 1891, p. 519. 

éJour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, 1818. 


No. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. ay 


can, viz, es paigancas on page 248, aad P. tenuicornis on page 249. 
Milne Edwards? refers to both of Say’s species, to P. vulgaris on page 
394, and to ‘* Palémon tenutrostre” on page 395, but his footnote 
references ‘‘(2)” and ‘*(3)” to Say’s descriptions, instead of being placed 
correctly in the text, i. e., (2) after P. vulgaris and (3) after P. tenui- 
rostre, are made dependent, (2) on P. longirostris and (3) on P. vulgaris. 
The name P. longirostris Milne Edwards, occurring on p. 394, was 
changed by him in Errata, vol. III, p. 638, 1540, to P. styliferus, a 
name apparently overlooked by subsequent authors, but which must 
stand for that species. The name /?. /ongirostris should be used for 
the species so designated by Milne Edwards on p. 392 (= P. edwardsii 
Heller). 

Ortmann’ makes 72. japonicus a variety of 7. styliferus, but it is 
distinguished as follows: P. japonicus has no dorsal spines on the ros- 
trum except at the base, while 7. sty//ferus has 2 or 3 on the termi- 
nal half. 7. japonicus has 4 to6 ventral spines, 7. styliferus 8 to 10. 
In P. japonicus the sixth segment of the pleon i is nearly two-thirds as 
long as the carapace (rostrum excluded); in P. sty/¢ferus it is shorter, 
barely more than half the carapace. In P. japonicus the carpus of 
the second pair of feet is as long as the merus or the fingers, while in 
P. styliferus the carpus 1 is considerably shorter than merus or fingers. 

There are in the U. S. National Museum a number of specimens of 
P. styliferus from Maprichen India, collected by Francis Day. 





PALAEMON PAUCIDENS de Haan. 


Palemon paucidens de Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 170, pl. xiv, fig. 11. 

Leander paucidens Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 40 [109]. 

Aomori, Rikuoku; Matsushima, Rikuzen; Misaki, Sagami; Lake 
Biwa, Be aubara, Omi (abundant); Kawatana; Kurume; Nagasaki, 
Hizen. 

Korea, P. L. Jouy coll.: Fusan; Gensan, brackish streams flowing 
into the sea. 

The rostrum has 5 to 6 teeth above (1 on carapace), 2 to 3 below, 
and is usually bifid at extremity; it extends about to the end of the 
acicle. The branches of the outer flagellum of the antennule are 
joined for about 8 segments or less than half of the length of the 
shorter branch. In fully developed specimens the outer maxillipeds 
may or may not exceed the antennal peduncle, and the carpus of the 
second pair of feet usually exceeds the acicle. 

Dimensions.—A large female measures 66.5 mm. long. Several 
hundred specimens were taken at Lake Biwa, all smaller than those 
from salt water; a female with ova measures 38 mm. Stimpson 
records its occurrence in fresh water, in rivers near Simoda. 





@ Hist. Nat. Grant i, 1837. 
b Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V, 1891, p. 519. 
¢Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 40 [109]. 


59 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





PALA MON SERRIFER (Stimpson). 


Leander serrifer Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 41 [110].— 
Dr Man, Notes Leyden Mus., III, 1881, p. 189.—Orrmann, Zool. Jahrb., 
Syst., V, 1891, p. 525, pl. axxvir, fie. 7. 
Misaki, Sagami; Jordan and Snyder collection. Atami district; F. 
Sakamoto collector, April, 1894. 
Out of 21 specimens with perfect rostrum, 7 have 9 teeth above, 
the remainder mostly 10 teeth above; 15 have 3 teeth below, the 
remainder varying from 2 to 5 teeth. 


PALAMON MACRODACTYLUS, new species. 


Stout. Rostrum about as long as carapace, it may be a little longer 
or a little shorter, overreaching a little the antennal scale; straight in 
basal half, slightly inclined upward in distal half; armed above with 
9 to 15 teeth, 3 of which are on the carapace, 3 to 5 below, tip usually 
bifid; posterior dorsal 
tooth more remote from 
the others; the anterior 
tooth may be remote 

. from the others or re- 

d mote from the tip. Only 
large specimens have 13 

to 15 teeth above; the 

Fic. 24.—PALHEMON MACRODACTYLUS; @, CARAPACE, X 12; usual number is 10 to 

5, ACICLE, X 22; c, CHELA OF SECOND PAIR, X 22; d, FOOT 
on THIRD Park, X32, 12. Antennular pedun- 
cle reaching to distal 
fourth of scale; antennal peduncle to end of first antennular segment. 
Filaments of outer flagellum of antennula united for from 7 to 9 
joints; short filament much longer than the basal portion. Acicle 
oblong, very broad at extremity. 

Outer maxillipeds reaching beyond antennal peduncle by at least 
two-thirds of the last segment. The first pair of feet, extended, touch 
the end of the scale; the carpus is one and two-thirds times as long as 
the chela; the palm is a little longer than the fingers. The second 
pair of feet may exceed the scale by the length of the chela and part 
of the wrist. The carpus is subequal to the merus, exceeds the manus 
in length, and is distally enlarged. Palm compressed, broader than 
carpus, longer than fingers. The last three pairs of legs are very 
nearly of a length, the fifth pair attain the end of the scale; the 
dactyli of the third pair are contained twice or two and a half times, 
of the fifth pair about three times, in their propodi. 

The sixth segment of the abdomen is half as long as the carapace 
(rostrum excluded), and three-fourths as long as the telson, which has 
two pairs of lateral spinules, and at the extremity a short median and 
lateral spine and a very long intermediate spine. 


a Cc b 


NO. 1307. JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEA NS—RATHBUN. 53 


~ 


Dimensions.—Female with ova: Length, 55 mm.; length of carapace 
and rostrum, 23.7 mm.; length of rostrum, 12.7 mm. 

Localities. Aomori, Rikuoku (type locality, Cat. No. 26162); Mat- 
sushima, Rikuzen; Nagasaki, Hizen. Also collected by P. L. Jouy in 
Korea, at Fusan, Gensan, and Chemulpo. 

This species in appearance much resembles /?. serr7fer, but differs 
in having, as a rule, more rostral teeth, broader acicle, longer fingers 
of second chelipeds, longer dactyls of last three pairs. In the young 
the rostrum may be a little convex above, the palm and fingers of the 
second pair subequal. 


PALAZMON PACIFICUS (Stimpson). 


Leander pacificus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., XII, 1860, p. 40, 
[109].—Dr Man, Notes Leyden Mus., III, 1881, p. 137. 

Rostrum extending beyond antennal scale for about one-third of its 
length, strongly upturned toward its extremity, armed with 7 to § 
teeth above (2 or 3 on carapace), 4 or 5 below, tip usually trifid. 

The filaments of the outer flagellum of the antennule are united for 
from 10 to 12 joints; the free end of the short filament has 28 to 36 
joints; its outer margin or that which fits against the longer filament 
is strongly serrate. 

Otherwise this species is much as in ?. ajinis Milne Edwards. 

Misaki, Sagami; Wakanoura, Kii; Nagasaki, Hizen. 


BITHYNIS NIPPONENSIS (de Haan). 


Palemon nipponensis DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 171. 
Palemon nipponensis ORTMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V, 1891, p. 713, pl. xiv, 
figs. 4 and 4z, and synonymy. 
Wakanoura, Kii; Chikugo River, Kurume, Chikugo; Kurume, July 
23 (Many specimens). 


BITHYNIS LONGIPES (de Haan). 


Palemon longipes “ DE HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 171. 
Palzemon longipes ORtMANN, Zool. Jahrb., Syst., V, 1891, p. 715. 

Kawatana, July 22 (many specimens); Nagasaki, Hizen. 

The two foregoing species are very closely related; they may be 
separated by the following characters, which are not absolutely 
constant: 

In B. nipponensis the rostrum is usually nearly straight and bears 
12 or 13 teeth above; in B. longipes it is usually more arched and has 
10 or 11 teeth above. 

In B. nipponensis, adult, the fingers of the second cheliped are 








“1 have given a new name, Palemon ortmanni, to P. longipes (Ortmann) = Leander 
longipes Ortmann, not P. longipes de Haan. There is in the U. S. National Museum 
aspecimen of P. ortmanni from Tsushima Island, Japan, collected by P. L. Jouy. 





nearly as long as the palm, very hairy, the teeth at their base small 
and concealed in hair; in 2. /ongipes, adult, the fingers are only one- 
half as long as the palm, very little or not at all hairy. There is one 
well-developed tooth near the base of the pollex and two either side of 
it near the base of the dactylus. 

In B. nipponensis, young, the fingers are longer than the palm; in — 
B. longipes, young, they are nearly as long as the palm. : 


54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. | 
4 
ty 


Order. STOMATOPODA: 
ODONTODACTYLUS SCYLLARUS (Linnzus). 

Cancer scyllarus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, 1758, p. 633. 

Odontodactylus scyllarus BraELow, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., X VII, 1894, p. 496, and 
synonymy.—BorraDaiLx, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1898, p. 36, pl. v, fig. 6, 
and synonymy. 

Wakanoura, Kii; one male. 
The dactylus and distal end of propodus of the raptorial limb are © 
bright red in the specimen preserved in alcohol. 


: 
LYSIOSQUILLA LATIFRONS (de Haan). 

Squilla latifrons pp HAAN, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 222, pl. 11, fig. 3. 4 
Lysiosquilla (Coronis) latifrons Mrers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), V, 1880, p. 10. 
Tysiosquilla latifrons Biartow, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., X VII, 1894, p. 503. : 
Nagasaki, Hizen; one female. | 





Length from tip of rostrum to end of telson 64.4 mm.; length of — 
carapace 14.5 mm. ; 
The dactylus of the right raptorial limb in de Haan’s figure has 6— 
teeth, of the left limb 7 teeth; in our specimen the dactyli of both — 
limbs have 6 teeth. 
The posterior margin of the telson is armed with 12 small spines on | 
one side of the sinus, 11 spines on the other side. ‘ 
CHLORIDELLA/ FASCIATA (de Haan). 


Squilla fasciata pe Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 224, pl. 11, fig. 17 
Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) V, 1880, p. 29.—Brooxs, Challenger Rept., 7 
XVI, Stomatopoda, 1886, p. 57, pl. mm, figs.4,5; pl. u, fig. 8.—BrGELow, — 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., X VII, 1894, p. 510. 

Tsuruga, Echizen, 2 males; Nagasaki, Hizen, 1 male, 1 female. 
The intermediate denticles of the margin of the telson are either 
S.0r 9. . 
The largest specimen measures 76.5 mm. long; carapace, 19 mm. — 
long. 4 





«In 1899 (Jour. Inst. Jamaica, II, p. 628), I called attention to the fact that the ; 
name Squilla J. C. Fabricius, 1793, was preoccupied for a genus of Amphipoda by 
O. F. Miller, 1776 and 1788, by Scopoli, 1777, and by O. Fabricius, 1780, The only 
available name for the stomatopod genus is Chloridella Miers, 1880. One who con=— 
siders Chloridella generically distinct from Squilla J. C. Fabricius should substitute a) 
new name for the latter. F 


“ 


¢ 


- x0. 1807 JAPANESE STALK-EYED CRUSTACEANS—RATHBUN. 55 





CHLORIDELLA RAPHIDEA (Fabricius). 


Squilla harpax bE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 222, pl. x1, fig. 1. 
Squilla raphidea Brertow, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., XVII, 1894, p. 535, and 
synonymy. 


Wakanoura, Kil; 5 specimens. 
CHLORIDELLA AFFINIS (Berthold). 
Squilla oratoria DE Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 223, pl. 11, fig. 2. 
Squilla affinis BrceLow, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., X VII, 1894, pp. 537 and 538, 
fig. 22, and synonymy. 

Aomori, Rikuoku; Same, Rikuoku; Tokyo; Tsuruga, Echizen 
(abundant); Wakanoura, Kii (abundant); Onomichi, Bingo; Nagasaki, 
Hizen. 

CHLORIDELLA COSTATA (de Haan). 
Squilla costata pk Haan, Fauna Japon., Crust., 1849, p. 223, pl. u1, fig. 5.— 
Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), V, 1880, p. 21.—BieEtow, Proc. U. 8. Nat. 
Mus., X VII, 1894, p. 511. 

Wakanoura, Kai, 2 specimens, male and female; Nagasaki, Hizen, 
3 males. 

The surface of the carapace is tuberculate, especially between the 
median and submedian carinz, the tubercles more or less confluent. 
The marginal denticles of the telson are 3-4, 6-8, 1. 

_ The largest specimen measures 87 mm. long; carapace, 22.5 mm. 
long. 








Pa 
» 


A REVIEW OF THE HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES OF JAPAN. 


By Davin Starr Jorpan and Epwin CHaAprIn STarks, 
Of the Leland Stanford Junior University 


In the present paper is given a review of the Hemibranchiate fishes 
known to inhabit the waters of Japan. It is based on material in the 
Leland Stanford Junior University and in the U.S. National Museum, 
most of it collected by Jordan and Snyder in the summer of 1900. 
In a previous paper in these Proceedings” Mr. Starks has discussed 
the osteology of the suborder Hemibranchii and of its component 
families. 


Orden AGANTHOP EER RGITI.: 
Suborder HEMIBRANCHII. 


Opisthotics absent; parietals usually absent; exoccipitals never 
meeting over surface of basioccipitals; myodome usually absent or 
rudimentary, sometimes well developed; posttemporal never typically 
forked, sometimes united to cranium suturely; a portion of the hypo- 
corcacoid sometimes enamelled, appearing externally as a separate bone 
on either side (interclavicle); supraclavicle usually absent, small when 
present; postclavicle when present composed of a single bone; superior 
pharyngeals and usually elements of branchial arches reduced in num- 
ber; inferior pharyngeals present, not united; four anterior vertebre 
more or less elongate, sometimes united; transverse process present 
on all abdominal yertebre; snout more or less produced and tube- 
like with a small mouth at its end; ventrals abdominal, sometimes 
anteriorly placed. These fishes are allied to the Percesoces, from 
ancestors of which it is probably descended. Their relations to the 
Lophobranchii are close, the characters of the Lophobranchii being 
largely extremes of the same modifications. 

(nu, half; Boayyos, gill.) 

In the following analysis of families we adopt the arrangement of 
families as given in Dr. Gill’s valuable discussion of ‘* The Mutual 
Relations of the Hemibranchiate Fishes.” ? 





«Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., X XV, 1902, p. 618. 
b Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1884, p. 154. 


eee rere eee 


PROCEEDINGS U, S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. XXVI—No. 1308. 


58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





a. Dermal armature absent, or developed only as plates on side or back; vertebree 
numerous (30 to 36); pubic bones placed close to scapular arch; spinous dorsal 
represented by isolated spines. 

b. Vertebree anteriorly little enlarged; ventrals subthoracic, each with a sharp 


spine. 
c. Branchiostegal rays three; ventrals with one soft ray each; snout conic or 
but:slightly-tubiforms 22524-82520. - pea es Sees GASTEROSTEID®, I. 
ce. Branchiostegal rays four; ventrals with four soft rays each; snout tubi- 
POTTS heen See eae Rep eee ee ee ee ae AULORHYNCHID®, IT. 


bb. Vertebrie anteriorly (first four) elongate; ventrals abdominal or near middle 
of body, without spines, but with 6 (or 5) soft rays. 

d. Dorsal spines developed, weak; body compressed, moderately long, with 

ctenoid scales; no caudal filament.......-..--------- AuvLostomips, IIT. 

dd. Dorsal spines undeyeloped; body depressed or subcylindrical, very long 

without scales; caudal with the two middle rays produced into a long 

filamenteos: Sasi tees Se Sao ee, oes A ee FistuLarip”, LV. 

aa. Dermal armature superficial, developed anteriorly and especially about the back; 

four anterior vertebree much elongate; tail with its axis continuous with that 

of theabdomen; branchihyals and pharyngeals mostly present (fourth superior 

branchihyal and first and fourth superior pharyngeals wanting); pubic bones 
remote from the scapular arch; a spinous dorsal fin developed. 

MaAcRorRHAMPHOSID», V. 

aaa. Dermal armature connate with the internal skeleton and developed as a dorsal 

cuirass in connection with the neuropophyses; six or more anterior vertebrae 

extremely elongate; tail with its axis deflected from that of the abdomen by 

encroachment of a dorsal cuirass over the dorsal fin; branchial system usually 

feebly developed; a spinous dorsal feebly developed under the posterior pro- 

jection ‘of the dotsalsbuckler.2 sos seserore eee ee ese ee CENTRIscIDH, VI. 


Family I. GASTEROSTEIDAE. 
STICKLEBACKS. 


Body more or less fusiform, somewhat compressed, tapering behind 
to a slender caudal peduncle. Head moderate, the anterior part not 
greatly produced, but all the bones of the suspensory apparatus some- 
what lengthened. Mouth moderate, with the cleft oblique, the lower 
jaw prominent; maxillary bent at right angles and overlapping the 
premaxillary at corner of mouth. Teeth sharp, even, in a narrow 
band in each jaw; no teeth on vomer or palatines; premaxillaries pro- 
tractile. Preorbital rather broad; suborbital plate large, often cover- 
ing the anterior part of the cheeks, forming a connection with the 
preopercle. Branchiostegals 3. Gill membranes broadly joined, free — 
from the isthmus, or not; gill rakers moderate or rather long. 
Toothed superior pharyngeals 2; that of fourth arch missing or 
united to third. Opercles unarmed. Skin naked or with vertically 
oblong bony plates; no true scales. Dorsal fin preceded by two or 
more free spines; anal similar to soft dorsal, with a single spine; ven- 
tral fins abdominal, anteriorly placed and overlapped slightly at the 
side by a process from the shoulder girdle, though not connected to 
it, consisting of a stout spine and one or two rudimentary rays. — 
Middle or. sides of belly shielded by the pubic bones. Pectorals — 


; 


NO. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. 59 





rather short, unusually far behind the gill openings, preceded by a 
-quadrate naked area, which is covered with shining skin. Caudal fin 
narrow, usually lunate. Air bladder simple; a few pyloric cceca. 
Vertebree 30 to 35; anterior vertebre little enlarged. 

- Small fishes inhabiting the fresh waters and arms of the sea in 
northern Europe and America; noted for their pugnacity. They are 
exceedingly destructive to the spawn and fry of large fishes. 


a. Gill openings restricted, the membranes mesially united to the isthmus; dorsal 
q with two free spines; skin mailed, partly mailed, or naked... --.- Gasterosteus, 1. 
aa. Gill openings confluent, the gill membranes forming a broad, free margin across 
; the isthmus; dorsal spines 8 to 11, divergent; skin naked or mailed. 

; Pygosteus, 2. 
; 1. GASTEROSTEUS (Artedi) Linnzeus. 

a Gasterosteus (Anrep!) Linnxus, Syst. Nat., X, 1758, p. 489 (aculeatus). 

[ Gasteracanthus Pauuas, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb., ITI, 1811, p. 325 (cataphractus). 
f Leiurus Swarxson, Nat. Hist. Class’n Fishes, II, 1839, p. 242 (gymnurus). 

_  Sticklebacks with the innominate bones coalescent on the median 
: line of the belly, behind and between the ventral fins, forming a 


triangular or lanceolate plate. Gill membranes united to the isthmus. 
Tail slender, and usually keeled. Skin variously covered with bony 
plates. Dorsal spines 3 in number, strong, with nondivergent bases. 


Ra AN TCS -- 


| Species numerous. Fresh waters and shores of all northern regions; 
the species highly variable, those found in the sea usually with the 
E body completely mailed, the fresh and brackish water forms variously 
mailed or even altogether naked. It is probable that the reduction in 
armature is in some degree connected with life in fresh waters. It is 
i almost certain that the partly naked forms are in each species derived 
_ from mailed forms of the same region. 

(yaortnp, belly; ogréov, bone.) 

1. GASTEROSTEUS CATAPHRACTUS (Pallas). 

TOGEUWO (PRICKLY-FISH). 

= Gasteracanthus cataphractus Pauuas, Mem. Acad. Petersb., ITI, 1811, p. 325; 
“ Kamchatka. 

; qasterosteus obolarius Cuvier and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss., [V, 1829, p. 
; 500; Kamchatka. 

Gasterosteus insculptus RicHarpson, Last Arctic Voyage, 1854, p. 10, pl. xxv, 
; figs. 1, 2, and 8; Northumberland and Puget sounds. 

7 Gasterosteus serratus Ayres, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1855, p. 47; San Francisco.— 
; SauvaGeE, Revision des Epinoches, 1874, p. 13. 


a 
- 


Gasterosteus intermedius Girarp, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, p. 185; Cape 
Flattery. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus cataphractus JORDAN and GILBERT, Synopsis, 1883, p. 396. 

Gasterosteus cataphractus JorDAN and EyerMANN, Fishes N. and M. Amer., I, 
1898, p. 749. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus IsHrk AWA, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 58; Hokkaido, Kuriles, Ugo, 
Yechigo, Shimotsuke, Musashi, Usen, Niigata. 

Gasterosteus williamsoni Girarp, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 103; Wil- 
liamson’s Pass, near Saugus, California; naked form. 





60_ PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


Gasterosteus TP rereiee GIRARD, roe ie. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 133; 
Kaweah R., Tulare Lake; half-mailed form. 

Gasterosteus plebeius GirARD, Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 147; Presidio; 
half mailed. 

Gasterosteus inopinatus GIRARD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 147; Presi- 
dio; half mailed. 

Gasterosteus pugetti Girarp, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, p. 135; Fort 
Steilacoom, Washington; half mailed. 


The following description is taken from a specimen 85 mm. long 
from Ugo, northwest Japan: 

Head 33; depth 44; eye 34. Dorsal 11-1, 13; anal1,10. Body slender, 
compressed; head small and pointed; mouth oblique, maxillary not 

reaching eye; caudal peduncle depressed, keeled. | Processes from 
shoulder eae slightly divergent, leaving a narrow, naked area on 
breast; eed area in front of pectorals equal to length of snout. 
Dorsal spines long and slender, the length equaling dice from 
snout to pupil; third dorsal and anal spines very small, curved; ven- 
tral spines long, slender, as long as snout and eye, or even longer in 
some specimens; serrate at base and with basal cusp; ventral plate as 


long as spine in many specimens, narrow, the greatest width 3} in 


length. Lateral armature complete, the plates gradually reduced in 
size posteriorly, forming a distinct caudal keel. Dark grayish or blu- 
ish black above, silvery below, with a few dark punctulations, thickest 
on caudal peduncle and near tip of ventral spines. Alaska, Kam- 


chatka, and Japan. Very abundant northward; the mailed form rarely 


or never entering fresh water. 
We have also marine specimens from Kushiro and northern Japan, 


which we have compared with specimens from Alaska and Puget 


Sound, and have found them to be similar. 
Specimens from Ibi and Mino rivers near Ogaki in Mino seem to be 
inseparable from the naked specimens from Colton, California (called 


** Gasterosteus williamsoni”). They differ gre: a from the marine— 
form in being deeper, in haying the ventral plate broad and short, in— 


being only partially armed, in being conspicuously mottled, and in 


exhibiting all of the differences which fresh-water specimens at the — 
extreme of variation from California and Alaska exhibit. Since it has — 
not been possible to satisfactorily separate the Western American — 
fresh-water species from those found in the sea, we can not consider 


these as distinct even though we have no intergrading forms at hand. 
Formule of soft rays of dorsal and anal: 














-- | | li = 
Locality. Ugo. | N. Japan. | Puget Sound. | Ibi River. te 
Dorsal Bees oes 14 13 13 Deal! ASE ABS AA SUAS AD els ist or Ties 3 etd aL | THs ete 
PAT Slee. moe ncrae | D107 10 OR Sn O me oe QO 10 OSLO a lO Re sO sO aoe & - OSS 
| 














, . 
(cxatadpaktos, cutaphractus, mailed.) 


ES RO te 


, 


No. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISTHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. 61 





2. PYGOSTEUS Brevoort. 


Pygosteus (Brevoort) Git, Cat. Fishes East Coast North America, 1861, p. 39; 
name only. 

Pygosteus Grit, Canadian Naturalist, 11, 1865, p. 8 (occidentalis) . 

Gasterostea SAuVAGE, Revision des Epinoches, 1874, p. 29 ( pungitius) . 

This genus is characterized by the presence of 9 to 11 divergent 
spines and by the weakness of its innominate bones. The gill mem- 
branes forma broad fold across the isthmus. Vertebre 14+ 18 = 32. 

, . . 2 / 

(xvy7, pubic region; ogtéorv, bone.) 

0 So SGT SS ay IN S'S Se Se ee ee steindachneri, 2. 
Sete OF Ia spines: 22.22 kei So ee Sh eis ole undecimalis, 3. 


2. PYGOSTEUS STEINDACHNERI Jordan and Snyder. 


Gasterosteus japonicus STEINDACHNER, Ichthy. Beitr., IX, p. 27, pl. in, fig. 2; 
Gulf of Strielok, near Vladivostok. (Not of Houttuyn. ) 

Pygosteus steindachneri JoRDAN and Snyper, Proceedings U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1901, 
p. 747, after Steindachner. 

Gasterosteus pungitius IsHikAwa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 59; Lake Inokashiro, near 
Tokyo. 

Gausterosteus sp. 18SHIKAWA, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 59; Yamashiro. 

The following description is taken from 4 specimens from Yama- 
shiro: 

Head 32 in length; depth 44. Dorsal VIII-11; anal I-8, or 9. 
Diameter of eye equal to snout or slightly greater, contained 34 times 
in head; width of interorbital two-thirds diameter of eye; maxillary 
barely reaching to under anterior ecge of the eye in the males, 
slightly shorter in the females. 

Length of ventral spines equal to distance from tip of snout to 
middle of eye; length of middle dorsal spines two-thirds to three- 
fourths eye, last spine a little longer, equal to anal spine; length of 
pectoral equals snout and eye; length of anal base equal to dorsal base 
and equal to length of head without snout. 

Anterior part of body with vertical bony plates which decrease in 
length posteriorly and become smal! round plates on posterior half of 
body; on the caudal peduncle they form a sharp keel; they number 
from 32 to 35. 

Color in spirits very light yellowish brown with only a trace of small 
‘dusky punctulations. The membrane of the spinous dorsal dusky or 
conspicuously black. The soft dorsal and anal ranging from colorless 
to dusky. Pectoral and caudal without color. 

Numerous specimens taken from a pond at Inokashiro, Musashi, 
near Tokyo, and one specimen from Aomori differ only from these in 
being entirely devoid of plates and in being much darker or more 
dusky. The fins are all more or less dusky and the membrane of the 
spinous dorsal is not darker than the body color. Of 16 specimens 
counted an equal number have 8 and 9 spines. Both these and the 


62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. YOR 


mailed specimens from Yamashiro were presented by the Imperial 

Museum from the many examples collected by Dr. Ishikawa. . 
Steindachner’s specimens seem to haye been more slender and to have 

had higher spines than ours. . 
(Named for Dr. Franz Steindachner.) 


3. PYGOSTEUS UNDECIMALIS Jordan and Starks, new species. 


Head 3! to 32 in length; depth 5 to 53. Dorsal XI or XII (in an ® 
equal number of specimens)—10 or 11; anal1—9. Eye 84in head; snout ~ 
4; interorbital slightly less than diameter of eye. Maxillary reaching | 
slightly past anterior margin of eye. Depth of head 1} to 14 its length. ~ 

Ventral spines very short and slender, equaling in length two-thirds 1 
to three-fourths diameter of eye. The dorsal spines are subequal in ‘ 
length to the next to the last and are scarcely half the diameter of the i 
eye in length. The last one is about a third higher and is equal in 
length to the anal spine. . 





"ASS 


= SS V2 in. 


Fic. 1.—PYGOSTEUS UNDECIMALIS. 


The body is entirely devoid of bony plates in our specimens, except 
in one example where a few plates form a keel on the caudal peduncle. 

Color dark brown above, lighter below, all of the fins dusky. 

This species differs from Pygosteus steindachnert in having a more 
slender form, a slightly longer head, shorter and more slender ventral 
spines, and particularly in having more numerous and shorter dorsal 
spines. The mouth appears to be larger and the caudal peduncle to be 
thicker. The color is darker. 1 

Six specimens, the longest 58 mm. in length, presented by the Sap- 
poro Museum, were taken at Chitose in Hokkaido by Mr. Nozawa. 
The type is No. 7119, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum,” 


(undecim, eleven.) 


Family I. AULORHYNCHID&. | 


9 -AULICHTHYS Brevoort. 
Aulichthys (Breyoort) Gru, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 2349 
(japonicus ). 
Lateral line with a series of sharply keeled plates, each ending in a 
spine; pectoral fin not emarginate; ventrals inserted under middle of 
length of the pectoral fin. 


a ne 





No, 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. b¢ 


Northern Japan; one species known, well separated from the Cali- 
fornian Aulorhynchus flavidus, by the row of lateral spines; the fin 
rays about the same. 

(avircs, tube; Zydus, fish.) 





4. AULICHTHYS JAPONICUS Brevoort. 


Aulichthys japonicus { Breyoort), GiiL, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 234; 
Shimoda.—Jorpan and Snyper, Check List Fishes Japan, 1901, p. 60; 
Yokohama. 

Aulorhynchus japonicus STEINDACHNER Ichth. Beitr., X, 1881, p. 1, pl. v, fig. 1; 
Yokohama. 

Fistularude? Genus? Species? Isaikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 31; Nos. 551, 
552; Boshu. 

The following description is from a specimen from Tokyo, 15 cm. 
long. 

Head 3% in length; depth 2 in snout. Dorsal XXV-9; anal 1-10. 
Lateral plates 55. Postcaudal plates 13. Eye 4 in snout, 2 in post- 
orbital part of head. 

The mouth is small, the maxillary is contained 24 times in the man- 


dible, which is about half the length of the snout. From the back- 


ward-extending process from the maxillary a shallow channel runs 
backward on top of the snout to within a distance of the eye equal to 


the diameter of the eye. From the supraorbital rim a short channel 


runs forward to each side of the termination of the anterior median 
channel. The interorbital space is slightly convex and somewhat 
tugose. The length of the opercle is twice that of the rest of the 
postorbital part of the head. 

The pectoral fin is inserted a distance equal to the length of the 
opercle from the edge of the opercle. The lower raysare the longest; 
their lengthis equal to their distance from the posterior orbital margin. 
The front of the dorsal is midway between the base of the caudal and 
the middle of the opercle. The anal is directly under the soft dorsal and 
about equal toitinlength. Where the analand the dorsal are depressed 
the tips of the longest rays just reach to the base of the lastray. The 
length of the caudal equals the length of the postorbital part of the 
head. The lower edge of the shoulder girdle is rough and is only 
covered by thin skin; it appearsas a line of dermal bone and runs back 
nearly to a similar but wider line formed by the edge of pubic bones. 
The length of the ventrals equals the diameter of the eye. 

Caudal slightly dusky, other fins colorless; top of head dark; oper- 
cles dusky above with fine brown points; a dark brown streak runs 


along preorbital region to middle of eye. 


We have specimens from Tokyo, Matsushima, and Boshu. The 


Species is not rare in northern Japan on sandy shores. 


64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. 





Family II. AULOSTOMID &. 


Body compressed, elongate, covered with small, ctenoid scales, — 
Lateral line continuous. Head long; mouth small, at the end of a 
long, compressed tube. Lower Jaw prominent, with a barbel at the 
symphysis. Premaxillary feeble, not protractile; maxillary broad, 
triangular, with a supplemental bone. Teeth minute, in bands on 
lower jaw and vomer. Branchiostegals +. Gills 4, a slit behind the 
fourth. Pseudobranchixe well developed. Gill rakers obsolete. Gill 
membranes separate, free from the isthmus. Air bladder large. 
Post-temporal free from cranium. Spinous dorsal present, of 8-12 
very slender free spines; soft dorsal and anal rather long, similar pos- 
terior, with 23 to 28 rays each; caudal small, rhombic, the middle rays — 
longest, but not produced into a filament; ventrals abdominal, of 6— 
rays, all articulated; pectorals broad, rounded, the space in front of— 
them scaly. First four vertebree elongated. Two pyloric caeca. A 


single genus, with two species, found in tropical seas. . 
4 SULOS GOMUS macepede: i 

; 

Aulostomus Lackpkpr, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 1808, p. 3857 (chinensis) . : 
Aulostoma SCHLEGEL, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1845, p. 320; change of spelling. 
Polyterichthys BueeKeEr, Ternate, II, p. 608 (valentini=chinensis) . 

i 


Solenostomus Gronow, Cat. Fishes, Ed. Gray, 1854, p. 146 (chinensis). 


Characters of the genus included above. 
? / / 
(avios, tube; ¢ro“a, mouth.) 


5. AULOSTOMUS” VALENTINI Bleeker. 















VALENTIJN, Oud- en Nieuw-Oost-Ind., Amboyna, III, 1725, pp. 323, 448, 494. 
Polypterichthys valentini BurrKxer, Ternate II, about 1850, p. 608; Ternate. : 
Artostoma sinensis SCHLEGEL, Fauna Japonica, 1845, p. 520; ‘“Trés rare dans les” 
mers du Japon.”’ 4 
Aulostoma chinense Ginrier, Cat. Fish., I11, 1861, p. 538; Amboyna; Aneitum | 
(not Aulostomus chinensis Lacépéde, which, after Linnzeus, is a West Indian ~ 

species. 

The following description is from a specimen 48 cm. in length from- 
Honolulu. Head 3 in length; depth 11. Dorsal XI-26; anal 26; scales” 
about 230. * 
Body elongate, compressed, the least depth just behind base of pec- 
torals where the body is constricted below. Body expanding verti- 
‘ally somewhat at soft dorsal and anal, and abrupt narrowing at caudal 
peduncle, which is long and slender with parallel sides. 
Eye contained 2% in post orbital part of head, 7% in snout. Lower 
‘aw somewhat hooked up at tip over front of premaxillary. Maxilla-_ 
ries very broad, their width a little greater than eye and twice as long. 


« Fistularia chinensis Linnzeus is based chiefly in the Solenostomus cauda rotundata on 
Gronow, which is the West Indian species, Aulostomus coloratus. The latter species / 
should properly bear the name chinensis, 


NO. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE PFISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. 65 


Scales fine, str oneky ctenoid, at nape omnes: somew air at embedded. 
Area in front of pectorals closely scaled. Head naked. 

Pectorals short and broad; their length equals twice the diameter of 
eye. Ventrals inserted midway between base of caudal and middle 
of eye. Dorsal placed directly over anal, which is of equal length. 
Base of dorsal equal to postorbital part of head and half eye. Length 
of caudal contained 32 in length of snout. 

Color in alcohol brownish, with 10 or 11 narrow light crossbars, 
between each of which is a more or less conspicuous broken bar com- 
posed of diffused spots. Fins yellowish. A black stripe across base 
of dorsal and anal rays; a round black spot on upper and lower rays 
of caudal; a black spot on base of ventrals; and one on middle of max- 
illary. Other specimens very dark, with, scarcely any crossbars. 
Others show conspicuous longitudinal light bars. 

This species, common in the tropical seas from Hawaii to India, is 
recorded by Schlegel as very rare in Japan. It doubtless belongs to 
the fauna of the Riukiu Islands. 

(Named for its discoverer, Fr. Valentijn, who wrote in 1725 on the 
*“Oud- en Nieuw-Oost-Indien” and the ‘‘ Waterdieren van Amboina.”) 


Family IV. FISTULARID. 


Body extremely elongate, much depressed, broader than deep. 
Sealeless, but having bony plates present on various parts of the body, 
mostly covered by the skin. Head very long, the anterior bones of 
the skull much produced, forming a long tube, which terminates in 
the narrow mouth; this tube formed by the symplectic, proethmoid, 
metapterygoid, mesopterygoid, quadrate, palatines, vomer, and mes- 
ethmoid. Both jaws, and usually the vomer and palatines also, with 
minute teeth; membrane uniting the bones of the tubes below, very 
lax, so that the tube is capable of much dilation. Post-temporal 
codssified with the cranium. Branchiostegals 5 to 7; gills 4, a slit 
behind the fourth. Gill membranes separate, free from the isthmus; 
gill rakers obsolete. Basibranchial elements wanting. Fourth supe- 
rior pharyngeal missing or anchylosed to third. Pseudobranchie 
present. Air bladder large. Spinous dorsal fin entirely absent; soft 
dorsal short, posterior, somewhat elevated; anal fin opposite it and 
similar; caudal fin forked, the middle rays produced into a long: fila- 
ment; pectorals small, with a broad base, preceded by a smooth area; 


processes from hypocoracaid greatly lengthened; supraclavicles very 


small; ventral fins very small, wide apart, abdominal, far in advance 
of the dorsal, composed of 6 soft rays. Pyloric ececa few; intestine 


short. Vertebre very numerous (4+44 to 49+28 to 33); the first four 


vertebre very long. Fishes of the tropical seas, related to the stickle- 
backs in structure, but with prolonged snout and different ventral 


fins. A single genus, with a few species. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02——5 


66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





5. FISTULARIA Linneus. 


Solenostomus Kunin, Missus, IV, 1740, p..23 (nonbinomial). 

Fistularia Linn xus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 312 (tabacaria). 

Cannorhynchus Cantor, Malayan Fishes, 1850, p. 211 (tabacaria; Fistularia being 
regarded as preoccupied by Donati in 1750 for a pre-Linnzean genus of 
Polyps). 

Flagellaria Gronow, Cat. Fishes, 1854, p. 146 (fistularis=tabacaria) . 


Characters of the genus included above. The bony shields, charac- 
teristic of this genus, are the following: 

1. The narrow strip along the median line of the back behind the 
skull (confluent neural spines). 

2. The pair of broader lateral dorsal shields. These shields are 
the longest, provided anteriorly with a ridge, which is prolonged and 
extends far backward between the muscles of the back. This ridge is 
flexible, and does not interfere with the lateral movements of the fish. 
It appears to serve as a base for the attachment of muscular fibers. 

3. The narrow shield on the side is the postclavicle, its posterior part 
being dilated and fixed to the lateral dorsal shields. 

4. The ventral shields are the processes from the hypocoracoids. 
Their posterior half is broadest, much pitted inferiorly. They are 
narrower before the middle, leaving a free lanceolate space between 
them, and are again a little widened anteriorly, where they join the 
clavicle and urohyal. These plates extend as far backward as the 
anchylosed vertebre. 

(fistula, a tube or pipe.) 


a. Upper lateral edges on snout sharply serrated. 

b. Two middle ridges on snout well separated, diverging on anterior part of 
snout, converging finally on its foremost part; skin nearly smooth. Color 
Oreemish s2i23 52h is she Pose Be eae See ae eee eee depressa, 6. 

bb. Two middle ridges on snout close together and parallel on anterior half of its 

length, slowly converging forward from the middle; skin rough. Color, 
meddishie? 3. ou Shoes ons ee eae ey oe ee petimba, 7. 


6. FISTULARIA DEPRESSA Giinther 


YAGARA (ARROW-SHAFT). 


Fistularia depressa GinxtuER, Shore Fishes Challenger, 1880, p. 69, pl. xxxuy,_ 
fig. D; Sulu Islands, Natal, Zanzibar, Amboyna, China, New Guinea, New 
South Wales, Fiji, Lower California.—Jorpan and EvrrMANN, Fishes N. 
and M. Amer., 1, 1898, p. 757; Gulf of California, Panama. 


The following description was taken from a small specimen 31 cm. 
in length (without caudal filament), from Wakanoura. 

Head 23 in length. Depth at pectoral fins equal to long diameter of 
eye. Width just behind pectorals three-fifths of width at a point just 
behind ventrals. Dorsal 15; anal 14. 

Body elongate, depressed, as viewed from above the sides are nearly 
parallel for a short distance behind pectorals, where it is narrower 


No. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. 67 


than posterior part of head, but grows abruptly broader at the pos- 
terior end of the upper ite val plates and tapers gradually to the 
caudal. : 

The jaws are armed with a row of fine teeth. The maxillary is con- 
tained 8} times in the snout, the mandible 54 times. Eye nearly twice 
as long as high; extreme length of orbit equal to length of maxillary. 
Interorbital space somewhat concave, less so than in 7. petimba, in 
larger specimens it is flat at the sides with a channel along its middle; 
the width is one-third of orbit. The median ridges on snout diverge 
anteriorly; the distance between them is everywhere greater or as 
great as the distance from them to the upper lateral ridge. 

The ventrals are inserted from the pectorals a distance equal to the 
distance of the pectoral from the anterior margin of the eye. They 
are separated at their base by a space equal to the long diameter of 
the eye. The dorsal and anal are directly opposite to e: a other and 
similar in shape. The skin is everywhere smooth to the touch. 

All of our specimens from Japan are plain brown greenish above, 
but as specimens from other localities may be either plain brown or 
with longitudinal stripes and spots of blue, probably blue-spotted 
examples occur. 

The following color description was taken from a fresh specimen 
from Panama, 69 cm. in length: 

Olive brown on upper parts, white below. <A pair of narrow blue 
stripes, interrupted anteriorly and posteriorly, begin at the nape, 
diverge backward, and cross the lateral line just in front of the point 
where it becomes straight, then runs just above and parallel to the 
lateral line as far as the tail. Another pair of streaks, made each of 
blue spots, run close along each side of mid-dorsal line, from a point 
above axil of pector: als to front of dorsal. Behind dorsal, a single 
series of spots occupies the median line of back. 

We have compared specimens from Panama, La Paz, Mexico, and 
from the Hawaiian Islands with our Japanese material and can appre- 
ciate no difference. The species occurs also in Samoa. 

Several specimens under 32 cm. in length were collected at Waka- 
noura, Misaki, and Matsushima. 

(depressus, depressed.) 


7. FISTULARIA PETIMBA Lacépéde. 


YAGARA. 


Fistularia Prien, John White, Voyage New South Wales, pl. uxty, fig. 2. 

Fistularia tabacaria var. Buocu, Ichth., 1794, pl. ccctxxxvui, fig. 2, ‘‘Coll. Linke 
at Leipzig;’’ wrongly figured as spotied with blue; snout serrate; 2 caudal 
filaments. 

Fistularia petinba Lackpzpr, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 1803, p. 349 (excl. syn.); New 
Britain, Isle of Reunion, equatorial Pacific; based on specimens and manu- 
scripts of Commerson; snout serrate; body immaculate.—JorpAN and Ever- 
MANN, Fish N. and M. Amer., I, 1898, p. 758. 


68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





Fistularia serrata Cuvier, Régne Animal, Ist ed., 1817, p. 349 (after Bloch) .— 
Ginruer, Cat., IIT, 1861, p. 533.—Gitnruer, Shore Fishes, Challenger, p. 68, 
pl. xxx, fig. C, 1880.—JorDAN and GILBERT, Synopsis, 1883, p. 390.— 
IsHikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 31; Tokyo, Kii. 

Fistularia immaculata Cuvier, Régne Animal, Ist ed., 1817, p. 349; Sea of the 
Indies; after Commerson and John White. 

Fistularia commersonii Rtiprety, Neue Wirbelthiere, 1834, p. 142; Red Sea. 

The following description was taken from a specimen 30 em. in 
length from Wakanoura: 

Head 24 in length; depth at pectorals a little less than long diameter 
of eye. Dorsal 15; anal 14. 

This species differs from / depressa in the following characters: 

The ridges on the top of snout are close together and parallel. The 
distance between them is always much less than the distance from 
them to the upper lateral ridge of snout. The head is more deeply 
sculptured and the ridges are rougher. The interorbital space is 
deeply concave and without flat supraorbital areas in the adult. The 
species may be at once distinguished by the touch, the skin feeling 
harsh like very fine shagreen. The lateral line is armed posteriorly 
with sharp bony plates. 

Some of our specimens show faint traces of broad cross-bars about 
as wide as the diameter of the eye; 3 or 4 are on the snout and 12 or 
14 on the rest of the body. It is pale or dull reddish brown in life. 
It seems to be rather less common than / depressa, but neither 
species is rare in shallow bays of Japan. This species was found at 
Wakanoura, Misaki, and Nagasaki. 

(petimbuaba, » Portuguese name.) 


Family V. MACRORHAMPHOSID 4. 
SNIPE-FISHES. 


Body compressed, oblong, or elevated, covered with small, rough 
scales: no lateral line; some bony strips on the side of the back and on 
the margin of the thorax and abdomen, the former sometimes confluent 
into a shield. Bones of the skull much prolonged anteriorly, forming | 
a long tube which bears the short jaws at the end; no teeth. Gill) 
openings wide; branchiostegals 4. Branchihyals and pharyngeals : 
mostly present, the fourth superior epibranchial and the first and | 
fourth superior pharyngeals only wanting. Two dorsal fins, the first | 
of 4 to 7 spines, the second of which is very long and strong; soft dor- 
sal and anal moderate; ventral fins small, abdominal, of 1 spine and 4 or 
5 soft rays; pectorals short; caudal fin emarginate, its middle rays not! 
produced. Air bladder large; pseudobranchie present. Gills 4, a) 
slit behind the fourth; vertebre about 24, the four anterior ones much | 
lengthened; no pyloric cceca; intestinal canal short. Three or more 
species, chiefly of the Old World, placed in two genera, Macrorham- 


phosus and Centriscops. | 
| 
| 


No. 1308. IEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. 69 


a 


6. MACRORHAMPHOSUS Lacépéde. 


Macrorhamphosus LackpEpE, Hist. Nat. Poiss, V, 1803, p. 136 (cornutus=scolopas). 

Centriscus Cuvier, Réegne Anim., Ist. ed., II, 1817, p. 350 (scolopax, not Centriscus, 
Linnzeus, which was based on scutatus alone). 

Macrognathus Gronow, Cat. Fishes, 1854, p. 147 (scolopax). 

Orthichthys Gru, Proce. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 234 (velitaris). 


av 


Body oblong, graduating into the caudal peduncle; back straight; 
dorsal spines about 7. Characters otherwise included above. 
/ Oh: 
(uakpos, long; paudos, snout.) 


a. Body deep, the depth 4 in length to base of caudal...-......-.....-...: sagifue, 8. 
aa. Body more slender, the depth 43 in length to base of caudal. ______- japonicus, 9. 


8. MACRORHAMPHOSUS SAGIFUE Jordan and Starks, new species. 
SAGIFUE (BIRD FLUTE). 


Centriscus sp. IsHikAwaA, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 32; Kagoshima. 


Head, 2 to 24 in length; depth, 4 to 44; eye 5} to 6 in head, 34 to 4 
in snout; snout 3 to 3} in length. 










<) 
oN 
Ay 
a 
1 


Ay 
RR 

\) 

AY 


LS 
os 


La 
Sx Sy} 
Se 








Cee ea 
io 


Xb 
a 





Fic. 2.—MACRORHAMPHOSUS SAGIFUE. 


Dorsal V-12; anal 18 (or 19, counting the last very small slender 
ray, which is crowded close to the preceding one.) 

Outline of head concave from tip of snout to occiput and from man- 
dible to tip of clavicles. Dorsal outline of body convex from occiput 
to dorsal spine, nearly level between dorsals dropping steeply oblique 
at anal base to caudal peduncle, less steep on caudakgpeduncle. Ven- 
tral outline evenly curved from shoulder girdle to caudal peduncle. 

Mouth small, toothless; maxillary scarcely as long as the diameter 
of pupil. A slight ridge runs from above eye along upper lateral edge 
of snout, conspicuous near eye, growing lower anteriorly. Another 
ridge runs from the anterior margin of the eye straight forward and 
unites with the upper ridge. The preopercular ridge touches the pos- 
terior margin of the orbit and runs obliquely in a straight line nearly 
to lower margin of head under anterior margin of eye and is thence 
continued forward following the contour of snout. 


Bony strips along back and armature of abdomen as described for 
iM. scolopax. 


70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





The length of the second dorsal spine is variable, reaching only to 
the base of the rudimentary caudal rays in some examples, to above 
the middle of the longest caudal rays in the others; its insertion is 
midway between the base of the middle caudal rays and a point mid- 
way between the eye and the edge of the opercle. The pectorals equal 
in leneth the base of the anal, or the eye and postorbital part of the 
head. 

Color in spirits silvery below, brownish above; fins colorless; pale 
red in life. 

We have compared this species with two specimens of Macrorham- 
phosus scolopax from the Canary Islands. From them it differs in 
being a little more slender, and in having a slightly smaller eve and 
longer snout. 

Specimens from Misaki and Enoura on Sagami Bay and from deeper 
water at Sagami and Saruga Bays, where it was dredged by the U. 5. 
Fish Commission steamer A/batross. The type from Enoura is num- 
hered 7125 in Leland Stanford, Junior, University Museum. A co-type 
+s in the U. S. National Museum. The species is common in rather 
deep waters along the coast of Japan. 

(sagifue, the Japanese name.) 


9. MACRORHAMPHOSUS JAPONICUS Gunther. 


Centriscus japonicus Ginter, Cat. Fish., III, 1861, p. 522; Japan; China. 
Dorsal IV or V—11; anal 18 or 19. | 
The height of the body is contained 25 to 3 times in distance of! 
operculum from base of caudal. Second dorsal spine very strong, . 
not (or very indistinctly) denticulated posteriorky, the length about! 
one-fourth or two-ninths of the distance of the opercle from the’ 
caudal. | 

The above is Dr. Giinther’s description of Macrorhamphosus gracilis: 
of Europe From this species he differentiates JZ. japonicus in hav-- 
ing a shorter dorsal spine. 

The species was not seen by Jordan and Snyder. The type of Dr. | 
Giinther was doybtless from Misaki. 












Family VI. CENTRISCIDE. 


Form of body elongate, much compressed. Anterior bones of skull 
much produced and forming a long tube terminating in a small, 
mouth. Body covered with a bony dorsal cuirass which is connate: 
with the internal skeleton. Posteriorly it terminates in a long spine: 
with or without a movable spine at its end. The longitudinal axis of 
the tail 1s deflected from that of the trunk by the encroachment ol 
the dorsal cuirass over it. Vertical fins including a spinous dorsal) 
crowded together under the terminal spine of dorsal cuirass. Ventral) 


eS 


_ NO. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. el 


abdominal. Teeth none. Parietals absent. Posttemporal suturally 


connected to cranium; supraclavicle present. Ribs developed. Post- 


-clavicles present. East Indies. Species few and small, fantastically 


formed, the translucent carapace suggesting that of a shrimp. 
7. AOLISCUS Jordan and Starks, new genus (strigatus). 


This genus differs from Centriscus Linnaeus (Amp/hisile Cuvier),“ 


chiefly in having the first dorsal spine borne by the spine which termi- 


nates the cuirass. The dorsal cuirass of Centriscus ends posteriorly 
ina long unjointed spine. This genus .#o//scus includes also o//s- 
cus punctulatus (Bianconi) and perhaps also the fossil species called 
Amphisile heinrichi. 


(aiolos, moving.) 
10. AXOLISCUS STRIGATUS (Giinther). 
Amphisile strigata GUNTHER, Cat. Fish., III, 1861, p. 28; Java. 


Head 23 in length to base of soft dorsal rays; depth 3 in head; orbit 


fii or 12 in head: 13 to 2 in postorbital part of head; interorbital 4 


orbit. Dorsal Ul, 10; anat 12. 





FIG, 3,—/EKOLISCUS STRIGATUS. 


Body very much compressed and rather elongate, resembling in 


transverse section a razor blade—thin and rounded above, tapering 


below to an extremely thin drawn out cutting edge. Head and body 


¢cuirassed with smooth, bony plates; tapering anteriorly into a long 


bouy snout; terminating posteriorly in a long spine. 

Outline of head concave above from occiput to tip of snout; the 
rostral tube bent upward anteriorly and terminating in an extremely 
small toothless mouth. The length of the mandible is less than half 
the diameter of the eye. The interorbital is convex and longitudinally 
striated; its width is equal to the diameter of the eye. The supraor- 
bital margin of the eye is a projecting rim. 

The third lateral plate of the body is nearly twice as long as deep; 
its lower edge is midway between the outline of the back above it and 
the base of the ventral fin. There are 11 lower ventral plates (ribs), 2 
in front of the pectoral and 9 behind. 





«The name Centriseus Linnaeus, was based on nie us scutatus Bae described 
after Gronow. It is therefore equivalent to Amphisile of Cuvier and Acentrachmerot 


Gill, and can be used neither for Macrorhamphosus nor for oliscus. 


(2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI. . 





Directly below the posterior spines the vertical fins are crowded. 
The spinous dorsal and soft dorsal point nearly straight backward, the 
‘audal obliquely downward, and the anal straight downward. The 
pectoral is inserted hehind the opercle a distance equal to the diameter 
of the eye and the postorbital part of the head; its posterior margin is 
slightly concave; the extreme upper and lower rays are the longest, 
the former a little longer than the latter. The ventrals are inserted 
midway between a point below the anterior orbital rim and the base 
of the posterior anal ray. They are in some individuals long (prob- 


ably a sexual variation) and are contained 14 in the depth of the body 


above them: in others they are short, equal to or slightly exceeding 
the diameter of the eye. The first dorsal spine is equal in length to 
or slightly exceeds the distance of the pectoral from the edge of the 
opercle. From the end of the process which bears it a tiny spine 
projects downward and is connected to the dorsal spine by a membrane. 


The fish is evidently able to lock the dorsal spine in a horizontal posi-_ 


tion. When declined it projects downward at right angles to the 
spine that bears it. The second and third dorsal spines are curved 
slightly downward. The second reaches about three-fifths of the dis- 
tance from its base to the base of the first. The tips of the dorsal 
rays reach a very little past the tip ef the second dorsal. The length 
of the caudal rays are equal to the length of the dorsal rays. The 
anal rays are shorter and are about equal to the length of the base of 
the fin. 

Color brown, lighter above; a dark streak running through the eye 
appears as a double streak on opercles, thence takes an irregular 
course to pectoral base, behind which it 1s continued along the naked 


portion of the body below lateral plates, where it widens slightly at. 


tach rib; behind it crosses the caudal vertebre and ends between the 
spinous and soft dorsals. 

Numerous speciinens were obtained from Yaeyama, Ishigaki Island, 
Riukiu, having been collected by Capt. Alan Owston. 

(strigatus, striped.) 

SUMMARY. 
Suborder HEMIBRANCHII. 
Family I. GaAsTEROSTEID®. 
1. Gasterosteus (Artedi) Linnzeus. 
1. cataphractus (Pallas); Kushiro, Ibi River, Mino River. 


2. Pygosteus Brevoort. 


bo 


steindachneri Jordan and Snyder; Yamashiro, Inokashiro, Aomori. 
3. undecimalis Jordan and Starks; Chitose, Hokkaido. 





NO. 1308. HEMIBRANCHIATE FISHES—JORDAN AND STARKS. i: 
Family II. AvLoRHYNCHID2®. 
3. Aulichthys Brevyoort. 
4. japonicus Breyoort; Tokyo, Matsushima, Boshu. 
Family II. AvuLosromip®. 
4. Aulostomus Lacépede. 
5. valentini Bleeker. 
Family IV. Fisrunartm®. 
5. Fistularia Linneeus. 
6. depressa Ginther; Wakanoura, Misaki, Matsushima Bay. 
7. petimba Lacépéde; Wakanoura, Misaki, Nagasaki. 
Family V. MAacrorHAMPHOSID®. 
6. Macrorhamphosus Lacépéde. 
8. sagifue Jordan and Starks; Misaki, Enoura, Sagami Bay, Saruga Bay. 
9. japonicus Ginther. 
Family VI. Crenrriscip®. 
7. Aoliscus Jordan and Starks. 
10. strigatus (Gunther); Ishigaki Islands. 





DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN CRABS. 


By Mary J. Ratuprun, 


Second Assistant Curator, Division of Marine Invertebrates. 


Mr. H. W. Henshaw, of Hilo, Hawaii, has from time to time sent 
crustaceans to the U. S. National Museum. Among them are two 
erabs which appear to be undescribed. The species of Cyclograpsus 
has since been taken also by Mr. R. C. McGregor. 

The figures are drawn by Miss Sigrid Bentzon. 


CYCLOGRAPSUS HENSHAW/I, new species. 


Carapace four-fifths as long as broad, sides subparallel for nearly 
three-fourths of their length. Surface almost smooth, punctate, the 
puncte coarse on the front, a few depressed granules in the antero- 
lateral region; cervical suture and gastro-cardiac suture faintly 
marked. Postero-lateral 
region crossed obliquely by 
broken granulated lines. 
Margin of front not visible 
in a dorsal view, straight, 
about three-eighths as wide 
as carapace, granulate. 
Lateral edges margined, 
granulate, and entire. Al|- 
coholic specimens show 
six white spots on the an- 
terior half of the carapace, one on either side of the gastric region 
just in front of the middle and two farther forward, arranged trans- 
versely nearer the lateral margin. 

Chelipeds subequal. Merus granulate on upper margin and spar- 
ingly so on outer surface; inner margin denticulate, usually furnished 
with a lobe on the distal half. Carpus for the most part smooth; inner 
margin and angle granulate. Hand and fingers smooth; fingers gaping, 
inner edges crenulate. 

The ambulatory legs area little rough. The merus joints are granu- 
late on the anterior margin, the granules continued sparingly on the 





Fig. 1.—CYCLOGRAPSUS HENSHAWI, MALE, x 12. 





PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. XXVI—No. 1309. 


or 


76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 


upper surface. The anterior margin of the propodi is covered with 
short black bristles. The dactyli have six rows of the same, in which 
the spinules are almost hidden. 

Dimensions.—Length of male 13.5 mm.; width 17 mm.; fronto- 
orbital width 11.7 mm.; width of front 6.2 mm. Length of largest 
male 16 mm.; width 19.5 mm. 

Localities.—Hilo, Hawaii; H. W. Henshaw, collector (types, Cat. 
No. 22857). Kahului, Maui; R. C. McGregor, collector. Oahu, Ga/a- 
thea expedition; received from Copenhagen Museum, labeled ** C. ezne- 
reus Dana.” 

This little crab is not rare in the Hawaiian Islands. It has been 
found by Mr. Henshaw under stones at high-water mark, associated 

with (. granulatus Dana, which may be distin- 
euished by its arcuate side margins and the dense 
granulation of the anterior two-fifths of the cara- 
pace. C. cinereus Dana, of which there are speci- 
mens in the U. S. National Museum from San 
Lorenzo Island, Peru, has a narrower carapace, and 
the abdomen of the male wider and of a different 
form (see Dana’s figure). The new species ap- 
Fic. 2.—Cyciocrarsus proaches nearest to-C. parvulus de Man“ from Atjeh, 
HENSHAWI, ABDOMEN byt the front is wider in our species, the upper 
ee ies margin of the orbit is not directed backward, the 
merus of the maxilliped is longer, and the sixth seement of the abdo- 
men of the male shorter. 


OZIUS HAWAITIENSIS, new species. 


Length of carapace four-sevenths of width. Carapace convex both 


in a longitudinal and transverse direction. A narrow depressed area. 
extends around the front and antero-lateral region as far as the: 


penultimate tooth. Surface irregularly punctate; the anterior third is 


roughened with depressed granules and irregular pits. The anterior” 


part of the mesogastric region is very narrow and marked by deep) 


grooves. There is a shallow gastro-cardiac suture; otherwise the 
boundaries of the regions are not indicated. On either side are two 
shallow pits disposed obliquely in front of the middle. The fronto- 
orbital width is three-sevenths of the entire width. The front is about 


as wide as the orbits, and so deflexed that its real margin is not visible: 


in a dorsal view; the margin is four-lobed, the inner lobes larger than 
the outer and separated from each other by a deeper and narrower 
sinus than from the outer. The inner orbital tooth is well marked. 
Antero-lateral margin cut into four teeth; the first is almost obliter- 
ated in the adult, being merged with the orbital angle; its outer 
margin is longer than that of the secend. The second and third are 
of equal length, the second most prominent. 








« Zool. Jahrb., Syst., IX, 1896, p. 350; 1898, pl. xxx11, fig. 42. 


No. 1309. NEW HAWAIIAN CRABS—RATHBUN. 77 


The subhepatic and subbranchial regions are roughened near the 
anterior and lateral margins of the carapace. A ridge runs from 
near the posterior end of the first antero-lateral tooth to the lower 
margin of the orbit. 





Fic. 3.—OzIUS HAWAIIENSIS, FEMALE, 12. 


Chelipeds unequal (in the-female). The merus has a subterminal 
notch on the upper margin. The outer surface of the carpus and 
upper surface of the manus are roughened with irregular and mostly 
transverse pits, the intervening ridges deeply punctate. The carpus 
has two blunt inner teeth, one below the other. The fingers are black, 
marked with a few slightly im- 
pressed lines of pits; the pollex is ee een 
wider than the dactylus, which is Ce eS eS 
considerably longer than the upper Fis. 4.—Ozrus HAWATIENSIS, MARGIN OF FRONT, 
margin of the palm. The fingers eS 
of the larger hand gape a little; each has a larger tooth near the base. 
The ambulatory legs are sparsely hairy. 

Dimensions.—Length of female with ova 16 mm.; width 28 mm.; 
fronto-orbital width 12.5 mm.; width of front 6 mm. 

Type locality. —Hilo, Hawaii, under stones at high-water mark; 
H. W. Henshaw, collector (Cat. No. 22852). Only females and young 
have been secured. 

Ozius hawatiensis differs from allied species, such as O. verreauxis 
Saussure and Y. truncatus Milne Edwards, in lacking a sharp ridge 
on the carapace, extending obliquely inward ané forward from the last 
or penultimate antero-lateral tooth. 











CONTRIBUTION TO A MONOGRAPH OF THE INSECTS ( )F 
THE ORDER THYSANOPTERA INHABITING NORTH 
AMERICA. 





By Warren Etmer Hinps, 
Of the Massachusetts Agricultural ¢ ‘ollege. 


INTRODUCTION. 


| Very little attention has been given to the Thysanoptera of North 
America. So far as I can learn, descriptions or names of only twenty- 
three species have thus far (June, 1902) been published, besides three 
which have been recognized as previously described from Europe. 
Of the twenty-six species thus known in this country, four at least are 
certainly unrecognizable (Limothrips tritici Packard, J hlwothrips mali 
Ritch, P. caryx Fitch, Thrips Phyllowere Riley). Of the remaining 
twenty-two, six have been found identical with previously described 
species and therefore become synonyms—the large number is not 
surprising as many: of the early descriptions are entirely too brief to 
insure positive identification. Therefore only sixteen species have 
hitherto been known to occur in this country. We may say that 
almost no systematic work has been done on the order in the United 
States, and, with the exception of a study of the ‘* Thripide of Iowa,” 
by Miss Alice M. Beach, most of. the descriptions are scattered 
through different publications. I have endeavored to collect and 
present here such important facts as have already been published 
relating to members of this order, together with the observations 
which I have been able to make. An attempt has been made to place 
the work upon a systematic basis, and in order to make the deserip- 
tions uniform, and thus comparative, all the existing types that it has 
been possible for me to see have been examined and redescribed. In 
all, thirty-seven species are thus treated in the systematic part of this 
paper. Other descriptions which it has not been possible for me to 
place are given together by themselves in the hope that some one 
more fortunate or skillful than myself may have material by which 
to identify them. 











PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. XXVI—No. 1310. 
79 


& 
80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


There are given herein descriptions of eighteen species which I 
believe to be new, all but two of them having been collected at 
Amherst. Massachusetts, and within a radius of 2 miles of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College, but even this field has not yet been 
thoroughly collected. The abundance of new species obtained within 
such narrow limits shows us how very little has been done upon this 
order and therefore it will not be surprising, when more attention 
shall be given to these tiny insects by collectors, if this small order, 
which has been considered as insignificant in numbers as well as in 
the size of its individuals, should prove to be quite extensive in the 
number of its species. Of the new species described in this paper, a 
complete set of types has been deposited in the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College; a set of cotypes, so far as they exist, has been deposited 
in the United States National Museum; a third set of cotypes I have 
retained for my own use, and the remainder I have also deposited in 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College. The number of specimens 
from which the species has been described follows each description. 
Eleven of the thirteen previously described American species have 





been redescribed as have also a number which I believe have been ° 


previously described in Europe. Descriptions of early stages have 
been given where known and the authority therefor noted in each 
‘nstance. It will be noticed that in all cases the description of the 
female precedes that of the male, or the latter may be wanting 
entirely. Among the Thysanoptera the females are much more 


abundant than the males and also more characteristic when both are | 


known. For these reasons all of the descriptions are based mainly 
upon the female. It would be impossible to give a bibliography of | 
the species of this country without including many references to) 
European works. Therefore the bibliography is intended to include» 
the literature of this order for the world rather than for North) 


America alone. Each reference has been numbered so that it could be’ 


referred to by number when desired without repeating the whole title. 


Such references have been made by inserting the bibliographical | 
number inclosed by a parenthesis where authority for a statement is | 


referred to, thus, (1). 

I desire here to acknowledge that I am under many obligations to 
those who have assisted in making this paper more complete by kindly, 
loaning type specimens, without the examination of which the identifi- | 
cation of several species could not have been certain. I should state; 
that these types were not loaned to me directly, but to Prof. C. Haj 
Fernald, who kindly took upon himself the responsibility for them, 
but as I have been the one to profit by them it gives me pleasure to. 
express my thanks to Prof. J. H. Comstock, through whose kindness) 
I was able to see the type of Limothrips poaphagus; to Prof. Herbert) 
Osborn for the privilege of examining at my leisure his type of Z: hrips 


| 


a 





_ No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 81 


striata; to Prot. C. P. Gillette for the loan of his supposed Thrips 
striatus; to Prof. H. E. Somers for sending the types of Miss Beach 
and Professor Osborn, with their kind permission, to Dr. Henry 
Uzel for the positive identification of Thrips tabaci with his Thrips 
communis, and finally to Dr. L. O. Howard and Mr. Theodore 
Pergande for giving me access to the material in the United States 
National Museum collection. 

This paper forms the major portion of a thesis for the degree of 
doctor of philosophy at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, where 
it has been prepared under the supervision of Prof. Charles H. Fernald 
and Dr. Henry T. Fernald, who have charge of the work in the depart- 
ment of entomology. To both, for the many ways in which they have 
guided and encouraged me in the work of the past three years, I give 
my heartiest thanks. 


HISTORY OF THYSANOPTERA. 


These insects were first described by DeGeer in 1744, under the 
name Physapus (2). Linneeus ignored this name and placed the four 
species known to him ina genus which he called 7/r/ps, locating it in the 
order Hemiptera, immediately after his genus Coccvs (5). In 1806, C. 
Dumeril raised the group to the rank of a family, which he called 
Vesitarses or Physapodes but retained it in the order Hemiptera 
(44). C. F. Fallen (47), in 1814, changed the name of the family to 
*Thripsites,” but did not change its ordinal position, and this name 
was retained by Newman (61) as the name of a ‘‘ natural order,” which, 
however, had only family value. In 1825, Latreille (50) used for 
them the names Thripsides and Physapi. A. H. Haliday, in 1836, 
published an extensive study of the British insects belonging to this 
group and concluded that they should be given ‘the rank of an 
order, for which he proposed the name Thysanoptera (63). Probably 
about two years later, Burmeister (69) also gave them ordinal rank, 
with the name Physapoda, since which time most writers have 
adopted one or the other of these ordinal names. Those who adopt 
Physapoda appear to base their preference largely upon the priority 
of Dumeril’s use of the name Physapodes, Physopoda (Physapoda) 
being a re-formation of the term. It does not, however, seem to the 
writer that this position can be sustained, as at that time there was no 
genus Physopus, DeGeer’s name having no standing, as it was given 
before the tenth edition of Systema Nature.“ 

‘It seems therefore that Haliday was the first to give the group the 
rank of an order and to apply thereto a properly formed ordinal name: 
Thysanoptera, from Sioavos, a tassel, and zrepor, a wing. This 
basing of the name upon characters of the wings is in accord with 
general usage in the various orders of insects. I believe that Thysan- 





“See Canons V and XIII, A. O. U. Code, 1892. 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 6 





82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 








optera can claim priority and correctness of formation and should 
therefore be adopted. 

While the scientific name of the group has been subjected to so 
many changes, the most frequently used common name has persisted 
unchanged since the time of Linnzus. It is nothing more or less 
than the name which he gave to the genus Thrips, and is now applied 
in the same form to any individual of the order. It is therefore 
incorrect to drop the ‘*s” when referring to an individual, as is 
frequently done. Thrips is a Latin name derived from the Greek 
Spup, meaning a wood-louse, and is in the singular number and mas- 
culine gender, as will be also all generic names of which it forms the 
termination. 

Various other common names based upon two of the most striking 
characters of the group have also been used to a limited extent: Blad- 
der feet (Blasenfusse or Vesitarses), referring to the peculiar structure 
of the extremity of the leg, is appropriate and much used by German 
writers. Fringe-wings, from Thysanoptera, has also been used, but 
much more rarely. 


SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF THYSANOPTERA. 


The systematic position of this group has undergone unusual change 
since its establishment by Linneus. Working as he did upon the 
most striking superficial characters, Linneeus recognized in Thrips 
certain affinities with the Hemiptera-Homoptera, in which order he 
placed them. About 1828 through the anatomical studies of Straus- 
Durcheim and Latreille, sufficient evidence was obtained to lead 
Latreille to separate them from the Hemiptera and place them among 
the Orthoptera. By other writers they have been regarded as Pseudo- 
neuroptera, but at the present time the general opinion is that they 
form an order by themselves. 

So far as the writer can learn, the best work dealing with this ques- 
tion has been done by Jordan (309). His studies were made princi- 
pally upon //leliothrips dracenx Heeger, representing the Terebrantia 
and Phlwothrips brunnea Jordan, representing the Tubulifera, but 
many other species were also considered and his conclusions are based 
upon anatomical (both external and internal) and biological considera- 


rl 
3 
; 





+, 


tions. The following is a free translation of a portion of Jordan’s — 


conclusion. 


In regard to the place of Physapoda, we must classify them according to their — 


immersed germ band and their larval form in the line of the Orthoptera, Homoptera, 


Hemiptera, wherein they should be placed according to their anatomy and biology. — 


In habits the Physapoda, especially the larvee, resemble small Cicadelline. The 
hypognathism of Thrips is found in such marked degree that the mouth cone comes 
to lie under the prothorax as in the case of Homoptera, especially Phytophthira. 
The number and position of the ocelli resembles the Orthoptera s. 1. more than the 
Homoptera, while the position of the antennze is similar to that of the Orthoptera 


Bae chee: > 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 83 





and Aphidee. In the structure of the mouthparts, the Physapoda are not as far 
removed from the Orthoptera as are the Rhynchota; the Physapod proboscis is of a 
type between the biting mouthparts of Orthoptera and the sucking mouth of the 
Rhynchota, by which it is not meant that the Homoptera have developed from our 
Physapoda. The biting mouth organs of the Orthoptera are here concealed by the 
transformation of the mandibles into piercing bristles and the growing together of 
the labrum with the maxillee and labium, while the piercing bristles form a short 
tube to the sucking proboscis. In this respect the Physapoda should be considered 
as Rhynchota together with the Homoptera and Heteroptera. 

Thrips have the free prothorax in common with the Orthoptera s. 1. and the Ryn- 
chota. The development of the meso and metathorax shows that at least the meta- 
sternum and mesosternum are nearly equal to those in the Orthoptera, while the 
absence of the metaphragma, which is always present in the Orthoptera, and the dis- 
appearance of the long metathoracic muscles which are not reduced there, bring 
Thrips into close connection with the Homoptera. The first ventral ring is main- 
tained through the absence of the first ventral plate and the entrance of the dorsal 
plate into the thoracic covering in the Physapoda just as in many Orthoptera s. 1., 
but a quite similar condition is also shown in the first abdominal segment of the 
Homopterous Psyllidee, a sign that Orthopteroid characters may be retained even in 
genuine Rhynchota. 

A reduction of the system of venation of the wing takes place in the Phytophthira 
as in the Physapoda, but not in the same degree in the Orthopteras. 1. Tho Physapod 
wing isa Phytophthiran wing in which the large spread is greatly reduced, as in the 
Pterophoridie, by the development of long fringes. 

In regard to the concentrated nervous system, Thrips come very close to Rhyn- 
chota and are far removed from the Orthoptera, but in this connection it is worth 
noting that the aberrant Mallophaga, provided with biting mouth parts, also possess a 
concentrated nervous system. Aside from these doubtful cases, all other Orthoptera 
have a developed chain of ventral ganglia. The tracheal system of Thrips has the 
small number of three or four pairs of stigmata. We find the stigmata reduced 
usually in the breathing organs of holometabolous insects. Among the Rhynchota we 
find it as in the Coccidze; all other Rhynchota and the Orthoptera are holopneustic. 
The alimentary canal of Physapoda is characterized by the possession of four mal- 
pighian vessels which occur in like manner in all Rhynchota with the exception of the 
Aphid which have none, and the Coccidze which have two urinary organs. The 
Orthoptera have a large number of urinary tubes, with the exception of the Termi- 
tide and Psocidse with six and the Mallophaga with four. The long, slender zeso- 
phagus of Terebrantia which reaches even into the abdomen is found also in the 
Psyllide, the large loop of the midgut of Terebrantia is characteristic of many Homop- 
tera, but in these the enlargement of the loop of the gut running back, takes place 
at the beginning of the midgut. 

The male sexual apparatus, with its simple, often pear-shaped testes, resembles the 
Mallophaga about as much as the Phytophthira; the female organs, from the rosette 
arrangement of the ovarian tubes, resembles the tubes in the Rhynchota; the want 
of connective strands of the eggs with the germ area places the ovaries especially 
beside those of the Cicadelline. The genital armature of the Terebrantia is found in 
the Grthoptera and Phytophthira. 

_ Jn anatomical respects, therefore, the Physapoda come nearer the Homoptera than 
the Orthoptera s. 1. There is also a series of biological facts which strengthen still 
further the connection of these insects with the Homoptera. First, I would recall 
that the Physapoda with their nymph and pronymph stages, in which they take no 
nourishment, exhibit a very similar transformation to that which is known to take 
place in Coccid males. The parthenogenesis of Thrips is not Orthopteroid, but a 
method of reproduction which is peculiar chiefly to the Phytophthira. The frequent 


sai i 
oceurrence of apterous species without rudiments of wings, the condition that one _ 
sex is so frequently winged while the other is wingless, that among the normally — 
winged species there appear individuals with reduced wings, that the latter phenom- | 
enon occurs especially toward autumn; all these are occurrences which take place to 
a considerable degree in the Phytophthira. 

The manner of nourishment of Thrips, their life in larval colonies, the rapid and 
successive development of each generation, the sucking of plant roots by the larve, — 
the periodical swarming of multitudes of the winged species give to Thrips through- 
out an Aphid-like character. 

Therefore we can not doubt that we must separate the Physapoda from the 
Orthoptera s. 1., but we must still determine whether we may incorporate them into 
the Rhynchota. If we maintain the division of the insects into eight orders (Thysa- 
nura, Orthoptera s. 1., Rhynehota, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, 
and Coleoptera) and include in these orders the aberrant Siphonaptera, Mallophaga, 
Strepsiptera, the first in the Diptera, the others in the Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 
then we must also consider the Physapoda as Rhynchota and divide the Rhynchota 
into Heteroptera, Homoptera, and Physapoda. 

But if, according to Brauer’s classification, we break up the conglomeration of the 
Orthoptera s. 1. into several orders of insects equivalent to the well-defined Coleop- 
tera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Neuroptera, and also consider the 
aberrant Siphonaptera as a single order, just as the Bryozoa, Echinorhyncha, etc., 
represent aberrant types of worms, then there is no necessity for destroying the unity 
of the type of the Rhynchota by the incorporation of the Physapoda, but we can 
erect for Thrips a new order, the phyllogenetic value of which we find in that they 
have branched off from the line of the Orthoptera-Homoptera-Heteroptera where the 
Orthopteroid characters of the Homoptera are not entirely suppressed, and that they 
exhibit special mouth parts which morphologically still remain somewhat Orthop- 
teroid, but functionally are quite Rhynchotoid. The Mallophaga with their Rhyn- 
chota-like nervous system and their four malpighian vessels must have branched off 
before the Physapoda. Their special connection with the Physapoda arises from 
the form of the tracheal stigmata in the development of the thorax in which the » 
metanotum, as in the Physapoda, is larger than the mesonotum in contrast with all 
Rhynchota and Orthoptera. If we collect the Mallophaga, Psocidee, and Termitidee » 
as Corrodentia with Brauer, then we must place Physapoda in the system between 
Corrodentia and Rhynchota. 


84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. xxvii 


; 
4 


COLLECTION OF THYSANOPTERA. 


As the life habits of species of this order differ very greatly, the 
methods of collection must be varied according to the species. The 
majority of these insects are to be found in flowers, grass, etc.; many 
are found exclusively in turf or near the surface of the ground; others, 
are taken most commonly under the bark of trees, on foliage, etc. 

For the grass-inhabiting species, I have found a short-handled sweep-_ 
ing net, made of fine muslin, most serviceable. Other cloths may be 
used, but the texture must be considerably finer than that of cheese: 
cloth or many of the smaller species can easily pass through it and 
escape. Asa white background greatly facilitates the observation of | 
these small creatures, the contents of the net may be carefully exam- 
ined by slowly turning it inside out without emptying it or the net. 
may be emptied and the contents be examined upon a sheet of white: 
paper carried for the purpose. Small phials serve as convenient recep- 


* 


+ 





No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 85 





tacles for the collections from various plants or other sources and thus 
they may be kept separate if desired. The most convenient method 
yet found for catching these lively little animals is to moisten a fine 
eamel’s-hair brush and place it directly upon the escaping actively 
jumping or flying forms. Those that are more sluggish in their move- 
ments can be easily lifted upon the point of the brush and transferred 
to the phial, which may be stoppered with a cork or wad of cotton. A 
label giving such data as it is desired to preserve may be placed in the 
phial or attached to the outside and a bit of the food plant may well 
be placed inside with the insects. In this bottle they may be kept 
alive for some time, if it is not convenient to preserve them at once. 

Uzel recommends for collection from flowers, inclosing the flower 
head, insects and all, in a four-cornered paper bag, folding the upper 
edge over twice and fastening with a pin. Flowers of only one sort 
should be placed ina bag. The contents of the bags are examined at 
home upon a sheet of white paper and the escaping creatures captured 
with the aid of a fine brush dipped in alcohol. In winter, dried flow- 
ers and grass stems yield many hibernating forms. 

Tree-inhabiting species may be found by beating over a white sur- 
face, or foliage may be collected and sifted by means of a fine beetle 
sieve, which is a great convenience for this work. In this way may be 
found also many species inhabiting turf, moss, fallen foliage, or decay- 
ing bark. The sifting may be done directly over white paper or the 
siftings collected by means of a fine bag fastened around the sieve and 
examined at the collector’s leisure at home. Some species are known 
to inhabit certain oak galls and probably other galls will be found to 
shelter other species. The gall is, as a rule, the work of some other 
insect which the Thrips has appropriated for its home, but in Aus- 
tralia some galls are said to be formed by the Thrips themselves. Both 
Uzel and Jordan state that many inhabit fungi, but I have not yet 
found any in such a location. 


PRESERVATION AND MOUNTING. 


Various methods of preserving these tiny insects have been tried. 
Being so small that it is impossible to study them without the aid of 
‘a compound microscope, the method has been sought for which would 
best preserve the natural form and color of the insect and the most 
satisfactory results have been obtained in the following simple way: 

The specimens to be mounted, having been brought into the labora- 
tory alive in small bottles, are quickly killed, and at the same time 
cleared, by dropping them directly into xylol in which they are left 
for about an hour. They may then be mounted directly in balsam dis- 
solved in xylol without danger of cloudiness resulting from moisture 
in the insect body. The mounts are clear, natural colors are well 
preserved, and when dried they are permanent and always available 


86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





for study. Working with such small insects, it is difficult to arrange 
them satisfactorily upon the slide, but with patience and care this can 
be accomplished fairly well. The wings should be spread, and this 
condition has, as a rule, been most easily obtained by transferring the 
insect from the xylol to the center of a clean slide, and then teasing 
the wings out to the desired position by means of a fine bristle. The 
balsam is then placed on the cover and gently lowered onto the insect. 
As the balsam spreads it tends to carry out the wings, legs, and 
antenne so that they are in a position for study. It is a convenience 
in study to have two specimens on the same slide, one being dorsal, 
the other ventral side up. Specimens of different species should not 
be placed upon the same slide. If it is desired to keep a large num- 
ber of duplicates, it is not, perhaps, advisable to mount them all in 
this way, as they can be fairly well preserved by placing the living 
insects directly in about 80 per cent aleohol. Alcohol is, however, 
liable, or even likely, to cause an abnormal distension of the body, 
especially with Tubulifera, and if some of these distended specimens 
are afterwards mounted permanently for study it will be found that 
their general appearance has become so changed that the species 1s 
scarcely recognizable. For this reason I can recommend alcohol only 
for duplicates of well known species and never for undescribed 
material. 

While balsam mounts, made as described, seem to be best. for pre- 
serving the general natural appearance of the insect, mounts made in 
another way are more useful for study of the chitinous structure. 
Everything but the chitin is dissolved by allowing the specimen to 


mascerate for from twenty-four to thirty-six hours in a cold 10 per. 


cent solution of caustic potash, or by boiling for a few minutes in a 


little of the same solution. When thoroughly cleared the specimen 
may be mounted directly in elycerin, or washed in water, dehydrated 
in alcohol followed by xylol, and then mounted in balsam. Such 


mounts can be examined under high-power lenses and reveal many | 
fine details of chitinous structure which can not be seen in ordinary 
mounts. 

A few words in regard to glycerin mounts may save some one such) 
disappointment and loss as my experience with them has caused me. 
During one summer quite a large number of mounts were made by 
placing the insect directly into elycerin contained in a low cell, made 
either of white zinc cement or hard glycerin jelly, the cover glass: 
being carefully sealed on with the white zinc cement in each case. 
These mounts were beautifully clear at first and were placed aside for 
study during the winter. When examined again after a few months 
they were found to be ruined and worthless. Nearly every specimen 
was more or less thickly covered, especially around the spiracles and 
thin membranous areas, with dense clusters of white, needle-like 


no. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 87 


crystals, many oF which were ee floating tirough: ie Gcena 
Asa result these slides, containing most of the results of a summer’s 
collecting, had to be thrown away. The exact composition of the 
crystals was not determined, but it is supposed that they were mostly 
phosphates which had been dissolved in the juices of the insect’s body. 
As the juices were gradually drawn out, the phosphatic salts, not 
being soluble in the glycerin, were deposited as the white crystals. 
There are still other objections to glycerin as a mounting medium 
for Thysanoptera, though it may be all right for other insects. The 
dark pigment of the eyes is frequently dissolved out by glycerin, and 
spreads all through the head, suffusing it with a dark color, which 
obscures all details in that region. Furthermore, glycerin does not 
preserve the tissues of the body fora very long time. They gradually 
go to pieces, the segments spread apart, and the mount becomes 
worthless in the course of a few years. Of course this objection to 
glycerin does apply to the mounting of chitin which has been cleared 
from all soft tissues by treatment with caustic potash solution, as 
chitin is unaffected by glycerin. 


EXTERNAL ANATOMY. 
INTEGUMENT. 


Adult.—The chitinous skeleton of these insects is quite firm. The 
body wall is made up of strongly chitinized, rigid plates joined together 
by thin and very flexible membranes. The texture of the plates 
appears usually to be quite uniform in different parts of the same 
specimen. In the head, especially, several of them are so smoothly 
joined that no sutures are visible. The thin connecting membrane 

may be smooth and of a uniform thickness, or, as in many parts of 
the Tubulifera, it may show a peculiar structure in the nature of regu- 
lar, distinct, very minute, plate- like thickenings, varying in form but 
Brien circular or hexagonal, giving a decidedly granular appearance to 
the area. 

The chitin is frequently thrown into more or less distinct folds or 
ridges, most frequently transverse in direction, but often branching 
and running together to form a reticulated structure. The back of 
the head and the pronotum are most frequently marked in this way. 
Sometimes the ridges become very thick and pronounced, and form a 
regular network over the surface so conspicuous as to be of use in 
classification (L/eliothrips, Parthenothrips, see Plate VI, fie. 64). This 
reticulation may extend over the whole outer surface of the body, 
legs, and even the fore wings, but always seems to be heaviest upon 
the head and pronotum. It is not known to occur in the olothr ipidee, 
but is found in several species of Thripide, and I have discovered it 
in an undescribed species of Phlaothripide. 


88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





In certain parts of the body there are found invaginations of the 
chitinous, external skeleton serving as advantageous points for the 
attachment of muscles. These can best be seen on the meso and 
metasternal plates of winged species of Thripidee, and are darker than 
the plates in color. Many species show a narrow, transverse line 
across the second to seventh dorsal abdominal plates near the anterior 
edge of each. This dark line is caused by-a chitinous, ridge-like 
thickening forming an arch on the inside of each of these plates. 

The chitin of the skeleton is rarely entirely unpigmented.  Pig- 
mentation may take place in the cuticle itself, when the color is usually 
gray, yellow, brown, or black, or color may appear from pigments 
deposited in the hypodermis or fat-body. Such deposits are usually 
very irregular and of a yellow, red, or purple color. Pigments are 
frequently present in both places in the same individual. Metallic 
colors do not oceur. 

Larva.—Vhe chitin of the larva is much less firm than that of the 
adult, and there is scarcely any differentiation in texture or structure 
between the plates and connecting membranes. The surface is not 
reticulated, but is usually considerably wrinkled transversely and 
roughened, though sometimes it is quite smooth. 

Pigments are rarely present in the chitin of the larva, and when 
they do occur the colors seem to be Jimited to gray, yellow, or brown. | 
Larvee are usually cf yellow or red color, but these colors are due to — 
hypodermal or fat-body pigments, and to some extent, perhaps, to the 
body fluids. : 

Pupa.—The delicacy of the chitinous covering of the early stages | 
‘an be seen during the period of transformation. It is then thin, — 
smooth, and often shining. The cuticle forms a delicate sheath around — 
the wings, antenne, and legs, and toward the end of this stage can be — 
plainly seen separated from the body of the inclosed adult. i 

Integunental appendages.—These are present in the form of hairs, i 
bristles, or spines which are variously modified. They are frequently — 
borne upon small warts or tubercles which can be most distinctly seen — 
upon the cheeks of many Tubulifera. The membranes of the wings — 
are thickly set with microscopic hairs, usually either darker than the— 
membrane itself or sharing its color. In some species (Sericothrips, 
various species) the abdomen is also thickly set with microscopic hairs, ¢ 
giving it a sleek, velvety appearance, and whorls of similar minute 
hairs often mark the antennal segments. The posterior fringes of the — 
wings are always composed of long slender hairs, usually more or less” 
spiral or wavy in appearance and inserted either directly into the edge — 
of the wing (Tubulifera) or attached by a joint toa fixed base upon the — 
edge (Terebrantia). This joint allows of motion only in the plane of © 
the wing and toward its tip; it facilitates the folding of the hairs into— 
line with the edge of the wing when the latter is brought to rest. r 


‘ 


"| 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 89 


In nearly all species numerous short, small spines are borne upon 
the various parts, especially upon the prothorax, legs, and antenne. 
Larger and more conspicuous spines or bristles mark especially the 
exposed parts of the body such as the vertex of the head, the angles 
of the prothorax, the veins of the wings in the Terebrantia, and the 
last two or three segments of the abdomen. Special modifications of 
these larger spines are found in many adult Tubulifera in the form of 
hairs which have usually a slender shaft and at the tip are roundly 
knobbed or irregularly funnel-shaped, though sometimes they are 
short and cut off squarely at the tip where they are fully as large as at 
their base. 

Larve and pupe of both suborders, in many cases, bear such 
knobbed or funnel hairs which, when present in the pup, are even 
longer and more slender than in the larvee. The spines in many cases 
are placed in quite regular segmental rows, both in transverse and 
longitudinal directions. 





HEAD. 


The form of the head is peculiar and extremely variable. (See figs. 4, 
14, 27, 55, 93, 107, etc.) But while this variation is great between 
different species, the proportion of length to breadth in the same 
species is very constant. The different sclerites forming the head are 
so completely fused as to be indistinguishable and we can therefore 
designate the regions of the head only ina general way. The dorsal 
portion back of the eyes is called the occiput, that between the eyes 
and extending forward to the bases of the antenne is the vertex, 
between the bases of the antenne and the attachment of the mouth 
cone on the ventral side is the frons, while the sides of the head are 
called the cheeks (genze of other orders). The usual appendages of 
the insect head are present and ‘will be considered separately. 

Antennxe.—These are inserted upon the extreme front of the head 
and stand quite closely together upon the front margin between the 
eyes. They are always much longer than the head and may be two or 
three times as long. The number of segments is a character of much 
importance in classification and varies from six to nine. The form of 
the segments ranges from cylindrical to almost spherical, and this 
character is also of importance in classification. The spines upon the 
segments become more numerous as the apex is approached, and on 
the intermediate segments are mostly borne upon the apical half of 
each. The Molothripide lack the specialized form and arrangement 
of the spines which is found in Thripide; their antenne are quite 
uniformly clothed with short hairs or bristles. In the Thripide this 
general hairiness is lost, except in those species having whorls of hairs 
around intermediate segments, while a few much longer and usually 
more conspicuous spines are developed. The antennal spines of Phloe- 
othripide resemble in a general way those of Thripide. In both 


90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 








these families certain spines seem to have undergone much modifica- 
tion and to have become specialized as sense organs of some particular 
sort. (See Plate XJ, figs. 123, 124.) They are larger than the unspe- 
cialized spines, thin walled and almost transparent, and usually end in 
a blunt point. In some species they are quite prominent, but as a-rule 
are inconspicuous and require a careful adjustment of the light to be 
clearly seen. They are always simple in Phlceothripide and are 
usually borne upon segments three to tive, sometimes three to seven. 

In the Thripide similar structures are found, but they have under- 
gone even greater specialization in most cases. In a few genera 
(Chirothrips, Limothrips, Aptinothrips, and Parthenothrips) they are 
simple and stand singly, one to a segment, upon the outer angles of 
segments three, four, and sometimes five, and upon the inner side at 
about the middle of six. In most cases, however, it appears that two 
of these specialized spines have approached and united at their base, 
so that we find upon the upper side of segment three and the under 
side of four, near their tips, a peculiar crescentic organ having the 
same apparent structure as the specialized spines just described and 
borne upon a small stalk standing ina clear, membranous area. (Plate 
XI, fig. 128.) In some cases these organs are shaped much like the 
horns of cattle and are curved in two directions, being curved forward 
and also toward the axis of the antenna. The fifth segment sometimes 
bears a simple spine and another one is also well developed upon the 
inner side of the sixth. The function of these structures is uncertain, 
but they are usually called sense cones. 

In the Aolothripide an entirely different type of sense organ is 
found, though the two may possibly have much the same function. 
Upon the underside of segments three and four are narrow, much 
elongated longitudinally, thin, membranous areas, situated upon the 
outer half of each segment and a very small round spot of similar 
structure is similarly placed near the tip of segment five. (Plate XJ, 
fig. 122.) These membranous areas strongly suggest an auditory 
function, but this is, perhaps, only a possibility. 

Abnormal antenne are not uncommon, and one or both may be 
deformed. The most common variation is in the line of a reduction 
in the number of segments through the fusion of two or more of the — 
apical ones. Such deformed antenne may not be shorter than the 
normal ones, but there is usually some reduction in length. In one 
case, at least (Aptinothrips rufus var. connatticornis), there occurs a 
regular and apparently normal fusion of the two segments constitut- 
ing the style of the typical form with the sixth segment (Plate V, figs. 
52, 54), which in this case is considered as a varietal distinction. An 
increase in the number of segments above the normal, by a division of 
one or more, is not known. 

The antennx are carried extended forward in front of the head, and — 


"No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 91 


are not normally laid back along the body when at rest. In the 
Terebrantia the first two segments are usually markedly broader than 
the others. ; 

Larval antennz vary considerably from those of adults. The num- 
ber of segments is constantly smaller, and the form is generally 
changed. Sense cones are not present, and the arrangement of spines 
is quite different from that in the adult. 


ORGANS OF VISION. 


Lyes.—Adult Thrips possess faceted eyes, which are borne upon 
the front angles of the head and extend downward onto the frons 
about as far as they do upward onto the vertex; rarel y they are situ- 
ated farther back upon the sides of the head, but still near the front, 
They are circular, oval, or reniform in outline. The size and number 
of facets varies considerably in different species, as does also the close- 
ness of the facets to each other. The eyes are quite large, as com- 
pared with the size of the head, being together about one-half the 
width of the head through them. In many species, especially in Tere- 
brantia, they are strongly protruding (Helvothrips, Parthenothrips). 
The individual facets are usually considerably swollen, and small hairs 
project from between them, thus giving the eyea peculiar resem- 
blance to the surface of a raspberry. The cornea is quite thick, trans- 
parent, usually slightly tinged with yellow, and appears like a light- 
colored margin around the outside of the eye. The part of the head 
closely adjoining the eye is frequently also much lighter in color than 
the remainder of the head. 

The pigmentation of the eye is dense and dark, so that, as a rule, 
by transmitted light the eye is entirely opaque, while by reflected 
light it may be red or very dark purple in color. 

The eyes of larve are much smaller and simpler than those of the 
adults. They consist of but few large, separated facets, and are situ 
ated farther back upon the sides of the head. 

Ocelli.—These are adult structures, and are not present in larve, 
though the pigment of the developing ocelli can sometimes be seen 
late in the larval stage. They are not always present, however, even 
in the adults. They are three in number, situated more or less closely 
together between the eyes on the vertex of the head, and are placed 
always in the form of a triangle, with its apex forward. Rarely only 
two ocelli are present, and it is then the front one which is wanting. 
Ocelli are present in all winged forms, and usually also in the short- 
winged forms of winged species. They are absent, however, in 
entirely wingless species. 


MOUTH PARTS. 


The mouth parts of Thrips are difficult to study, and so pecul larly 
modified that it has been found hard to determine their homologies. 


92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





This fact accounts largely for the many changes which have been made 
in the classification of this group. It is now generally admitted that 
their action is largely suctorial. They exhibit structures which seem 
to show a transition from a mandibulate to a haustellate form, and for 
this reason are of peculiar interest. 

As a whole the mouth apparatus appears as a broad, unjointed cone 
attached to the extreme posterior edge of the under side of the head, 
being carried so far back that its attachment to the rest of the head 
lies largely under the pronotum (Plate X, fig. 111). The apex of the 
cone is usually quite sharp, but never as slender as in the Hemiptera, 
and lies, when at rest, in a depression of the prosternum between the 
fore cox. In many species the mouth cone is bluntly rounded. In 
the Terebrantia it is attached to the frons by a strongly chitinized 
thickening, running more or less obliquely across the under side of the 
head. In most species this dark thickening is nearer the left eye than 
the right and is connected by a similar thickening with the margin of 
the left eye (Plate XI, fig. 120). This connection is wanting on the 
right side, though a portion of the thickening still remains close to the 
right eye. In the Tubulifera the base of the mouth cone is much more 
nearly symmetrical and the connections with the eyes are entirely 
wanting (Plate XI, fig. 127). 

Asymmetry.—sSo far as we can learn, Prof. H. Garman was the first 
to call attention to the very peculiar asymmetry which is characteristic 
of the mouth parts of the members of this order, and he gave a new 
interpretation to certain of these parts, which we believe to be correct. 

Not only is the connection of the mouth cone, as a whole, with the 
frons asymmetrical, but also some of the individual parts of the mouth 
are markedly so. The most striking of these are the form of the— 
labrum and the absence of the right mandible. These parts will be 
considered more in detail by themselves. 

Labrum.—tThe labrum forms the front wall of the cone (Plate XI, 
figs. 120, 127). It is decidedly asymmetrical in all Thysanoptera, but — 
especially so in the Terebrantia. It is irregularly triangular in form, 
does not reach to the endocranial thickening, but is attached by its 
broad base to the clypeus by an indistinct membranous connection. 
From the base it narrows to the tip, where it is more or less rounded — 
in Terebrantia, but is quite pointed and spine-like in many Tubulifera, 
though bluntly rounded in others. It is drawn out much farther 
toward the right cheek than toward the left, and on the right side also 
approaches most closely to the transverse thickening. The labrum is 
usually abruptly darker in color than the area between its base and 
the transverse thickening. 

Mawille.—The mixille are broad, flat, and external. Like the 
labrum, they are wedge-shaped or triangular in general form, and they 
constitute the side walls of the mouth cone. They taper toward their — 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 93 


tips, where they are quite sharply pointed and strongly chitinized, and 
may reach slightly beyond the labrum. At about the middle point of 
the side of each maxilla is borne a two or three segmented palpus. 
In the Molothripide this is always three segmented and geniculate; 
in the Thripidee it is composed of two or three approximately equal 
segments and is straight, the segments being cylindrical but decreas- 
ing successively in diameter; in the Phloothripide it is always two 
segmented and the segments are very unequal in length, the basal one 
being short and rounded while the second is long, slender, and cylin- 
drical. The terminal segment is in all cases provided with a few touch 
bristles which are but rarely distinctly and easily visible. 

Labium.—The labium is believed to be formed by the union of the 
second pair of maxiile and in many insects evidence of this can be 
seen, but in the Thysanoptera there is no visible suture along the 
median line, though sometimes a deep median notch is present at the 
tip. It forms the hind wall of the mouth cone and is, as a rule, con- 
siderably broader at the tip than the other parts. In many species, of 
Tubulifera especially, it is very broad and heavy at the tip, but in 
others it is narrowed and the whole mouth cone is then usually elon- 
gated and pointed. Standing closely together, each upon a membra- 
nous space a little to one side of the middle of the tip, are the two or 
four segmented, cylindrical, labial palpi. The maximum number of 
segments is here found also in the Molothripide, and the minimum 
number in the Thripidz and Phleothripide. Around the tips of the 
labial palpi are borne a few touch bristles similar to those upon the 
maxillary palpi. 

Within the hollow cone formed by the parts just described lie the 
protrusile, piercing organs of the Thysanopteran mouth. These 
organs are three in number and of two kinds. Their homologies have 
been confused by various writers. 

Mandible.—This is the large, unpaired, piercing spine lying on the 
left side in the mouth cavity. It has been variously interpreted as 
epipharynx, mouth spine, etc. In the right side of the head there is 
no trace, or but a mere vestige, of the corresponding organ. The 
absence of the right mandible appears to be closely correlated to all 
the asymmetry of the mouth parts of these insects. The mandible con- 
sists of two parts, though these are not separated in any way. The 
large bulbous base appears to be mostly muscular and is attached to the 
endocranial thickening behind the left eye close to the angle which is 
made by the endocranium at this point, and about in line with the 
branch from this thickening running to the left eye in Terebrantia, 
which branch thus appears to form a strong brace. On the right side 
the absence of this endocranial branch is doubtless due to the non- 
development of the right mandible, and the labrum has grown out 
farther on the right side to take the place in some measure of the 


94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XXVI. 








wanting structures. The muscular base is short and abruptly con- 
stricted, and from this point to the tip the mandible continues as a 
slender, strongly chitinized spine having a very sharp point. This 
structure is capable of protrusion for only about one-fourth of its 
length, and therefore appears to be used only for piercing the outer, 
tougher tissues of plants. The mandible in the Tubulifera is decidedly 
shorter and more bent than is that in the Terebrantia. 

Maxillary lobes.—This pair of piercing organs has been considered 
by the majority of writers as the mandibles, but such they surely are 
not. Dissection shows that they are attached by a movable joint to 
the bases of the maxille. Each lobe is composed of two parts: A short 
basal, muscular arm or lever attached to the maxilla, and at the other 
end united to the enlarged, muscular base of the spine which is very 
slender and strongly chitinized. These spines are longer and more 
slender than the mandible and are developed alike on each side. When 
retracted into the mouth, the basal arm or lever extends obliquely for- 
ward so that the lever forms an acute angle with the spine, which then 
reaches just to the mouth, but when protruded the lever is brought 
down toward the mouth so as to straighten this joint, and the spine is 
thus thrust out from the mouth opening to a considerable distance. 
As these spines are more slender and protrude farther from the mouth 
than does the mandible, it appears probable that the latter is used to 
start the puncture through the hard, tough outer tissues, while the 
weaker lobes of the maxille, penetrating deeper through this opening, 
reach into the inner tissues. Some writers have stated that the three 
spines are hollow and used as suction tubes, but I have not found this 
to be the case in the species examined. 

There is a marked difference in length of the maxillary lobes in the 
two suborders. In the Tubulifera they are extremely long, and when 
retracted curve far forward under the eyes, while in the Terebrantia 
the bend of the lobes scarcely reaches beyond the transverse thickening. 
In the Tubulifera these lobes are altogether longer than the entire head 
and can be protruded in many species as far as the hind edge of the 
mesosternum. 

Other mouth structures.— Attached to the inner surface of the labium 
are certain other chitinized structures hard to describe and of uncer- 
tain homology, but considered by some as an hypopharynx. 

Larve.—The mouth parts of the larva are much the same as those 
of the adult, though weaker and less strongly chitinized. The chitin 
of these structures is shed at each molt, and may then be seen con- 
nected with the cast-off skin. 

Movements of mouth parts.—The parts forming the external-wall of — 
the mouth cone are not free, being united by a membranous connection | 
along their sides. At the tip of the cone there is a small opening. It | 
thus appears that structurally these insects are incapable of biting or | 


| 
| 
=| 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 95 





chewing their food to any degree, though it has been stated that par- 
ticles of leaf tissue have been detected in their excrement. This may 
be accounted for by the fact that the mouth parts are quite strongly 
chitinized at their tips, and so may serve, to some extent, to rasp 
or tear the tissues, small particles of which may be drawn into the 
alimentary canal with the sap. 


THORAX. 
(Plate XI, figs. 116-119, 125-127.) 


The thorax is composed of three distinct segments, each of which is 
well developed. The prothorax is separated from the mesothorax hy 
a deep constriction and is freely movable. The other thoracic seg- 
ments are closely grown together and form what. is conveniently 
called the pterothorax. The larval thorax shows no particular chitin- 
ized plates and its whole structure and the arrangement and develop- 
ment of the spines have been but little studied. 

Most previous descriptions of the thoracic structure of these insects 
have been very brief. Unfortunately Dr. Uzel has given the entire 
anatomical part of his monograph in Hungarian, and therefore his 
description of the thorax has not been available. It is evident that 
there is considerable variation in the thoracie structures in different 
species, and it may be that when carefully worked out these parts will 
be found to have considerable importance in classification, whereas 
they have not been used in this way heretofore. A general deserip- 
tion of the parts of the thorax is difficult to give and must be subject 
to much modification in many species as the homologies of some parts 
are not well established. 

Prothorax.—This segment is as wide or wider than the head and 
varies much in its proportions and form. It is rarely much longer 
than wide, usually exceeds the mesothorax in length, and in most cases 
approximately equals the metathorax. The form in the Terebrantia 
is usually more or less rectangular, with the sides and hind edge espe- 
cially somewhat rounded. This form is also found in some Tubulifera, 
but as a rule among them the thorax is trapezoidal, being much wider 
at the hind edge than at the front. This trapezoidal form appears to 
be closely related to the development of the fore legs, since in the 
genus Chirothrips where the fore legs are extremely thickened there 
Is found the same form of prothorax as in the Tubuliferan genera 
where the fore femora are also enlarged. 

The pronotum is strongly chitinized. In the Thripidee it is usually 
more or less transversely striated and often bears numerous small 
spines. In the other families it is generally smooth. 

In most Thysanoptera the prothorax bears long conspicuous spines, 
the number and arrangement of which are much used in classification. 
These stand usually around the outside of the pronotum—one or two 


| 


96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. ° VOL. XXVI. 


at each angle and a pair on each of the transverse margins, and in 
some species one in the middle of each side. The maximum number 
is therefore twelve. When only one or two pairs are present they 
are at the hind angles. The form and size of these spines is also varia- 
ble. They may be quite short and inconspicuous or nearly as long as 
the protonum itself. In many Plceothripide they are knobbed or 
funnel shaped at the tips. 

Ina number of species of Tubulifera, a division of the pronotum 
into plates near the hind angles has been observed. Two triangular 
plates coming up from behind the middle on the side and at about the 
hind angles meet at a point considerably within the margin and above 
the fore coxe. The prosternum is less strongly chitinized than the 
pronotum and at about the middle of the fore edge is often indented 
to accommodate the mouth cone. The insertions of the fore cox are 
at the hind angles and the distance between them depends upon the 
width of the hind edge of the prothorax. In some species the proster- 
num appears to be entirely membranous, while in others there are two 
small plates between the coxe near the hind margin. The episternum 
and epimeron are more easily distinguishable in most Tubulifera than 
in Terebrantia. 

Mesothorar.—The mesothorax is a broad, short segment, often the 
broadest of the body. The mesonotum is shorter than the mesosternum, 
though the latter approximately equals the metasternum as a rule, in 
consequence of which the division between the meso and metathoracie 
segments is oblique. The mesoscutum is usually a rather hexagonal 
plate, somewhat broader than long, and has thickened edges which are 





bent inward and used for the attachment of muscles, as is shown by — 


cross sections of this region of the body. A narrow prescutum can 
be easily distinguished in some species, though in others it appears to 
be closely fused with the scutum. On each side of the scutum isa 
membranous area upon which the fore wings are inserted, at the 


bases of which there are chitinous thickenings for the attachment of 
muscles and also serving as pivotal points. A small, curved, triangular 
tegula is present in many, if not all, Terebrantia. Upon its broad 


edge, next the base of the wing, it is furnished, in Holothrips, with 


a row of five or six small, stout spines which point directly toward | 


the base of the wing, upon which, very near its base, there stands a 
somewhat larger, curved spine which, when the wings are extended 


in flight, points toward and would appear to engage some one of those — 


upon the tegula. This is a peculiar and interesting structure the 
purpose of which can only be conjectured. In Thripide the tegula is 


present, but I have found no species having the spines fully developed, | 


though little knobs or vestiges of such structures are present in some 
cases. The tegula is not always distinctly visible. At each anterior 
angle of the mesothorax there is a larger or smaller spiracle, which is 


. 


m: 


% 


y 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 97 





usually much elongated and narrow in Terebrantia, while in Tubulifera 

itis more rounded. In front of the spiracle a narrow plate extends 
up over the shoulder and meets the mesoscutum. This plate in some 
cases is only an upturned portion of the broad mesosternum, but in 
others is distinctly separated therefrom. This plate may be called the 
episternum, either separate or fused with the mesosternum. Behind 
the spiracle and below the attachment of the fore wings, there are one 
or two quite broad skeletal pieces which are rather triangular in shape. 
The mesosternum usually covers the whole ventral surface of the seg- 
ment and its edges bend upward at the sides (e. g., [Heliothrips, see 
Plate XI, fig. 119). In some species, however, it is an hexagonal plate 
similar to the mesoscutum and but little larger, while the episternal 
and epimeral plates are elongated and meet the sternum upon the 
ventral surface. Upon the median line of the sternum there is in all 
species, though very weak in the wingless ones, a quite deep chitinous 
invagination more or less forked and serving for the attachment of 
strong muscles (Plate XF, figs. 117, 119, 127). These endothoracie 
structures are plainly visible in most species. The middle legs are 
inserted far apart at the very hind angles of the mesosternum. 

Metathorav.—This segment is usually slightly narrower than the 
preceding and generally tapers slightly to the base of the abdomen. 
Its dorsal plates are two, usually distinctly separated: a scutum and a 
scutellum. On each side of these a membranous strip continuing that 
from the mesothorax, extends backward to the base of the abdomen. 
The hind wings are attached quite close to the fore wings and in a sim- 
ilar manner. Near the bases of the hind wings lies in Tubulifera a 
very distinct rounded or oval spiracle. This spiracle is present and 
visible in many (Uzel says ‘‘all”) Terebrantia, but I have been unable 
to find it in some species; in others it is extremely small and appar- 
ently functionless, while in still others it can be distinctly seen. The 
metasternum is broad and its edges curve upward around the sides of 
the body. At the front edge of this side lies a narrow triangular 
plate, the meta-episternum, while the meta-epimeron is here a narrow 
elongated plate lying above and close to the upturned edge of the 
sternum. The metasternum bears also a prominent endothoraciec 
structure in the middle and the edges of the plates are often bent 
inward and thickened. The attachment of the abdomen is so oblique 
that the hind cox lie beneath the first abdominal segment. The hind 
coxw are well separated and the sternum usually projects back between 
them as a distinct lobe or conical protuberance. 

Variation in the structure of the pterothorax in wingless species.—The 
pterothorax is similar in both short and long winged individuals and 
We may expect to find at times long winged specimens of usually short 
Winged species. In species which are entirely wingless, however, or 
in those one sex of which is always wingless, a marked yariation in 

Proc. N, M. vol. xxvi—02 fi 








: ; 
98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XVI. 








the pe ocaee of = pterothorax | is evident in the wingless individuals 
(Plate XI, fig. 125). The size of the pterothorax becomes greatly 
reduced in such cases as no great muscular development is needed to 
move the legs alone and the pterothorax is, perhaps, but little larger 
than the prothorax. The dorsal plates of both segments lose the usual 
form and become rectangular and transversly broadened, extending 
over the membranous space which is usually present along each side. 
No traces of wings are present and there is no longer any place for 
them. As a consequence of the decrease in musculature the endo- 
thoracic structures have become very much weaker, though still plainly 
visible. 


APPENDAGES OF THE THORAX: LEGS. 


The legs of Thrips are among their most characteristic structures — 
and can hardly be mistaken for those of any other insects, whether 
short and powerfully thickened or long and slender. They are com- 
posed of the usual parts of the insect leg, which may be readily dis- | 
tinguished. The attachments to the thorax are quite far apart and at . 
the very hind edge of each segment. The fore legs are often shorter ~ 
and thicker than the others and more specialized. 

Cova.—This basal segment is large, usually subconical and quite — 
freely movable. The fore coxe, especially in Phlceothripide, often 
bear a few short, very stout, sharp spines and one long spine at the 
outside, but aside from these spines the coxe exhibit little that seems _ 
to be worthy of note. : 

Trochanter.—This is a short, small segment between the coxa and ~ 
the larger femur, its line of nse nen: with the latter being often 

considerably ppc : 

Femur.—This, the first prominent segment of the leg, 1 is quite longi 
and more or ieee cylindrical or fusiform. The fore pair is frequently 
distinguished by much greater thickness than those of the other legs, 
(especially in Phleothripidee), the enlargement taking place in the upper 
side of the base and diminishing toward the outer end. In Chirothrips— 
the lateral surface is strongly chitinized and bent backward somewhat 
at the tip so as to appear almost tooth-like at that point. In thickened — 
femora, especially, the inner side toward the base is grooved to receive 
the base of the tibia when the latter is closed inward, and in a few _ 
species with this kind of femur the angles here have become sharply 
pointed and chitinized so as to form two sharp teeth at the tip (Plate 
VIII, figs. 89, 90). . 

Tibia. —The tibia i is, as a rule, about as long as the femur and more 
nearly cylindrical or often club-shaped in idea It is most slender 
near its base where it is often slightly bent. At the extremity within, 
in a few species, the tibia bears an erect, stout, recurved hook or tooth 
as it is usually called. ; 

4, 
i 








No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 99 


Tarsus.—This is the most distinctive part of the leg. Asa rule it 
is composed of two segments, though in larvee and the fore tarsi of 
many species but one is present. The division between the two is 
oblique so that the under surface of the first segment is longer than the 
upper. Both segments are more or less cylindrical. The last seement 
terminates in a cup-shaped or hoof-like end which has been mistaken 
sometimes for a third tarsal segment. Upon the inner side of the fore 
tarsi are found structures which are nearly always characteristic of 
families. The Aolothripidee, in both sexes and it is stated also in the 
pupal stage, bear upon the tarsus a peculiar hook-like structure the 
function of which is not understood. (See Plate I, fig. 9.) The finger- 
like hook is bent back upon itself, pointing toward the base of the 
tarsus and almost touches the point of a short, stout spine standing 
erect at its tip. In many species of Phlcothripide, though not in 
all, there is on the inner side of the tarsus a more or less stout tooth 
which stands nearly erect and is slightly recurved at its tip, and when 
this tooth is strongly developed, the tarsus, so far as is known, has 
only one segment. ‘The development of this tooth seems also to be in 
proportion to the degree of development of the fore femur and its 
function appears to be to act as a hook in giving a firm hold and thus. 
assisting the little creature in crawling through small places. Some 
Phleeothripide show no traces of sucha tooth and all grades of develop- 
ment can be found in different members of this family. Both sexes 
usually possess such a tooth, though that of the male is sometimes 
much stouter than that of the female. In the Thripide the tarsi are 
simple, without either of these structures in nearly ail species, only a 
few having a small tooth. 

The tarsi are usually said to be clawless, but I do not consider this to 
be always the case, for some species have one and some two distinct, 
apparently movable claws on the sides near the end. 

Spines.—Each segment of the leg may bear numerous spines, and 
some of these may be particularly well developed and worthy of note. 
In many Tubulifera there is upon the inner and lower side of the 
femur near its base a slender spine very much longer than any of the 
others. The hind tibia in most species of Thripide is furnished with 
a row of ,stout spines along the inner side and in many species a pair 
of similarly stout spines is borne at the tip of each tibia. Other 
specialized spines are sometimes found. 

Bladder.—This structure, so remarkable and characteristic as to 
suggest the name Physopoda for the order, is protrusile from the end 
of the last tarsal segment. It is found in all species and in both adults 
and young, but its structure and action does not seem to be quite the 
same in the mature and immature stages. 

As has been said, the end of the adult tarsus is cup-shaped. ‘The 
wall of the cup is firm and in some parts, especially the underside, 


100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


strongly chitinized. Into the mouth of this cup is fitted a very deli- | 
cate, protrusile, membranous lobe or bladder. When the foot is 
raised or at rest, the bladder is wholly withdrawn into the end segment 
and becomes invisible, as is the case in a majority of mounted speci-_ 
mens. The end of the tarsus is now blunt and flat and often seems to 
be minutely haired. The bladder is, however, always protruded and 
brought into action when the tarsus is put down or brought into con- 
tact with an object. The membrane is then pushed out and forms a 
lobe, larger in many cases than the cup portion which had previously 
wholly contained it. The mechanism of this complicated structure is” 
very interesting but difficult to study. It has, however, been worked 
out, partially at least, by both Jordan and Uzel. The following para-_ 
graph on this point is gathered from Jordan’s description and my” | 
own observations: | 
Bladder mechanism.—A strong chitinous rod, attached to muscles. 
in the tibia, runs out through the tarsus and ends in the broadened, | 
heavily chitinized under surface of the cup. The end of the plate is 
drawn out into weak cords running to the outer parts of the cup wall. | 





Opposite the chitinous rod lies a double fork provided with a joint. 
The fork is cut short at a chitinous rod lying in the terminal seg- 
ment of the tarsus and is movably jeined thereto. Both arms of the 
fork are connected with the chitinous rod at their base by a tendon, 
Between the fork and the terminal plate of the chitinous rod the wall. 
of the cup is usually thin and quite transparent, but in Phloeothripidee 
especially it is quite strongly chitinized and opaque. Looking dows 
upon a foot that is inactive (bladder retracted) so that the chitinous 
rod lies along its middle line, the end appears more or less pear-shaped 
and small. Upon the surface lies the terminal enlargement of the 
rod, while the double fork occupies the sides. Between the tips of 
the fork the extremity appears folded in toward the middle. Whe 
the foot is brought into action the chitinous rod is drawn back some= 
what, so that the attached fork is erected and spread out. Te rrevi-, 
ously invisible bladder is now thrust out from the end of the tarsus. 
The ends of the fork and the chitinous rod continue into the bladder 
wall as fine rays. The bladder is elastic and very mobile, easily ac= 
commodating its one to the surface upon which it rests. Looking at 
a larval tarsus from the side, the chitinous rod is seen to run obliquely 
from the middle of the tibia to the under wall of the cup. Here it 
appears to end suddenly without being broadened into a plate as in) 
the adult; still the end of the rod is continued into the wall of the cu )| 
as fine rays. The dorsal part of the cup is occupied by a curved claw, 
the basal part of which is attached to a sort of bracket-like thickening; 
of the wall of that part of the end segment at the base of the cup. 
Furthermore, the base of the claw is united to the chitinous rod by a 
sinew, and above the extremity of the claw the tarsus is drawn out 
into a membranous, longitudinally folded lobe. When viewed from) 







_ No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 1 O1 





above, it is seen that the bases of the claws are strongly broadened 
within and somewhat less so without, and that the inner prolongations 
touch and are flexibly joined together. Both claws are supported upon 
the bracket-like ring at the base of the cup, while the folded mem- 
branous wall reaches beyond the claws. The chitinous rod unites near 
the support with the two tendons coming from the outer projections 
of the claws. When the bladder is brought into an active condition, 
the claws bend out from each other and the folded portion between 
them spreads out, while the distal portion, unseen in the inactive foot, 
becomes pushed out as the bladder. By a proximal pull upon the 
chitinous rod the tendons are drawn back and the claws thereby are 
spread out, moving around the bracket-like support with which they 
are connected as ona pivot. As the claws are grown together with 
the folded lobe, the lobe must be unfolded, but this does not explain 
how the membranous lobe can be protruded as a swollen bladder, Tf 
a swollen bladder be pricked or ruptured the blood pours out and the 
bladder collapses quickly. We must therefore conclude that blood 
pressure, acting with the mechanism just described, is largely instru- 
mental in the protrusion of the bladders. 

Other organs of doubtful function.—In the basal segment of the 
tarsus or the extremity of the tibia there has been found in a few 
Kuropean species a small, pear-shaped organ which has been consid- 
ered as a gland, and some have thought this the structure which pro- 
duced the swelling of the bladders, but as this supposed gland is much 
smaller than the bladder which it is supposed to fill, this can not be, 
and its function remains still problematical. 

Near the line of union of the femur with the trochanter, Trybom 
has found in certain Pheeothripide an organ or a group of organs 
which suggest to him the auditory organ on the base of the tibia in 
some Locustide. Trybom speaks of' this structure as an elongated, 
thinly chitinized area, almost transparent. The areasare found on the 
side of the base of each femur near the line of its union with the 
trochanter. They are variable in shape and may be different on the 
opposite legs of the same pair. In each light area is a row of round 
structures having a dark point in the center of each. 

These peculiar structures are. small and easily overlooked, but 
Trybom has seen them in many species of Terebrantia as well as 
Tubulifera, and the writer has seen them in every species in his own 
collection. It appears, therefore, that they are always present, but as 
to their function we can only guess. 


WINGS. 


The wings of Thysanoptera are no less characteristic than are their 
feet. To be sure each character shown by them may be found in the 
Wings of some other group of insects; nevertheless the combination of 
characters found here is unique. They are long, slender, membranous, 


102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





fringed, and not folded; they have few veins, and upon the hind edge 
of the base of each there is a usually distinct lobe or scale. The fore 
and hind wings are formed quite similarly. When at rest, the wings 
are folded back flat upon the abdomen, the fore wing covering the 
hind one completely and the pairs lying parallel in the Terebrantia, 
while in the Tubulifera the wings all overlap at their tips so that the 
full surface of only one can be seen when they are at rest. The wings 
are usually about as long as, though sometimes much longer than, the 
abdomen, but in many Tubulifera they are shorter. The wings of 
Molothripidx are proportionally the broadest in the order, being in 
the middle about one-seventh as broad as their length. Those of 
Thripide are much more slender, ranging from one-tenth in the fore 
wing of Parthenothrips to about one-twenty-sixth in that of some 
Sericothrips,; the average in the species of this family known to me is 
about one-fifteenth. Three general types of wing are found in the ~ 
order, each of which is characteristic of a family. ; 

Family types.—ZBolothripide possess wings which are compara- — 
tively broad, as we have seen. Their breadth continues nearly to their j 
tips, where they are broadly rounded. (Plate I, fig. 2.) The hind 
wings resemble the fore wings closely in general outline and size. 

The wings of Thripide are distinctly different from the preceding. 
Besides being much more slender, they taper from base to tip, where — 
they are sharply pointed, the whole wing being usually slightly curved — 
so as to be quite sabre-shaped. (Plate II, figs. 16, 23.) The fore wing ~ 
of Purthenothrips approaches most closely that of Aolothrips, being 
broad and straight but pointed instead of rounded at the tip, and the ~ 
venation is very different. The hind wings are somewhat shorter and — 
narrower than the fore wings. 

The third type of wing (Plate VII, fig. 75), found in the Phleeothrip-— 
ide, resembles that of Molothrips in being broad and rounded at the — 
end. The hind wing is also similar in size and form to the fore wing. — 
In some species the wing is narrowed in the middle so that it resembles — 
somewhat a shoe sole. Other characters, as venation, fringing, etc., — 
separate them very decidedly from the olothripide. 

Venation.—The venation is even more characteristic of the families 
than the form of the wings. In the olothripide, the fore wings — 
show the most complex venation found inthe order. They are entirely — 
bounded by a strong ring vein and pierced by two longitudinal veins | 
extending from the base to near the tip, where they bend outward and — 
join the ring vein. Four or five cross veins are also present, two 
uniting each long vein with the ring vein at about the first and second 
thirds of the wing and one cross vein uniting the long veins before — 
the middle. The hind wings have no fully developed veins. 

In the Thripide the veins are much less prominent, except in Par-— 
thenothrips. One or two longitudinal veins are present, but cross — 
veins have very nearly disappeared, though vestiges of most of those 





‘No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 103 


found in Molothripide can sometimes be observed in this family. 
The hind wings have always one longitudinal vein, but no ring or 
cross Veins. 

The wings of Phlceothripide are marked by the absence of veins. 
In both fore and hind wings alike there is but a partial development 
of one median longitudinal vein. This is quite strong and marked at 
the base, but rarely reaches to the middle of the wing before it disap- 
pears. There is no trace of a ring vein. 

Fringing.—As a rule, fringes of long, slender hairs are borne upon 
both margins of the wing and so make up for the narrowness of the 
membrane. The hind fringe is always present, but the fore fringe is 
nearly absent in olothripidee, always present in Phlceothripide, and 
more or less fully developed in Thripide. The front fringe consists 
of a single row of hairs which, when fully developed, are stouter in 
Terebrantia than those upon the hind edge, but in Phloeothripide they 
are similarly developed on both edges. In some Thripidew the front 
fringe is vestigial, being very weak and sparse, or it may be entirely 
absent. On the hind wings the front fringes are more uniformly well 
developed than upon the fore wings, and both fringes are single. The 
hind fringe of the fore wing in Terebrantia consists of two rows of 
hairs so placed that they stand, when in flight, at different angles to 
the edge of the wing and thus by crossing give mutual support and 
form a mesh-work which is more strongly resistant to the air. The 
hind fringe hairs of both wings in Terebrantia are more or Jess wavy 
or spiral in form while those of the front fringes are straight, as are 
also both fringes in the Tubulifera. The hind fringes of both wings 
of Tubulifera are single except that near the end of the fore wing the 
fringe is double for a short distance. The length of the hind fringes 
is from two to seven times the breadth in the middle of the wing. 
Fringes are wanting near the base of the wings. 

The method of insertion of the fringes differs in the suborders and 
is of interest. In the wings of Tubulifera the hairs are inserted 
directly for some distance into the membrane of the wing, where they 
gradually disappear. They are so flexible near the base that they can 
be bent back along the edge when the wings are folded at rest. In 
Terebrantia, however, the fringe hairs are borne upon small support- 
ing bases on the edge of the wing and are in general stiffer than are 
those of Phlcothripide. One row of those upon the hind margin is 
attached differently from the other. The hairs stand upon small, 
conical, basal enlargements, to which they are attached by a joint soas 
to allow an easy folding of the long hairs toward the tip. Toward the 
base of the wing, however, the side of the somewhat conical support is 
drawn out into a point, which prevents the folding of the hairs toward 
the base and keeps them at nearly right angles to the edge of the wing 
during flight. 


104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





Spines upon wings.—In the Terebrantia the entire upper surface of 
the wing is thickly set with microscopic spines which are wanting in 
Tubulifera. Besides these there are usually borne along the longitu- 
dinal and costal veins some larger, prominent spines, which vary in 
number, size, and arrangement sufficiently to give in many species of 
the Thripide characters of specific and generic value. Those borne 
upon the costa appear intermixed with the fringe hairs, though really 
they are not in the same plane. Their development seems to be in 
inverse proportion to that of the fringe, so that when the latter is 
strongly developed the costal spines are not larger than those upon 
the other veins, but when the fringe is weak or absent the costal 
spines develop greatly and to some extent replace it. 

In Molothripide the spines upon the veins are always quite small, 
while the front fringe of the fore wing is wanting. In Phleeothripide 
there are usually three stout, erect spines near the base of the vein in 
the fore wing. 

Taking flight.—\t has been frequently noticed and mentioned that 
many of these insects throw up the end of the abdomen, much as do 
the rove beetles (Staphylinide), as though threatening to sting. This 
movement is made to assist in the proper spreading of the wings for 
flight. When at rest, the fringe hairs lie along the hind edges of the 
wings and are more or less interlaced. As the abdomen is raised, the 
wings are drawn down over its sides in such a manner as to make it 
appear that the spines upon the sides of the abdominal segments are 
used to some extent as a comb by means of which the hairs are 


straightened out and put in their proper position. This operation — 
often has to be repeated several times before the wings are brought 


into a condition for successful fiight. Phe power of springing, pos- 
sessed by some species, also seems to be of assistance in taking flight. 


These statements apply only to Terebrantia, however, no observations 
7 ? 3 


having been made upon Tubulifera. 


Coordination of the wings.—This is accomplished in a manner — 


strongly suggestive of the Hymenoptera, though the structures con- 
cerned are less highly developed. Upon the costa of the hind wing, 
near its base, stand about five short spines in Terebrantia and two or 


three in Tubulifera, which are hooked at their tips. When the wings — 
are spread in flight these tiny hooks engage a membranous fold on | 
the underside of the scale of the fore wing. Beyond these small — 


hooks stands a single stouter spine which also forms a hook. From 


the hind angle of the scale of the fore wing proceed two long, stout — 
spines, standing so closely together as to often appear like one, and — 


these engage the solitary stouter hook on the hind wing. Thus united 


the wings move together, but as the connection is so near the bases of | 


the wings it can not be very strong. 


Reduction of the wings.—I\t is an interesting fact that in this order — 








(ioe api et 


Mea 
—" 


No, 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 105 





the wings may be fully developed, reduced to short pads not reaching 
beyond the thorax, or even entirely absent. Intermediate conditions 
are rare, though I have found a few specimens in which the wings 
were about one-half their normal length and entirely functionless. 
These three conditions may occur even in the same species (C//ro- 
thrips manicatus Haliday). When the wings are reduced, the little 
pads are rounded or oval in shape and are laid closely upon the 
thorax. The fore pad is larger, bears a few small spines, and covers 
the spineless hind pad completely. No fringes are present, but the 
fore pad has a distinct scale. Trybom, who has made quite an exten- 
sive study of this subject (425), recognizes eight classes into which 
these insects may be divided according to the varying conditions of 
the wings. 

1. Both sexes entirely wingless. 

2. Males and some of the females wingless. 

3. Males entirely wingless, but females with normally developed 
wings. 

4, Long winged and wingless individuals of both sexes occur. 

5. Males and a majority of females with reduced, but a number of 
females with normally developed wings. 

6. Both sexes always short winged. 

7. Long winged as well as short winged individuals of both sexes 
occur. 

$. Both sexes always long winged. 

The appearance of a long winged generation following several 
which have short wings is strongly suggestive of a similar condition 
among the Aphids. In at least some species of Thysanoptera where 
this condition obtains the summer generations develop long wings 
while the fall generations are almost entirely short winged, so that 
nearly all the hibernating females have only wing pads. Long and 
short winged forms commonly alternate in the same sex, but short 
winged and entirely wingless forms of the same sex are not known. 
When only one sex is wingless it is the male. Wing pads are usually 
rather difficult to see, but their presence or absence can be deduced 
from the structure of the thorax, even though they are themselves 
invisible. 

ABDOMEN. 

The form of the abdomen varies from cylindrical to elongate-ovoid. 
In Terebrantia the segments are nearly cylindrical in cross section, 
while in Tubulifera the abdomen is flattened, giving the cross section 
an elliptical outline. The terminal segments especially are differ- 
ently formed and characteristic of the suborders. The abdomen is 
always composed of ten segments, of which the second to the seventh, 
inclusive, are similarly formed in nearly all cases, while the others are 
variable and bear the most distinctive characters of the abdomen. 


106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





Terebrantia.—In the Terebrantia each segment except the first and — 
the last three is composed of a broad dorsal plate reaching to the _ 
sides, a somewhat narrower ventral plate, and one or two very narrow 
plates on each side connecting these. Jordan states that one of the 
_ two pleural plates comes from the ventral, the other from the dorsal — 
plate, but the dorsal pleural plate is sometimes wanting or indistinct. 





The dorsal plates of segments, two to seven inclusive, are usually 
strengthened, especially in the Terebrantia, by a chitinous ridge- 
along the inside somewhere in the anterior third, and this appears 
externally as a darker, narrow stripe on these segments. The first 
segment has a well-developed dorsal plate covering the hind part of 
the oblique metathorax, and small side plates are present in some cases, — 
while the ventral plate is so short and small as to be easily overlooked. 
In the females the ventral and pleural plates are wanting upon seg-_ 
ments nine and ten, the broad dorsal plate bending around the sides_ 
and approaching beneath to form the sheath for the ovipositor. In _ 
both sexes all the segments are similar except the last two or three, 
which in the females usually form a more or less sharp cone, while in 
the males, as a rule, the end is bluntly rounded; only a few species — 
are formed alike in both sexes. . 
Spines.—Each segment bears, as a rule, but few spines, which are 
small upon the anterior segments, but increase in size and prominence 
posteriorly. These are most prominent upon the sides of the seg-— 
ments and especially around the last two, where they are called anal — 
spines and are frequently very long and stout. In some species, as 
Quaintance has observed (454), these stout anal spines are the weapons 
of offense and defense. 
Tubulifera.—Iin this suborder all but the first and the last one or two 
segments are formed alike. Each is composed of only a dorsal and a 
ventral plate joining at the sides by an indistinct suture. The ventral 
plate of the first segment is only slightly, if at all, developed, while the: 
terminal segment appears to be a simple cylinder or tube and is formed 
alike in both sexes. The dorsal plate of the first segment, in some 
species, is drawn out anteriorly into a rounded projection, attaching to 
the metathorax, and on each side of the projection is a separate side 
plate. The arrangement and relative development of the lateral spines 
is much the same as in the Terebrantia. As a rule, upon the dorsal 
plates of segments two to seven inclusive, on each side at about one- 
fourth the cross diameter of the segment from the edge, there stands 





























spines. These dorsal spines appear to serve entirely for the confine- 
ment of the wings when at rest. The last segment bears at its tip 
circlet of long, slender hairs, usually as long as, or longer than, the” 
segment itself. ‘ | 


NORTH AMERIC. AN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 107 





: Stigmata. —Kither three o or : four | pairs of stigmata are » present in 
‘Thysanoptera. In the adult they appear constantly at the anterior 
angles of the mesothorax, and on the sides of the first and eighth abdom- 
inal segments, while the fourth pair, always present in Tubulifera and 
sometimes distinguishable in Terebrantia as well, occurs close behind 
the attachment of the hind wings. Uzel states that four pairs of spi- 
TYacles are present in the Terebrantia. This is surely often the case, 
but the metathoracic pair is very small, and in some species I can not 
find it even in specially prepared mounts, and in some cases where 
traces of the stigma can be found, I am convinced that it is vestigial 
and really functionless. The mesothoracic stigma is frequently elon- 
gated dorso-ventrally, sometimes being very narrow. 

In the larve the stigmata are situated at the front angles of the 
mesothorax and upon the sides of the second (instead of the first) and 
eighth abdominal segments. 

The structure of a stigma is peculiar. In a surface view at the 
sharpest focus, upon an anterior abdominal stigma of, e. g., Anapho- 
thrips striatus, cleared in caustic potash, the stigma appears to be 
made up of a number of irregularly polygonal, cell-like bodies, sep- 

arated from each other by dark lines and each cell showing one or 
more dark spots near its center. In focusing down onto its surface, 
its appearance changes quite strikingly. As it first comes into v oe 
though before it is clearly seen, it appears as a dark field with quite 
regular, small, light spots, the dark lines giving a reticulate appear- 
ance. When a little more nearly in focus, the cells appear dark, while 
the central spots and the intercellular lines and angles are very much 
lighter. Brought into sharp focus, the cells are seen to be more irreg- 
ular than they appeared at first, the surface appears light acioned, 
whereas formerly it appeared dark, while the intercellular lines and 
central spots have now become dark (Plate X, fig. 112.) This reversal 
of the light and dark parts is peculiar and very noticeable. On one 
side of the center a larger, rather indistinct, rounded area can usually 
be seen, which is the bulbous enlargement at the end of the trachea 
Opening by a quite large orifice to the exterior. A cross view of a 
stigma (Plate X, fig. 113) shows a remarkable structure. The cellular 
areas are now found to be mushroom-like bodies with slender stalks, 
Standing with their heads close together. These are quite strongly 
ehitinized and dark. Whether the little air chambers between them 
connect in any way with the trachea has not yet been determined. 


SEXUAL CHARACTERS: TEREBRANTIA. 





_ Female ovipositor.—The most prominent external sexual character 
of the female is the ovipositor which is attached to the ventral side of 
the eighth and ninth abdominal segments (Plate XI, fig. 121) and is 


108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XVI 


plainly visible through the body of the insect. It is composed of four . 
distinct plates or valves, two of which, forming the under or anterior 
pair, are attached to the very narrow ventral plate of the eighth seg-— 
ment and two, forming the upper or posterior pair, are attached to the — 
sides of the ventrally extended dorsal plate of the ninth segment. The 
ovipositor as a whole is curved either upward (Zolothripide) or down-— 
ward (Thripide) and terminates in a very slender, sharp point. The 
valves lie very closely together, but their inner surfaces are grooved, 
forming a passageway for the egg. The two plates on each side are 
fitted together in such a way as to slide back and forth upon each other 
without being displaced. The upper edge of the lower plate is grooved 
and into this groove fits a ridge or tongue formed by the lower edge 
of the upper plate. The upper edge of the upper plate, except at its 
base, is fitted with sharp, saw-like teeth pointing toward the base of the- 
valve. The lower plate is provided with similar teeth on the under 
side of its distal third, while the middle third bears a number of pecu- 
liar, broad-cutting teeth. The ovipositor is movably connected with— 
the abdomen by a number of small supporting plates or levers which — 
also assist in its manipulation. 

In at least two species of Thripidze known to me, the ovipositor does — 
not appear to be functional though it is plainly present (Chirothrips— 
obesus and Thrips perplexus). 

When not in use, the ovipositor is drawn up close to the body and 
is received into, and entirely enveloped by, a membranous sheath — 
along the last two segments which is made possible by the absence of 
the ventral plates at this place. The sexual opening is between the— 
eighth and ninth segments in all Terebrantian females. 

As a rule the conical form of the tip of the abdomen also indicates a 
female. In many of the light colored species, just in front of the base 
of the ovipositor, is a plainly visible internal organ which has some- 
times been called the seminal receptacle. It ale appears as a 
small spherical or rounded body of an orange or brownish color, — 
agreeing closely in this respect with the color of the spermaries of the 
males in species where males are known. This organ presents the 
same appearance, however, in certainly unfertilized females of bisexual 
species, and it is also always present, having the same size and color 
in several species known to me in which the males are extremely rare 
or possibly wanting altogether. Certainly a seminal receptacle can not 
be functional in parthenogenetic species, yet I have found this organ 
constantly present through eight or ten generations of a species bred 
in the laboratory where males were never produced. 

Male.—Males are, as a rule, considerably smaller than the females. 
The abdomen is usually bluntly rounded at the end instead of sharply 
conical, though a few species resemble the females in this respect. 
The stoutest spines are usually at the sides of the ninth segment. In 





22 


k 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSA NOPTERA—HINDS. 109 





Kolothripide this segment is much larger than the others and is 
drawn out at its hind angles into hooks and processes which apparently 
assist in copulation. The sexual opening is between the ninth and 
tenth segments, and frequently from this point there protrudes more 
or less of the retracted copulatory apparatus, which is usually entirely 
drawn into the ninth segment through the walls of which it can be 
more or less distinctly seen. Three separate outer parts, which are 
strongly upeurved, can be seen proceeding from a complex basal part 
and the entire apparatus is protrusile. Within the abdomen the two 
elongated, irregularly pear-shaped, orange or brownish colored sper- 
maries are plainly perceptible, lying usually in about the seventh and 
eighth segments. Upon the ventral surface of the second to the 
seventh abdominal segments, inclusive, in many species there are dis- 
tinct rounded or transversely elliptical depressions found only in the 
males. Males are often lighter in color and quicker in movement 
than the females. 
TUBULIFERA. 


Female.—The sexual characters of Tubulifera are much less distinct 
and numerous than are those of the other suborder. The end of the 
abdomen is tubular and the sexual opening is between the ninth and 
tenth abdominal segments in both sexes. In this region are also found 
the strictly distinctive characters. In the female the basal edge of 
the tube is regular and entire. Near the hind edge of the ninth seg- 
ment below there is a short, strongly chitinized rod (Plate X, fig. 115) 
which is dark and plainly visible in light colored species, but when 
the body at this point is nearly opaque, the rod can not be seen and 
the question of sex is often in doubt. 

Male.—The male is usually smaller and more slender than the female, 
the sixth, seventh and eighth segments of the abdomen being noticeably 
narrower. The base of the tube is cut out below in the form of a 
semicircular notch (Plate X, fig. 114), which can usually be plainly 
seen except in very dark specimens, and through the opening formed 
by this notch the sexual apparatus can be protruded. The structure 
of this apparatus is much the same as in the Terebrantia and in light 
colored specimens it can be seen wholly retracted within the ninth 
Segment. In some species this segment bears a broad scale at the base 
of the tube. In a few species the sixth segment bears on each side a 
thick, fleshy, unjointed appendage. The males in many species have 
more strongly thickened fore femora and stouter teeth upon the fore 
tarsi than do the females. 

Copulation.—This I have rarely observed, and therefore the follow- 
ing statements are main ly gathered from Jordan’s article (306). 

In the Tubulifera the male rests upon the back of the female, and 
holding firmly to her thorax by his legs, he places the ventral surface 
of his abdomen along the side of the abdomen of the female and bends 



























110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





the extremity under the abdomen of the female, so that the ventral 
surfaces of the last segments are toward each other. The copulatory. 
apparatus of the male is then pushed out, while the female bends th 
tube upward so as to leave the sexual opening free. Copulation lasts 
for about half a minute, when the female begins to move and the male. 
leaves ber back, but the connection is not at once broken, and the 
stronger female drags the attached, struggling male behind her for 
some distance. One male fertilizes a number of females successively, — 
In one case Jordan states that a male of Phlwothrips brunnea Jordan, 
in one-fourth of an hour, fertilized six females, and his spermaries- 
were still about half filled. . 

In the Terebrantia the males are carried around upon the backs of 
the females and the union takes place in much the same manner as has 
just been described for the Tubulitera. 


DEFORMITIES. 


Slight deformities are by no means rare. The most common form 
consists ina reduction in the number of segments in one or both anten- 
nx, brought about, in most cases, by the fusion of two or more seg- 
ments at the end, though intermediate segments are sometimes want 3 
ing. It frequently happens that the-antenna with fused segments is 
searcely shorter than the normal one. Only very rarely does it appear 
that a reduction in number is the result of injury, though this would 
seem very possible. So far as is known, an increase over the normal 
number by a division of segments never takes place. Sometimes the 
wings are so deformed as to be useless. Deformities in the abdomen 
are very rare, but [have found two cases. One in which the posterior 
segments were constricted being abruptly smaller than the preceding, 
the other with a half segment wanting on the left side at about the 
middle of the abdomen. The right half of the segment was wedge- 
shaped, reaching in to the median dorsal line and giving the abdomen 
a corresponding crook at that point. 


REPRODUCTION. 


The method of reproduction in this group is of interest and also has 
an important bearing upon its distribution. So far as known, it 1s} 
always oviparous and sexual, but two distinct forms are common in 
most species. 

Bisexual reproduction.—TVhis is the normal and most common form 
but the two sexes are not found in anything like equal proportions, as 
females are almost always more abundant than males. This may be™ 
the case and reproduction yet be entirely bisexual, as in some species. 
perhaps in all, one male fertilizes a number of females. Ina few species 
the males are found abundantly throughout the year; in others they are” 
abundant only at certain seasons; in others males are rarely found al 


y No. .1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 111 


i my time; in still others, while the females are very abundant, males 
‘are EP enoven. The explanation for the relative scarcity or absence of 
males is found in the second method of generation. 
| Unisexual reproduction.—Parthenogenesis is the usual mode of 
Bie roduction in at least ten species, all Terebrantia, and probably 
occurs very frequently in many others, though positive statements 
can not be made upon this point until more extensive collecting has 
Deen done and life histories have become better known.@ 
i: It seems that parthenogenesis must take place to some extent in 
‘those species in which the males are comparatively rare or are active 
for only a short season. However, no such thing as a regular alterna- 
tion of generations, as in Aphide, is yet on to exist among Thy- 
‘sanoptera. In his studies of Parthenoti ‘aps dracenex Jordan found 
that the normal method of reproductior in warm greenhouses was 
‘unisexual, while on plants standing in a «ool room an abundance of 
males was developed, and this condition lasted in the cool room 
Bbroughout the winter season. The males of Aptinothrips rufus have 
been Sond only at haying time, and then only very rarely. 
















SS 
ly 


‘ DISSEMINATION. 


It has already been noted that in most species there appear for some 
per of the season, in some generation or in one sex, individuals bear- 

ng fully developed wings, and we can not doubt that the wings play 
ia large part in the distribution of the species. Certain it is that the 
power of flight is greater than would seem possible with such delicate 
wings as ee insects possess. After harvest or toward autumn some 
species fly in large numbers, and in some instances have caused con- 
siderable annoyance by entering houses for hibernation. Winds may 
e: asily carry them for paneidevable distances, and when so scattered it 
is evident that their power of parthenogenetic repr oduction is of great 
assistance in the establishment of the species in a new locality. Spe- 
cies living under the bark of trees growing upon the banks of streams 
a are probably often carried for long distances on wood floating in the 
ater, as some species which have been observed are found to ee 
p large degree of moisture and even submersion for some time without 
, njury, and moist, dec aying wood is their normal food. Species living 








fh. 
it 
iy. 
| 








te 


japon cultivated plants, as in greenhouses, have doubtless been icone 
ated in commercial ways. Strange as it may seem, a species which 
is entirely wingless (Aptinothrips rufus Gmelin) is one of the most 
wv widely distributed, It is hard to believe that this species can have 
attained its present distribution in both Europe and America through 


she slow method of crawling. 





| a Males of the following species included in this paper are rare or unknown: Par- 
thenothrips dracenx, Heliothrips hemorrhoidalis, Aptinothrips rufus, Anaphothrips stria- 
is, Thrips tabaci. Some others are too little known to be placed here. 





i 

























EE? PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





Per haps if may not be too much out of place here to speak more par- 
ticularly of other movements a aside from flying. The Tubulifera are 
very slow and deliberate in their movements, both in crawling and) 
flying, and they never spring or run. Terebrantia vary in this. 
respect, though in general they are much more active, and many run) 
quite rapidly and fie flight quickly. Some possess a power of: 
springing which is well developed and often used in place of flight., 
The abdomen, head, and prothorax are raised and the little creature: 
balances itself by its middle legs. Then suddenly the upraised parts: 
are brought down together and the insect is thrown a considerable: 
distance by the force of the contact. | 


DEVELOPMENT. ‘ 


Oviposition.—As may be inferred from what has been said of the: 
sexual apparatus of the two suborders, each has its own method of | 
oviposition. The Terebrantian female cuts a slit with her saw through) 
the epidermis and deposits her eggs singly in the tissue of the plant.. 
The process of oviposition is as fallen in Anaphothrips striatus | 
will doubtless hold in most points for the group: 

The abdomen is raised somewhat and the ovipositor is let dog 
from the sheath till it is nearly at-right angles to the body. The) 
abdomen is arched to bring the weight of the body to bear upon the) 
slender saw, the valves of which are then moved back and forth upon: 
each other by powerful muscles in the ninth segment. The toothed! 
blades are gradually worked down somewhat obliquely into the tissue, 
and when the slit is sufficiently large there may be seen successive con=) 
tractions of the abdomen as the egg is pushed out between the valves 
of the ovipositor and under the epidermis till it is nearly concealedy 
The entire operation requires about one and a half minutes, and upon} 
its oe es eae moves off a non ee to rest or feed, 


i 


to deposit their eggs externally. 

The number of eggs laid by a single female has been observed only) 
in the case of Anaphotheips striatus, from a number of oe an 
a lot of 5 females being 72. These Pecan were amet in the: 
laboratory upon females confined in bottles. The percentage of eggs) 
which hatched was also observed in this species and was found to 
vary in the laboratory from 35 to 40 per cent. It seems very probable 
that the artificial conditions under which these experiments were 
made must have in this case greatly reduced the percentage that 
hatched below the normal. . 




































"x0, 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTER. {—HINDS. 143 


Tubulifera deposit their eges externally, either oe or in groups, 
upon leaves and flowers or under bark, ete., according to their habitat. 
e _ The period of oviposition in all species in this order is quite long. 
Ligg.—The eggs of Terebrantia are more or less Stn and 
‘slightly bean-shaped. They are colorless, delicate in structure. and no 
micropyle is apparent. The position of the eggs in a thin leaf is easily 
‘seen upon holding the leaf before a bright light, when they appear as 
_ brighter spots in the darker green tissue of as ee Eggs are laid in 
Bimost any green part of the plant, but not in the petals of flowers. 
The eggs of Tubulifera are of an elongate-oval shape, attached with 
_the long axis perpendicular to the surface, and have at the free end a 
thickening of the chorion with a mic ropyle in the middle. The eggs 
ety from yellow to brownish in color. 
Eimbryology.—The development of the embryo can be observed in 
® translucent eggs of Terebrantia. Various writers agree in stating 
‘that the germ band is immersed. Before revolution the appendages of 
the embryo lie along the convex side of the egg, after revolution along 
‘the concave side. The length of the egg stage varies considerably in 
‘different species and, even within the same species, according to the 
weather conditions. So far as life histories are known, fe stage 
‘appears to last from three to fifteen days in Terebrantia, but no record 
ds found upon this point for the Tubulifera. The ed eyes of 
dey eloping embryos are particularly prominent. If the egg bed dries 
the egg is quickly destroyed, but if moist, even though decaying, the 
development continues. 
| Emergence of the larva.—When ready to emerge, the young Tere- 
brantian larva breaks through the tender poring and pushes up 
through the slit in the epidermis made for the insertion of the ege. 
The lar va works its way up till all but the tip of the abdomen is fr ee, 
but remains supported by the tip in this upright position until he 
antenne and legs have separated from the body, to which they are at 
first closely applied, and have become sufficiently dried and hardened 
for use. It then falls forward onto its feet and is r eady to travel or 
to feed almost immediately. No observations have been found on this 
point for the Tubulifera, but just as their eggs are laid singly or in 
groups, so also do we ae the larvee 
| Larval stage.—The length of the fener stage varies with the species, 
and the statements recor ded place it at from five to forty days. 
_ When just hatched the head of the larva is ver vy large in proportion 
to the body and the mouth parts are essentially like those of the adult. 
The thoracic segments are subequal. The abdomen is strongly con- 
tracted and very rough. As the larva grows the thorax and Porn 
enlarge noticeably, while the head shows little change. In some spe- 
cies (eliothrips) the abdomen becomes strongly distended and shining 
as though under considerable pressure, anda globule of fluid excre- 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 8 


=e 


De ie igs aes a 





114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


ment is frequently held by the hairs around the anus. The larvee are 
less active than the adults and have no power of springing. The lar- 
‘al antenna always has fewer segments than the adult. In Phlco- 
thripide the number is constantly seven. Thickened femora and tar- 
sal hooks do not occur, the tarsus appears to be one segmented, and 
claws may or may not be present. The structure of the foot is much 
more distinct than in the adult. The eyes are not compound, but com-— 
posed of afew separated facets, which are strongly elevated and always _ 
circular in outline. The number of facets increases in successive molts, i 
but the circular form is retained. The rudiments of the ovipositor or 
genital apparatus appear on the under side of the eighth and ninth 
seoments as indistinct lobes. The food habits of the larvee are just as” 
varied as are those of the adults, and some species are also found upon | 
the roots of plants. 
Molts. From two to four molts appear to occur while in the larval” 
stage, the last marking the change to the pupa. The chitinous cover-_ 
ing of the internal mouth parts and of the bladders can be distinctly 
‘seen in the cast skin. When larve have become full grown theyj 
cease to feed, become restless, and seek some very secluded place in 
which to molt. In this search they are so successful that in many? 
species pupe are hard to find. : 
Nymph or Pupa.—The metamorphosis of Thysanoptera is peculiar, 
for though complete in many respects, it is much less so in others. 
Two stages are distinguishable while in the nymph condition. Afte 
the last larval molt, the insect still retains its larval appearance, the 
antenne are extended, and the pro-nymph is moderately active. The 
wing pads are partially developed, extending to about the second 
abdominal segment, and the beginning of the formation of the adult 
appendages can be seen. After another molt, the true nymph stage is 
reached and the animal remains quiet unless disturbed, when it is 
‘apable of slight movement. No food is taken during this period 
The antennz are laid back upon the head and prothorax; their seg- 
mentation has become indistinct and the adult antenna can be seem) 
within the nymphal skin. The number of facets in the eyes greatly 
increases, producing the adult condition. The legs are inclosed in 
loose sheaths and the wine pads reach to and from the sixth to the 
eighth segments. The pads extend obliquely outward along the sides 
of the body and do not cover each other. The fringes appear along 
the edges of the forming wings, the fore fringe being directed toward 
the tip and hind fringe toward the base of the wing. The forming 
lobes representing the ovipositor elongate, and those on each side over: 
lap but remain separate. Within them develop the pointed valves of 
the adult ovipositor, which now extends to.the tip of the abdomen 
The development of the male genital apparatus takes place in a very, 
similar way to that of the ovipositor of the female. The nymph stage 


| 
4 
| 
1 
| 
4 
4 


tama 


























0.1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 115 





is passed in some secluded place, pup being found in the loose soil 
about the base of the plant, in the leaf sheath, or some similarly pro- 
tected place, and many have been recorded as transforming in galls. 
When these changes have been completed, another molt takes place and 
the adult emerges. 
_ The most noteworthy points in the metamorphosis may be summa- 
rized as follows: The larva resembles the adult in general form and in 
mouth parts; wings are developed in external sheaths; the transitional 
‘stage between larva and adult is quiet, and during it no nourishment 
is taken. The metamorphosis is therefore intermediate between com- 
plete and incomplete. 
_ LMibernation.—Thysanoptera pass the winter in either larval. pupal, 
or adult stages. Many species, without doubt, hibernate in very nearly 
the same places in which they have fed. The bark-inhabiting forms 
remain in such places, together with many of the leaf forms which 
migrate onto the trunk. The dried stems of flowers and grasses shel- 
ter many species, while many of the leaf-inhabiting forms fall to the 
ground and are among those which may be found under fallen foliage, 
in moss, etc. Lichens and fungi shelter some as winter guests, while 
dead grass and turf contain many forms. It appears very probable 
that some of the larve which have been found upon the roots of 
plants were hibernating there rather than feeding thereon, as has been 
upposed. 
| The hibernating individuals appear to be able to withstand extreme 
degrees of cold and moisture. I have brought in a number of species 
thered by pulling the frozen grass from bare mowings in midwinter 
fter a temperature of—21° F. Upon being brought into a warm 
room, they very soon became active and ran about. 
Thrips emerge from hibernation very early in the spring, and as 
on as their normal food plants begin to grow most of them are ina 
condition to deposit eggs for a new generation, which in some cases in 
assachusetts hatch during the latter part of April or the first of May. 
Length of life.—Few observations have been recorded upon this 
int, but it seems improbable that even the longest lived exceed a 
ingle year. Among those species which produce several generations 
n a season, the hibernating individuals must live for at least seven 
nonths in the northern United States while the summer generations 
re much shorter lived. Their age however, as a rule, considerably, 
xceeds the length of the life cycle, for oviposition is a slow process, 
md in Anaphothrips striatus is known to extend over a period of 
ve or six weeks. Asa result of this there is an indistinguishable 
verlapping of broods. I have kept a female of a midsummer gen- 
ration of A. striatus confined in a bottle in the laboratory for almost 
ve weeks. This species has eight or nine generations in a season, 
nd may therefore be expected to be one of the shortest lived in 




























































116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





testa cli 


ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS. 
INJURIOUS FORMS. 


Small and apparently insignificant though these insects are, they can, 
not be disregarded from an economic standpoint. Only a few species, 
to be sure, must be considered as decidedly injurious, but these are. 
widely spread and hard to control. Doubtless much damage, really, 
caused by these tiny foes, has been attributed to more conspicuous but: 
less injurious insects. The most important species in this country, 
belong to the family Thripide. The economic importance of each of. 
these species is considered in connection with its description, butt 
there are, however, some general points worthy of note which may 
be considered together here. | 

Feeding habits.—Thrips are found upon most flowering and some 
flowerless plants. The general mode of feeding is the same through- 
out the order. The green parts of the plant, chiefly, are punctured. 
by the piercing mouth parts and the sap withdrawn therefrom by sucs| 
tion. The emptied plant cells become white and shriveled as they dry 
up and the insect, standing usually parallel to the veins of the leaf, 
moves on to fresh cells. The traces of their feeding are thus left in 
irregular streaks of dried, whitened cells. Behind them, as they feed, 
they leave rows of dots of dark colored excrement, which, it seems, 
have sometimes been mistaken for eggs. . 

On flowers Thrips are most abundant in summer, Burmeister states 
that the nectar of flowers furnishes them with nourishment, and Per: 
gande has expressed a similar opinion (219); but this does not seem te 
me to be the case, as when present on flowers they are found sucking} 
sap, not nectar. They feed to some extent upon the petals, but no 
so freely as upon the green parts. The inner surface of the sepals i 
a favorite place for feeding and oviposition. The essential parts of 
the flower come in for their part of the general attack and it is just 
here that the greatest injury to the plant is caused. Injury of thi 
sort has been reported, especially upon strawberries by Quaintane 
(454), and upon apple and other fruit blossoms by Osborn (218, 223 
924), in which cases they caused so much injury to the styles by them 
punctures as to prevent fertilization and the setting of the fruit. (See 
Euthrips tritici, p. 152.) Probably Euthrips tritict and Thrips tabae 
are guilty of most of such injuries. Mally has recorded a very simila, 
injury to cotton bolls by an undetermined species of the family Th ri 
pide (841). Many other flowers, though perhaps of less economis 
importance, are similarly attacked. Flower species feed also upor 
leaves. 

On the leaves of plants and trees may be found a large variety © 
species, most of which feed mainly upon the under surface of th 
leaves, probably chiefly for protection from sun, rain, and enemies 


0.1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 17 


though it is also possible that more tender tissues may be an attraction. 
Such species avoid the light and, if a leaf be turned over, the insects 
will move around to the under side again. The constant sucking of 
myriads of larve and adults soon causes the feeding ground to wither, 
the leaf becomes encrusted with dead cells and dark colored spots of 
excrement and it is not long before its death results. Unless disturbed, 
most species do not travel much, and thus in time there appears to be 
something of a colony feeding around the place where the mother has 
fed and deposited her eggs. Though many plants thus suffer from 
the destruction of their leaves, the onion seems to be most severely 
afflicted. (See Thrips tabaci, p. 183.) 

_ Grasses and cereals may be included in a third class in which the 
nature of the injury is somewhat different. Besides the abstraction of 
sap from the leaves of these plants, Thrips cause a greater injury by 
attacking the tender axial stems, thus cutting off directly the supply of 
sap to the head, which therefore fails to bear fruit and may be entirely 
killed. This is the way in which ‘‘Silver Top” is caused, and it is 
impossible to estimate with any degree of accuracy the damage which 
results to the hay crop. Besides working in this way, Thrips are 
charged with attacking directly the growing kernels of cereals. In the 
case of wheat, rye, oats, etc., they suck the nutritious milk directly 
from the growing kernels in the ear and produce an abortive condition 
of much, if not all, of the head, which is then called ‘* pungled.” 

_ Greenhouse species appear to be becoming more numerous and more 
injurious each year. The principal injury here is done to the leaves, 
and nearly all kinds of greenhouse plants are subject to attack. Thrips 
tabaci, which has recently come into prominence, especially in cucum- 
ber and carnation houses, has an unusually wide range of food plants. 
It has already proved to be a serious pest, capable of the complete 
destruction of a crop, and is exceedingly difficult to control. 


BENEFICIAL FORMS. 


Predaccous Thrips.—The late B. D. Walsh once expressed the opin- 
ion that Thrips ‘‘are generally, if not universally, insectivorous, and 
that those that occur on the ears of the wheat, both in the United 
States and in Europe, are preying there upon the eges or larve of the 
Wheat Midge (Diplosis tritic/), and are consequently not the foes, as 
has been generally imagined, but the friends, of the farmer” (127 and 
132). Such an opinion from so eminent an entomologist is likely to 
have some basis in fact, though we question whether his conclusion is 
even usually correct. Thrips have been frequently found in the galls 
caused by other insects, either with the makers of the galls or alone, 
and the conclusion has been drawn, though frequently, we suspect, 
without a direct observation to that effect, that the Thrips were prey- 
ing upon the makers of the galls. Walsh also writes that he has 


4 
Pe 


ae 


118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


‘*found Thrips preying upon the gall-making larve of more than 
twenty different galls, so that there is now no manner of doubt in my 
mind that Thrips is a true cannibal insect” (132). All recorded 
observations which I have seen seem to agree that such gall-fre- 
quenting forms belong to the Phloeothripide, and in very many of 
the cases noted it is said that they are in the pupal stage (123). 

It seems to me entirely possible that in many cases their presence 
in the gall may be incidental, they having entered it for protection, 
It is impossible for Thrips to make for themselves an entrance into_ 
any closed gall, and when present in such it can only be after the exit 
of the gall maker or some parasite upon it, so here certainly the Thrips 
is not predaceous. Furthermore, 1t does not seem improbable from 
what we know of the food habits of the Tubulifera, which feed mainly 
upon leaves or decaying wood or fungi, that they may live peacefully in- 
company with the true maker of an open gall which they can readily 
enter, finding there the same favorable conditions for abundant food 
and a secure retreat as does the gall maker. Phylloxera galls have 
often been found to contain Thrips, but the same doubt exists as to” 
the real purpose of their being there. Walsh states that he has found 
six or seven red Thrips pup in nearly every gall of Phyllorera 
caryae-folize, This observation shows-plainly one object for which these 
insects seek out and enter galls, as a safe refuge during pupation, 
and this will account for the frequent presence of larvee and adults in 
both inhabited open galls, as those of Phylloxera, and deserted closed 
galls, as those of Cynipide. It may be true that Thrips prey upon the 
gall makers, but further observations upon this point are desirable 
before we can fully accept that conclusion. 

“Thrips phyllowere” of Riley’s manuscript (one of the Phlcothri- 
pide) is said by him to *‘do more than any other species to keep the 
leaf-inhabiting grape Phylloxera within bounds” (165). A species of 
Phleothrips has been observed destroying eggs of the Gypsy Moth 
(353). | 

Some species of Thripide have been observed feeding upon other 
insects and are undoubtedly beneficial. Zhrips 6-maculatus has been 
repeatedly observed feeding upon ‘‘mites” or ‘‘red spiders,” and 
other species have been said to do the same. Riley observed a Thrips 
larva feeding upon the eggs of the Curculio in Missouri (148a and 144). 
Thrips trifasciatus Ashmead is apparently predaceous and was observed 
feeding on the cotton Aleurodes (Alewrodes gossypi7) in Mississippi 
(386). I have occasionally noticed that under the influence of con- 
finement without plant food Anaphothrips striatus, which is certainly 
normally herbivorous, becomes cannibalistic and will feed upon its own 
species. 

Flower fertilizers.—It is very probable that a few flowers, of which 
the ‘‘ wild pansy” is one, are fertilized by Thrips, although such a 
relation must be exceptional. Few flowers are adapted to thus profit 























No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. ray 


by the presence of Thrips, as their action would tend almost entirely 
to self-fertilization of the flowers, which Nature does not generally 
approve. Therefore I believe that their value in this way must be 
very limited. 





NATURAL CHECKS. 


Insects and Acari, etc.—The most important insect enemy appears 
to be Triphleps insidiosus Say, which is very common on flowers and 
may often be found with a Thrips impaled upon its rostrum and 
held in the air while the captor sucks the juices from the body of its 
victim. The eggs of Zriphleps are laid ina similar manner to those of 
Thrips and the larvee of the former also prey upon the larve of the 

latter. The length of the life cycle of Zriphleps is about the same as 

that of Thrips. Jfegilla maculata also devours Thrips in great num- 
bers when both are abundant. Chrysopa and Syrphus larvee have 
been found feeding upon the larvee of Zhrips tabaci. Heeger has 
recorded Seymnus ater, Gyrophaena manca, and some fly larve as 
preying upon them, and Uzel has found Zp/phleps inénuta also. 

I have frequently found Anaphothrips striatus bearing one or more 
small, scarlet Acari (probably the larve of a Zrombidium) attached to 
some membranous area of the body. 

Both Uzel and Quaintance have found the eggs and adults of Nem- 
atode worms in the bodies of Thrips, Uzel recording over 200 worms 
from one specimen. 

Plant parasites. —Thaxter (297) has taken Hinpusa (Hntomophthora) 
sphaecrosperma Fries from a species of Thrips which it was destroying 
in larval, pupal, and adult stages. Pettit has found in Michigan 
another parasite which he thinks will prove to be a Gregarinid (464). 
It was most abundant in the moist breeding cages, causing the insects 
to die and turn black. I have rarely found a fungus growing in a 
dead specimen-which appears to be a species of Macrosporiwm, but it 
was not possible to tell whether the fungus caused the death of the 

insect or came in later. 

Rain.—Of all the natural checks, none can compare in efficiency 
with a hard dashing rain. It has been noted that Zhrips tabaci and 
Anaphothrips striatus, which become extremely abundant during hot, 
dry weather, disappear almost entirely as soon as the heavy showers 
of midsummer begin, and as long as such showers continue at frequent 
intervals the Thrips do not again become abundant. The same result 
will probably be found true in most outdoor leaf-inhabiting species. 


ARTIFICIAL CHECKS. 


These fall naturally into two groups, insecticides and cultural 
methods. 

_ Insecticides.—So far as we know, no attempts to control Thrips by 
means of insecticides have been made outside the United States. Here 





























120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





a at 


each of the three most important economic species, 77 hrips tabact, 
Euthrips tritici, and Anaphothrips striatus, has been experimented 
with considerably. Webster recommends, for Thrips tabaci in the 
field, spraying thoroughly with 1 pound of Standard whale-oil soap in 
8 vallons of water (476), and he says also, ‘*The grassy borders of 
ditches have been sprayed with kerosene with excellent results.” 
Quaintance (454) tried many insecticides for Thrips tabaci and Luthrips 
tritic’ in Florida and found that ‘‘ rose leaf insecticide”—1 pint in 8 
eallons of water—killed from 65 to 70 per cent of the insects, and was 
the most successful of anything tested. For Thrips tabaci he recom- 
mends ‘‘whale-oil soap (Anchor brand), at the rate of 1 pound of 
soap to + gallons of water,” or ‘‘rose leaf insecticide at the rate of 
pint to + gallons of water.” 

Sprays must be very thoroughly applied to do even fair service, and 
ditches and margins around fields, as well as the ground between rows, 
should be treated also. Even with the most careful treatment many 
of the tiny insects will escape the spray, and the embedded eggs are 
entirely unharmed. Therefore, spraying, to be at all successful, must 
be repeated after a short interval. It must be admitted that at best 
spraying is an unsatisfactory remedy; still, it is perhaps the best 
method we know of at present for field work. . 

In greenhouses spraying may be more successful than In the field. 
but fumigation methods are here preferable. These also must b 
repeated in about a week to be successful. The most satisfactory 
results have here been obtained by the vaporization at night of 20 ce. 
of ‘* Nikoteen” in 750 cc. of water for 5,000 cubic feet of space. This — 
treatment did not injure the cucumber plants, while nearly all of the 
Thrips tabaci were killed (471). 

Cultural methods.—Vhese are undoubtedly too important to be 
neglected, even if insecticides be used, and in some cases they may — 
prove even more efficient than the latter. For the Onion Thrips, Web-_ 
ster says: ** All culls, tops, and other refuse of onion fields should be 
burned in the fall.” He also recommends the burning of the grass” 
along ditches and around the margins of the fields in winter or early 
spring to destroy the hibernating insects (476). & 

For the Grass Thrips it seems that cultural methods are the only 
ones that can be of any considerable help. A thorough burning of 
the old grass in early spring before growth begins destroys large 
numbers of hibernating insects—Thrips and many others. The attacks 
of the Grass Thrips are worst upon old, worn-out meadows, fields, and 
lawns, largely because Pow pratensis (June grass) is most common in’ 
such places. Infested grass should be cut as early as possible or fed 
green. So far as I can learn, the seed of June grass is sold only in 
lawn mixtures and is not used for field seeding, though it comes in 
naturally as the other stouter-growing species which are usually sown 
run out. The appearance of a large amount of ‘Silver Top” is there- 


“No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. Lot 


a) 
H 


fore a sign that the field is becoming exhausted. Such fields should 
_be plowed, and it is advisable to plant with some cultivated crop for 
at least one season before re-seeding. 


fF 
i 


CHARACTERS OF THYSANOPTERA. 














Small insects; length ranging from one-fiftieth to one-third of an 
inch. Wings usually present; four in number, long, narrow, mem- 
branous, never folded, with at most two longitudinal veins and few or 
“no cross veins; hind margin always, front margin usually, fringed 
with long, slender hairs much exceeding in length the breadth of the 
“membranous part of the wing; wings laid horizontally along the 
abdomen when at rest; wings sometimes reduced to short pads not 
reaching beyond the hind edge of the thorax and entirely absent in 
a few species. 
_ Mouth parts intermediate in form between those of sucking and 
chewing insects, but probably used almost entirely for sucking; 
arranged in the form of a cone situated on under side of head and 
placed so far back that it lies almost entirely under the prothorax (see 
Plate X, fig. 111), and is more or less concealed from the side by the 
fore coxe and femora. Mouth cone formed by the labrum, the broad, 
flat, triangular, external portion of the maxille bearing each a two or 
three segmented palpus, and the labium bearing two or four seg- 
mented palpi; these external parts grown together and not freely 
movable. Mouth always asymmetrical, only the left mandible being 
developed. Mandible and lobes of the maxille modified as internal, 
_protrusile, bristle-like piercing organs. 
Antenne quite slender, six to nine segmented, situated closely 
together upon vertex of head. Ocelli always present when long 
‘Wings are present, always absent in entirely wingless forms; usually 
present, sometimes absent, when wings are reduced to pads. Protho- 
-rax distinctly separated from mesothorax* and freely movable. Meso 
and metathorax firmly and closely united; metanotum longer than 
mesonotum. Tarsi usually two but sometimes one segmented; the 
terminal segment fitted at the tip with a protrusile, bladder-like organ 
which can be withdrawn entirely within the segment so as to be invis- 
ible. Abdomen ten segmented. Terminal segment either conical or 
tubular. Three pairs of stigmata are always present and a fourth 
pair is found in all Tubulifera and many Terebrantia. In the adult 
these are situated one pair each upon mesothorax and first and eighth 
-abdominal segments. The metathoracic pair in Terebrantia is small, 
invisible except in carefully prepared specimens, and in some cases I 
have been unable to find any trace of it. In the larva the stigmata 
are distributed in the same way except that they are present on the 
econd abdominal segment and not on the first. 
Young resemble adults in general form, structure of mouth parts, 
and in food habits. There is, however, a distinct pupal stage during 


Seenieetiteinetadiementiine toe ee eee 













7 






























mieh the insect moves very little or not at all, and takes no food, 
The wings develop entirely during this stage and are outside the body | 
skin. The metamorphosis approaches closely to a complete one, but 
on account of the similarity of larval and adult forms and mouth parts 
‘t must still be considered as incomplete. Reproduction is oviparou 


and frequently parthenogenetic. 


METHOD OF MEASUREMENTS. 


species. Another difficulty which has been noted in some descrip 
tions is the giving of comparative dimensions relative to other spe= | 
cies. This may be useful to the collector if he happens to have or 
know all the species referred to; otherwise he is at an utter loss 
know what is meant. Having experienced these difficulties at various — 
times, the writer came to the conclusion that es ch Ce shou 


nation and separation of these insects. The eye can not be relied 
upon for exactness in this matter, as has been frequently found in the- 
course of this work, and therefore all measurements given in the fol-_ 
lowing descriptions have been made in the same way, by means of an 
eyepiece micrometer, as follows: A stage micrometer of reliable make 
was first proven to be accurate by comparison with a steel millimeter, 
scale, then with each combination of lenses used the number of spaces 
on the image of the stage micrometer covered by the scale of the eye-— 
piece micrometer were determined, two points being selected where — 
the divisions coincided. Then the number of spaces covered on the — 
stage micrometer was divided by the number of spaces of the eye-— 
piece micrometer covering them, and the quotient was, evidently, the 
fraction of a micromillimeter upon the stage shown a one division of 
the eyepiece micrometer. This quotient may be called the factor of: 
the eyepiece micrometer for that combination of lenses and will hold 
unchanged for any object measured with that magnification, but will 
of course vary for every other magnification. Tieneaeeee Using a 
1-inch objective ‘and a 1-inch eyepiece (Bausch and Lomb) with the- 
tube closed, I find that the fifty divisions of the eyepiece micrometer 
cover, say, exactly 1 millimeter of the stage micrometer. Dividing 
then 1 millimeter by 50, I have two one-hundredths millimeter, which 
is the factor for that combination of lenses. Now, placing the object 
to be measured upon the stage, we find, e. @., that forty -five spaces of 
our eyepiece micrometer just cover the object to be measured. Mul-- 
tiplying by the determined factor, we have two one-hundredths milli- 
meter times forty-five, which equals ninety one-hundredths millimeter 
as the length of the object measured. This method has been used in| 







e. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 123 





the determination of length and breadth of the species herein 
described. 
When comparative lengths only are desired, as e. @. in the compara- 
_ tive lengths of segments of antenne, relative length and breadth of the 
head, etc., there is no need to determine the actual measurement. It 
is sufficient to compare directly the number of spaces read upon the 
eyepiece micrometer, and this is the method used in such cases. In 
the case of the comparative lengths of segments of the antenna, all 
measurements have been made with a 4-inch objective and a 1-inch eye- 
piece. The measurements given show, therefore, not only a compari- 
son between the segments of one antenna, but also between the see- 
ments of all antennz so measured. The number of the segment has 
been given above the line, and directly below it the number of spaces 
of the eyepiece micrometer covering that segment. Illustration: 
Number of segment, 1 2 3 .4 5 ete. 
Spaces of micrometer, 5 10 14 12 9 ete. 

It has been found that there are slight individual variations in the 
lengths of corresponding segments in different specimens of the same 
species, and even in the two antenne of the same specimen, still there 
is in general.a quite close agreement in this respect and the propor- 
tions hold very well. The antennz were selected for such critical 
study, because there is an evident variation in the proportional lengths 
of segments in each species, and because the antenne are the most 
surely available for a careful, accurate study of any organs of the 
insect. Then, again, proportional measurements do not vary nearly as 
much as do the absolute measurements of different sized individuals. 

All statements made as to lengths, both actual and comparative, in 
the descriptions herein given are based upon actual measurements 
made in one or the other of these ways, an average being taken of the 

total number of specimens used in the description. 

In describing colors it has been my intention to follow a few definite 
rules, which are given herewith: First, to name colors in plain, well- 
known terms when possible; second, when the color being described 
appears to result from a mixture, in equal proportions, of two more 
elementary colors, they have been given together in the same form and 
connected by a hyphen (gray-brown); third, when a predominant 
ground color is modified by more or less mixture with another color, 
the name of the ground color has been given last with the modifying 
color preceding it (grayish brown). Depth of coloring is indicated by 
such words as light, dark, ete. 


INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS. 


Individual variation must always be considered in specific determi- 
nations and due allowance made therefor. The most common variation 
will naturally be found in the line of color. It is probable that toa 

slight extent the age of the individual may influence the depth of the 


yer 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NA TIONAL MUSEUM. = VOL, XX ; 


> 


124 
oo rio. heeause a short time is required, in several species which have 
heen observed at least, after the emergence of the adult from the pupa 
staoe before the full depth of coloring is acquired. There is, however, 
a common variation in color, apparently not due to difference in age, 
producing in some of the most variable species color varieties. These 
may be either lighter or darker than the color of the typical form, but, 
so far as our observations have gone, complete intergrades are to be 





found. 

A yariation from the usual number of segments in the antennee is 
quite frequently met with, but this is always in the line of a reduction 
in number due usually to a fusion of the last two or more segments. 

The length and breadth of the abdomen is, perhaps, the most variable 

character, as in most species the segments are slightly telescoped natur- 
ally, and being connected with each other by a flexible membrane are 
capable of oreat distension. This may be caused naturally by the simul- 
taneous development of a number of eggs in the ovaries of a female, 
When specimens are mounted in balsam, glycerin, or any such medium 
for study, there is danger of compressing the body of the insect if” 
‘are be not taken to have present plenty of the mounting medium, and 
the usual result of this compression is the distension of the abdomen. 

Measurements of a series of specimens show that a variation, often 

amounting to one-sixth, sometimes as-high as one-fourth, frequently 
occurs between the extremes in the size of individuals in the same 
species. 

SYNOPSIS OF SUBORDERS AND FAMILIES. 

Female with a saw-like ovipositor. Terminal segment of abdomen of female 
conical; that of males rarely like females, but usually bluntly rounded. Fore 
wings with at least one longitudinal vein reaching from base to tip of wing. 

1 aa TEREBRANTIA (p. 124). 2 

Female without an ovipositor. Terminal segment tubular in both sexes. Both 
pairs of wings similar in structure with only one median longitudinal vein, and 
this only partially developed, never reaching to tip of wing. . TuBULIFERA (p. 187). 
Includes single family Phlceothripide. 


Antennze with nine segments. Wings broad and rounded at the tips; fore wings 
with cross veins. Ovipositor of female up-curved .._.-- AXOLOTHRIPID#E (p. 126). 

Antenne with six to eight segments. Wings usually narrow and pointed at tips, 
without cross veins. Ovipositor of femaledown-curved_.THRiprpx (p. 132). 


CHARACTERS OF TEREBRANTIA. 


Antenne have from six to nine segments, the terminal segments 
being usually much smaller than the preceding. Ocelli absent in the 
entirely wingless forms (Aptinothrips rufus) as in all wingless Thysa- 
noptera, and sometimes in the wingless males of species in which the — 
females are winged, they are present in all long winged forms. Maxil-_ 
lary palpi usually three, sometimes two segmented, and labial palpi 
usually two, sometimes four segmented. 











‘No. 1310. _ NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. I 25 


. 


Prothorax rarely longer than broad, but usually transv erse, fre- 
quently twice as wide as long ery rectangular in general outline 


and scarcely wider at the find edge than at the fore edge, except in the 
genus Chirothrips, in which it is strongly broadened behind, where it 


~ 


is about twice as wide as at front edge. The fore wings are broader, 


stronger, and much more specialized than the hind wings, shaded 
darker, if shaded at all. Asa rule they have more veins, there being 
usually two, sometimes apparently only one, fully developed longitu- 


dinal veins besides frequently a strongly developed vein following the 


border of the wing and known as the ring vein; cross veins are present 
insome cases. The veins are usually set with more or less numerous 
-and conspicuous spines which vary in size, the smallest being minute 


and indistinct, the largest extremely stout and conspicuous, exceeding 


‘in length the breadth of the membrane of the wing. The membrane 


itself is thickly set with numerous microscopic spines. A fringe is 
always present upon the hind margin, consisting on the hind wing of 
one, on the fore wing of two rows of long usually wavy hairs. On 


the fore wing these rows appear to be placed at different angles to 


the edge, so that instead of the hairs being parallel when the wing is in 


action, they cross each other at a slight angle, thereby forming a mesh- 
-work which must add materially to the strength and resistant power 


of the wing. Spines such as are found on the other veins are wanting 


-upon the hind margin. The fringe upon the front is always shorter 


than that upon the hind edge and is composed of a single row of 
stouter, more bristle-like hairs. The development of the fore fringe 


“appears to be in inverse proportion to that of the spines borne upon 


the costal edge, and when these last are very stout the fringe is ves- 
tigial, though sometimes both fringe and spines are wanting on the 
costa. In many cases the sbading of the fore wings takes the form of 
dark cross bands alternating with light or almost white bands or areas. 
The hind wings are more slender and more delicate than the fore wings 
and have but one median longitudinal vein, usually fully developed, 
and no ring or cross veins. The median vein is without spines such 
as are borne upon the veins of the fore wing. The hind fringe is 
single instead of double and the fore edge always bears a more or less 
well-developed fringe. Shading of the hind wings is very slight and 
a distinct banding of them is not known. When at rest the wings are 
laid straight back upon the abdomen, the fore wing of each side com- 
pletely covering the hind wing and en pair lying “parallel to but not 


upon the other. The hind fringes are very foals or jointed at their 


attachment to the wings and when at rest point backward between 


them. The wings are very frequently reduced to small, rounded or 
oval pads which are usually invisible even when present. Rarely they 


are entirely absent, but when this is the case the structure of the 


thorax indicates the fact. The fore legs are often more thickened 


a 


i 


126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVIg 





re = - : aes 4 ; . q 
than the others—in the genus Chirothrips they are extremely thick-7 
ened. The hind legs are usually longest and sometimes exceed the 


3 


abdomen in length. a 

The abdomen is constricted somewhat at its junction with the thorax ~ 
and is always ten segmented. The terminal segments are usually § 
shaped differently in the two sexes; in the females the last three seg-— 
ments form a cone the apex of which is quite pointed, and rarely the 
last seoment is rather tubular instead of conical. The abdomen of 
the male is usually more slender and lighter than that of the female, 
and asa rule its end is much more blunt, though occasionally shaped 
much like that of the other sex. The ninth segment is comparatively — 
laree and contains the genital apparatus, and frequently the tenth 
segment is also much retracted within it. In the females the sexual 
opening is between the eighth and ninth abdominal segments, but in” 
the males it is between the ninth and tenth. 

The female has a four-valved, saw-like ovipositor fitted to the under- 
side of the eighth and ninth segments and reaching to about the tip of © 
the abdomen, sometimes a little beyond. When at rest this apparatus 
lies partially concealed in a sheath on the underside of the last three 
segments; when in action it can be let down so as to work at almost 
any angle less than 90 degrees. The copulatory apparatus of the 
male is almost or entirely withdrawn into the body, but it is freely — 
protrusile. 3 

The males are often quicker motioned and more active than the 
females. Most of the members of this suborder move rapidly, though — 
some are quite sluggish; they run rapidly and take flight readily. — 
Some species, provided with well-developed wings, seem loath to use— 
them, and many possess a considerable power of leaping. 


Family AZZOLOTHRIPID 2. 


The antennx are nine segmented. Ocelli are present in both sexes. — 
The maxillary palpi are three segmented, and the labial palpi two or 
four segmented. The wings are large, broad, and rounded at the— 
outer ends. In addition to a heavy ring vein, each fore wing has two 
longitudinal veins extending from its base to tip, where they unite with — 
the ring vein on each.side of the tip, while the hind wings have only 
a vestige of a median longitudinal vein. Four or five cross veins are— 
present in each fore wing. The fore wings are without a fringe upon” 
the front edge, though some more or less stout hairs are there present 
in some species. Both sexes bear a peculiar hook-like appendage on 
the underside of the second segment of each fore tarsus. (See Plate I, 
fig. 9.) The ovipositor of the female is bent upward so that its convex 
side is ventral. The males have the first abdominal segment much — 
longer than the second. The members of this family run rapidly, 


having very long legs, but they do not appear to have the power of 
springing. 


0. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. Tae 









The genus Zolothrips is the only one of the three genera of this 
family found in the United States. 


Genus HOLOTHRIPS Haliday. 


: Head about as broad as long. Ocelli present in both sexes. Anten- 
‘ne nine segmented, the last three or four segments being very much 
‘shorter than the preceding and closely joined together; third segment 
much longer than any other. Maxillary palpi three segmented, 
‘geniculate. Prothorax about as long or a little longer than the head, 
without large bristles. Legs very long and slender; fore femora 
omewhat Sarekonad in both sexes; hind femora broadened; fore tibive 
“unarmed; second fore tarsal segment, in both sexes, with hook-like 
‘appendage. Wings usually present in both sexes; fore wing some- 
what narrowed before the middle; fore part of the ring vein fur- 
nished with very short hairs, which hardly overreach the edge of the 
wing. Fore wings white, with two broad, dark cross bands. First 
abdominal segment in the males much (one than the second, and the 
ninth segment is drawn out at the hind angles into short clasping 
organs or hooks. 
} The two species which I place here can be distinguished by the 
presence of a white band around abdominal segments two and three in 
pte female of A. b7color, which band is wanting in the female of A. 
fasciatus. The last four segments of the antenna taken together are 
| Feonich longer in A. bicolor than the fifth, while in A. Sasciatus the last 


sl 
four segments together are approximately as long as is the fifth alone. 







ZEOLOTHRIPS FASCIATUS (Linnezus). 





if Plate I, figs. 1-3. 

ry 

«Thrips fasciata Linnxvus, Syst. Nature, 10th ed., 1758, p. 457. 

5 Thrips fasciata Linnauus, Fauna Svecica, 1761, p. 266.—Grorrroy, Histoire 


abrégée des Insectes, 1764, p. 385. 
Thrips fasciata Linn mus, Syst. Naturee, 12th ed., Holmize, and 13th ed., Vindo- 
bone, J, Pt. 2, 1767, p. 743. 
Thrips fasciata Fasricius, Systema Entomologia, 1775, p. 745. 
Thrips fasciata SCHRANK, Enumeratio Insectorum Austriz indig., 1781, p. 297. 
Thrips fasciata Fasrictus, Species Insectorum, II, 1781, p. 397. 
Thrips fasciata Fasricius, Mantissa Insectorum, II, 1781, p. 320. 
Thrips fasciata GMELIN, Linn. Syst. Nat., 13th ed., Pt. 4, 1788, p. 2223. 
Thrips fasciata BERKENHOvT, Synop. Nat. Hist. Gt. Br. and Ire., 1789, p. 123. 
Thrips fasciata Faprictus, Entom. Systematica, [V, 1794, p. 229. 
Thrips fasciata Stew, Elem. of Nat. Hist., II, 1802, p. 114. 
Thrips fasciata Fasricius, Systema Rhyngotorum, 1803, p. 514. 
Thrips fasciata Turron, A General Syst. of Nat. (Transl. from Gmelin’s Syst. 
Nat., 18th ed.), II, 1806, p. 717. 
Aolothrips (Coleothrips) fasciata Hatipay, Ent. Mag., III, 1836, p. 451. 
| Molothrips fasciata Burmeister, Handbuch d. Entom., II, 1838, p. 417. 
_ Molothrips fasciata AMyor and SErRvVILLE, Hist. nat. d. Ins. Hemipt., 1843, p. 646, 





128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XXV 





; Baloibrivs (Coleothrips) fasciata THALIDAY, Walker, Homopt. Ins. of Brit. i 


Pt. 4, 1852, p. 1117, pl. vu, figs. $1— 42. 
Molothrips fasciata Havarr, Sitzungsb. d. Acad. d. Wiss. Wien, VIII, 1852 


pp- 135-136, pl. xxi. 
Coleothrips trifasciata Frrcw, Count. Gent., VI, Dec. 1855, p. 385. ; 
Coleothrips trifasciata Frrcx, Second Rept. Nox. Ins. N. Y. 1857, p. 308 (or 540). 
Thrips fasciata DE Man, Tijdschr. v. Entomol., 1871, p. 147. 
Eolothrips ( Coleothrips ) fasciata, REUTER, Diaeneeee ofver nya Thysanop. f 
Finl., 1879; p. 7, or Otv. Fin. Soc., XX], 1879, po 214. 
Coleothrips fasciata PERGANDE, Brtomelenie April, 1882, p. 95. 
Coleothrips trifasciata WrBsTER, Rept. Dept. Agr., 1886, p. 577. . 
Coleothrips trifasciata TuaxTEr, Rept. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1889, (1889), p. 180, 
Coleothrips 3-fasciata Rirey-Howarp, Ins. Life, III, 1891, p. 301. 
Coleothrips trifasciata TowNsEND, Canad. Ent., XXIV, 1892, p. 197. 
Coleothrips trifasciata GrtLETTE, Bull. 24, Col. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1893, p. 15. 
Coleothrips trifasciata Davis, Bull. 102, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1893, p. 39, fig. 10. 
Coleothrips trifasciata CocKERELL, Bull. 15, N. Mex. Agr. eae Sta., 1895, p. 7 
Eolothrips fasciata Uzer, Monographie d. Ord. Thysanop., 1895, p. 72, pl. a 
fig. 4; pl. v, figs. 46-48. 
Coleothrips trifasciata Davis, Special Bull. No. 2, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1896, 
p. 13, fig. 4. 
Eolothrips fasciata Témpet, Die Geradfligler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 286, pi 
XXIII. 


Female.—Length, 1.63 mm. (1.36 to 1.76 mm.); width of mesotho 
rax, 0.30 mm. (0.27 to 0.84 mm.). General collor yellowish brown to) 
dark brown. Head slightly wider than long, rectangular in outline,) 
retracted slightly within prothorax; cheeks arched but slightly behind 
eyes; front nearly straight; surface of head but faintly striated an 
bearing numerous minute spines. Eyes large, black, elongated down- 
ward; borders of eyes light; ocelli ernie well spa orange- 
yellow with maroon crescents. Mouth cone sharply pointed; maxil= 
lary palpi geniculate, three segmented; labial palpi four segmented; 
chitinous thickening extending from left eye connected with that at 
juncture of mouth cone with frons; just a trace of such thickening 
extends down from right eye; the two spines standing at base of 
frons close to transverse thickening are less than twice as long as sub= 
antennal pair of spines. Antenne nine segmented, nearly three: 
times as long as head and very slender, approximate at base; relative” 
lengths of segments: 





















last . Seon are lone lee rl and from base of six they taper. 
epally to the ap: eaten brows except tip of two and all but 


(ttonmiy aothed AE ae spines; those around tip of two being 
much the stoutest; no sense cones present, but both three_and fou 





~~ 


0. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 129 








have an elongated, narrow, membr: anous sense area on iden side of 
outer half; five bears a small, rounded spot of similar texture near 
tip below. 
_ Prothorax somewhat wider than long, and a little wider than head, 
‘nearly rectangular in shape; sides but slightly arched, without con- 
-spicuous spines but with numerous minute ones. Mesothorax smoothly 
rounded at front angles. Metathorax slightly narrower at front end 
than mesothorax and tapering somewhat posteriorly. Wings always 
present, about one-seventh as broad as long, rounded at tips; fore 
wing heavily veined having a ring vein and two longitudinal veins 
which extend from the base and join the ring vein just before the tip 
of the wing; fore vein united to costa by two cross veins at one-third 
and eds its length; longitudinal veins united by one cross vein 
just before the middle and the hind vein is joined to the hind ring vein 
opposite the outer front cross vein; hind wing veinless. No fringe 
upon costa of either wing, but costa and longitudinal veins set with a 
number of short, dark spines; hind fringe hairs short and straight, 
double row on fore wing. Fore wings with three white bands (at base, 
middle, and tip) and wider dark brown cross bands between these; 
hind wings with similar areas, but the two darker bands are so pale 
gray that they are hardly noticable. Legs gray-brown, dark brown 
in dark specimens, very long and slender; fore femora slightly 
thickened and tarsi armed with a peculiar, hook-like structure opposed 
toa stout tooth something like a forefinger and thumb (Plate I, fig. 9); 
first segment of all tarsi very short; all legs thickly set with short 
spines; all tibiee armed with very ooh spines at tips. 

Abdomen about two-thirds the length of the whole body, small at 

base, enlarging to the middle; segments frequently overlapping con- 
siderably in the last half; last three segments long and tapering to tip; 
ovipositor very long and up-curved; spines upon last two segments 
long, dark, and conspicuous. Entire body yellowish brown to dark 
brown; connective tissue red. 
Redescribed from seven specimens. No males found. 
Food plants. — Alfalfa, buckwheat, celery, clover, Composite, oats, 
onion, tansy, wheat, various grasses and weeds. 
| Habitat.—England (Haliday), Vienna (Heeger), Finland (Reuter), 
Germany (Jordan, Bohls, near Berlin, Uzel), United States: Connecti- 
cut, Indiana, lowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, 
Ohio. 

Larva.— ‘Larva yellow, the abdomen behind deeper orange, a whorl 
of hairs on each segment, more conspicuous on the last two; prothorax 
elongate; antenne shorter than in the perfect insect, the number of 
mints similar; mouth nearly perpendicular, not inflected under the 
breast; joints of maxillary palpi not very unequal.”—Haliday. 

Life history unknown. Fitch observed that it was abundant on 


Proc. N. 





~ 


7 a4", 





— a er 









130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





wheat early in the season and afterward passed to later-flowering 
pi ints, such as tansy (Zanacetum vulgare). Webster found it common 
in all stages on buckwheat in Ohio. 

Thaxter believed that this species caused the rust of oats in Con- 
necticut. Davis has reported it as the most common species on the 
heads of clover in Michigan, and found it both in and out doors on 


many plants. 
ZEOLOTHRIPS BICOLOR, new species. 


Plate I, figs. 4-9. 


Female.—Length, 1.9 mm.; width of mesothorax, 0.29 mm.; width 
of abdomen, 0.38 mm. General color light yellowish brown to dark 
brown. 

Head as wide as long, also as long and as wide as prothorax; cheeks” 
slightly arched behind eyes; anterior margin slightly arcuate; occiput 
transversely striated, quite thickly clothed with minute spines. Eyes 
large, black, a downward, coarsely granulated, each facet dis- 
tinct, slightly pilose; ocelli separated, bright reddish yellow, mar-- 
gined inwardly with maroon crescents. Mouth cone sharp; maxillary 
palpi three segmented, geniculate, third segment very small; labial 
palpi four segmented, first segment very short. Chitinous thickening 
around left eye connected with that uniting mouth cone to frons; only 
a short vestige of such thickening below right eye; two long, slender 
spines are borne upon frons in front of the middle of the transverse 
thickening and one equally long spine upon middle of labrum; these 
spines are many times as long as any others upon the head. Antena 
as long as head, pro and mesothorax together, slender, filamentous, 
approximate at base; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


BB 8) ee 
8.1. 13.2 37.1 29 19.6 19608 Steams 











y 


Segment one thickest, as long as wide; three to six slightly nar-— 
rower than two; seven to nine tapering; the last very minute and 
conical. All segments, except three, of uniform brown color; three 
is very pale yellowish white, except brown band around apex; two is” 
brown at base fading to light yellowish at apex. Segments three to- 
nine quite evenly clothed with fine hairs of uniform size; three and 
four bear each a narrow, light-colored, membranous strip on a 
part of underside, indistinct upon ies on account of its light color; 7 
a small elliptical spot of similar structure near tip of five beneath. 

Prothorax nearly square, slightly constricted in middle, with num- 
erous minute spines, but none conspicuous. Mesonotum transyer atm 
striated; fore angles of mesothorax broadly rounded. Metanotum 
reticulate; metathorax tapering posteriorly. Wings broad, rounded 
at tips; fore wing with two longitudinal veins which bone outward 


| 
| 
: 
3 


. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 131 


just before the tip and unite with the ring vein; fore longitudinal vein 
- united to front part of ring vein by two cross v eins at about the first 
and second thirds of its le sngth and to the hind vein by one cross vein 
just before the middle of the wing; hind vein united to hind part of 
ring vein by one cross vein at sa three-fifths the length of the 
wing. Fore part of ring vein and both longitudinal veins set with 
numerous short, dark spines; both pairs of wings thickly covered with 

microscopic spines; no fringe upon front edge of fore wings, but a 

very light one upon hind wings; posterior fringe on fore wings double, 

on hind wings single; hind wings veinless. Wings clear white; fore 

pair conspicuously marked with two broad, brown bands so that there 

are narrow white bands across the base, middle, and tip of the wing; 

hind wings almost clear white. Legs concolorous with body, very 

long and slender; fore femora slightly thickened, but less than half as 
wide as long; second segment of fore tarsus fitted with a peculiar 
hook-like structure recurved toward base of segment and at tip 
opposed toa stout tooth. All legs quite thickly set with small spines; 
hind legs much the longest, nearly as long as wings; each tibia armed 
at apex with two or more stout spines. 

Abdomen small at base, enlarging gradually to its sixth segment, 
where it is about one-fifth as wide as the body is long; eight, nine, aad 
ten tapering uniformly and quite abruptly; no marked difference in 
length of segments. Posterior part of segment one and segments two 
and three white or yellowish in color; remainder of abdomen yellowish 
brown to dark brown. No spines apparent upon the abdomen, except 
on last three segments; nine bears a circlet of eight long slender 
bristles near its posterior edge; ten bears six similar bristles. Ovipos- 
itor very powerful, up-curved, and extending a little beyond the tip of 
abdomen. 

Described from nine females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6323, U.S.N.M. 

Male.—Length but little more than 1 mm.; width of mesotho- 
rax slightly less than one-fourth body length. General color tawny 
yellowish with brown extremities to appendages, not nearly as dark 
as female. 

Head subequal in length and breadth and slightly smaller than 
prothorax; spines in front of transverse thickening at base of mouth 
cone not conspicuously long. Antenne three and one-half times as 
long as head, almost equal to length of abdomen; relative lengths of 
segments as follows: 


- 





Outer two-thirds of antenna dark brown; first three segments light 
vray-brown, two and basal half of three being lightest; antennz very 






29 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. axis 





hi airy. ‘Hind lees: very slender, Jonger than abdomen; all femora and 
fore tibie brownish yellow shaded darkest above; middle and hind] 
tibie and tarsi gray-brown to dark brown. A 

Abdomen very small, but slightly longer than antennz and not as 
broad as mesothorax, narrowed somewhat at attachment to thorax, 
increasing gradually in breadth up to ninth segment; tenth segment 
very abruptly smaller and conical. Segment one very lone and marked — 
by two brown, longitudinal carinze dividing it into thirds dorsally, : 
Ninth segment also peculiar, being very long and as broad as any in~ 
the abdomen; hind angles produced into a pair of claspers, also bearing 
a pair of stout spines; tenth segment small and set with quite long, : 
stout spines. Second, third, and fourth segments nearly white, some- 
times irregularly suffused with yellow; rest of abdomen tawny yellow. 

Described from three males. 

Cotype.-—Cat. No. 6328, U.S.N.M. 

These males differ much more than is usual from the description of 
the female but it seems that they are more closely allied structurally to 
A. bicolor than to A. fusciatus, and so I place them with the former 
species. 

Food plants.—Brunella vulgaris, Panicum sanguinale, bindweed, 
and various grasses in mowings. 

[labitat.—Ambherst, Massachusetts. 


Seimei 


+ > oa 


ntti eral ee diet 


Family THREPID A. 


The members of this family have from six to eight segmented — 
antenne (apparently nine segmented in Anaphothrips striatus and — 
Pseudothrips inequalis); the segments beyond the sixth are usually — 
short and form what is called the style. Maxillary palpi are usually — 
three, sometimes two segmented; labial palpi never composed of more | 
than two segments. The wings of Thripide are usually slender, 
gradually tapering more or less and pointed at the tips. The fore wings, 
as a rule, present two parallel longitudinal veins, the front one run- 
ning from the base to near the tip of the wing; the hind vein appears 
usually as a branch from the fore vein at about one-third the length — 
of the wing. Sometimes, however, all connection between these veins 

is wanting. Cross veins are rarely visible, though traces of them can — 
sometimes be seen. The ring vein is not usually very heavy or promi- 
nent. A fringe is generally present upon the front margin of the fore 
wing, but may be vestigial. More or less stout spines are found along — 
the veins and costa of the fore wing. The hind wing has one median, — 
longitudinal vem without spines and no cross or ring veins, but the | 


costa bears a frmge. The ovipositor of the female is bent downwaten 
i. e., concave side ventral. 





| No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 133 





SYNOPSIS OF THRIPID. 


1 es With velg Minseomn Shite Mera vee ree te eT oe a pee ee 2 
Antenne with seven segments......-.-----.- Pe rt bie is Bare eyae ee See 11 
9 ae with markedly reticulated surface......-...--------- Feliothrips (p. 168) 
may ewivhoitirenculare: suviace \2) ite Sek tol ll lef ck ete elle 3 
3 ce wit clothed with fine hairs and haying a silky luster_ Sericothrips (p. 141) 
Bedawithouncotwing otding hairs. Soe eh oe et bok oa ee ak wh 4 
4 ae two segments of the antenna longer than the sixth... Raphidothrips (p. 158) 
Pari two. serments shorter thanisixth 12.052 25-522 0254.222 2-2 -32-20 63h 5 
Terminal segment of abdomen with a pair of extremely stout, short spines 
5 MELE lyr aOVe sash tear h aa rs Je Lk SE ESS oe Limothrips (p. 138) 
Terminal segment without unusually stout spines.......--...----------- 6 
Antenne with second segment drawn out into an acute process on outer 
6 [ DIN ALD eae Pam carpet ape es Men ein ol Pa Seat ee wae ete CR SM Chirothrips (p. 183) 
Second segment of antennz normally symmetrical. ..-..--..------------ 7 
7 wes eolbbandowines wanting 22.422 oes oc esl ee Aptinothrips (p. 166) 
ree liirancdewancrcorenent eens eee ance ere tin ae Tew i Dae 8 
8 ee ioSspiNes ah hind angles:oL-probhorax. 26 $2 sic 202 see: Ses Pl rk ee ee 9 
Without spines at hind angles of prothorax...-..------- Anaphothrips (p. 160) 
9 ee ith two long spines at each hind angle of prothorax .---.....-.------- Or? 
With one long spine at each hind angle of prothorax--- -- Pseudothrips (p. 146) 
10 au ithout a long spine at middle of each side of prothorax .... Huthrips (p. 147) 
With a long spine at middle of each side of prothorax--.-.- Scolothrips (p. 157) 
rT oe wings broad and without front fringe .--..-...---- Parthenothrips (p. 175) 
Fore wings slender, spines on outer half fewer than on basal... Thrips (p. 178) 


Genus CHIROTHRIPS Haliday. 


Body thickened. Head very small and in front of the eyes drawn 
out into a three-cornered process upon which the antenne are situated. 
Ocelli present in the females and located very far back; wanting in 
the males. Antenne eight segmented, the second segment ending in 
a blunt prominence at the outer angle. Maxillary palpi three seg- 
mented. Prothorax nearly twice as long as the head, and trapezoidal 
in form, being about twice as broad at the hind edge as at the fore 
edge. Two prominent spines present at the hind angles or wanting 
in some species. Legs short; the fore pair extremely thickened, so 
that the tibie are short and broad and the tarsi small. Wings long 
and very slender; fore wing with two veins upon which there stand a 
few small spines; front fringe well developed. Males wingless. 


SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 


With two moderately long spines at each hind angle -.....--- manicatus (p. 134) 
Macaout lone spines at the hind anples.-25-4<.-..._ 22.222. 2enn5sese se 2 
encomecte ont yollow Ms. ese fs oh es et 22 ees obesus (p. 187) 
\ Abdomen OGIO LO Willlessse pee ae nee coe Le EA 2 crassus (p. 136) 





CHIROTHRIPS MANICATUS Haliday. 
Plate II, figs. 14-16. 


Thrips ( ¢ ‘hirothrips ) manicata HaLipay, Entom. Mag., III, 1836, p- 444, 
Thrips manicata BURMEISTER, Handb. d. Entomologie, II, 1838, p. 413. 
Thrips longipennis BURMEISTER, Handb. d. Entomologie, II, 1838, p. 413. 
Chirothrips manicata AMyor and SERVILLE, Ins. Hemipteres, 1843, p. 642. 
Chirothrips longipennis AMyor and SERVILLE, Ins. Hemipteres, 1848, p. 642. 
Thrips ( Chirothrips ) manicata HALLIDAY, Walker, Homopt. Ins. Brit. Mus., 1852, 2 


p. 1106, pl. v1, fig. 12. 


Thrips (Chirothrips) manicata Revver, Diagn. ofy. nya Thysanopt. f. Finland, 


(1878-79), pp. 6, 6. 


Chirothrips antennatus Osporn, Canad. Ent., XV, 1883, p. 154. 
Chirothrips antennatus LrNDEMAN, Bull. d. Soc. Imp. d. Nat. d. Moscow, LXIT, | 


1886, No. 4, pp. 322-325, fig. 12. 


Chirothrips manicata JABLONowSKI, Termes. Fuzetek, X VII, 1894, p- 47. 
Chirothrips manicata Uzer, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, p. 80, pl. 1, fig. 2; 


pl. vi, fig. 49. 


VOL. XXVI1, 






Chirothrips manicata Tiimert, Die Geradfiigler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 287. 


It male. 
0.27 mm. (0.24 to 0.382 mm.). 
yellowish brown. 


Head somewhat shorter than wide, almost conoid in shape, frequently — 
hidden up to the eyes in the prothorax; cheeks only about one-third 
the length of the eye; head prolonged into a triangular process in 
front of the eyes; a row of four small spines across the head between 
the front edges of the eyes and one small spine on each side of the 
Eyes large, black, rather coarsely faceted; ocelli 
subapproximate, almost white or pale yellowish with heavy maroon 


anterior ocellus. 


-Length 1 mm. (0.84 to 1.18 mm.); width of mesothorax 
General color quite uniform dark 


| 
3 
| 


Ce il ka is 


crescentic inner margins, placed in a low triangle far back between 


hind half of eyes. 
palpi three segmented. 


as follows: 





ee eee see 
0.8 0:9 ~6.4:. 1.02101 Seams 


Mouth cone short, broad and blunt; maxillary 
Antenne less than twice the length of head; _ 
segments thick and more or less rounded; relative lengths of segments 


Basal segments very broad and almost contiguous; two drawn out — 
into a short, blunt angle on outer side; three and four bear each one 


very stout, blunt sense cone on outer angle. 
tips of two and three frequently yellowish. 


All segments brown; 


Prothorax large, trapezoidal, a little less than twice as long as head, 
as wide as head in front and twice as wide behind; sides nearly 
straight; surface dotted with numerous very small spines and marked 
with transverse, arched wrinkles, giving it a sealy appearance; numer- 
ous small spines stand at hind edge, and two spines at each hind angele 


are much larger than the others. 


Mesothorax a little broader than 


ie 


ie 


‘= 
\ 


& 


“xo. 1510. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. : 135 


‘the prothorax, widest behind, sides curving forward; metathorax 
‘abruptly somewhat narrower, and its sides curve inward to base of 
‘abdomen. Wings nearly always fully developed in females, about 


four-fifths as long as body and in middle about one-seventeenth as 
broad as long, sharply pointed at ends, heavily fringed on both edges. 
Hind longitudinal vein branches from the fore at about one-fourth 


the length of the wing; fore vein bears six or seven spines before the 


branching off of the hind vein; beyond this the fore vein bears 
usually two and the hind vein four spines; costa bears numerous 
short spines. Fore wings gray-brown; hind wings gray. Legs short 
and powerful; fore femora extremely short, nearly as broad at base 
as long, wrinkled on surface and at tip outside with chitin turned up 
into a sort of tooth; fore tibiz also extremely short and thick; each 
tibia bearing a row of spines of gradually increasing length and stout- 
ness on inner side toward tip; these are most strongly developed on 
hind legs. Legs dark brown except tarsi more or less gray or 
yellowish. 

Abdomen broader than mesothorax, hardly twice as long as broad 
(segments usually overlapping considerably and giving a dark and 
light brown banded appearance); spines around last two segments 


moderately long and stout, dark brown and conspicuous; ovipositor 


of good length. Color of abdomen uniform dark brown; recepta- 
culum seminis inconspicuous or invisible. 

Redescribed from ten females. 

Male.—Length 0.83 mm. (0.66 to 0.96 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.22 mm. (0.20 to 0.24 mm.). 

Ocelli wanting; spines on head as in female. Relative lengths of 
antennal segments as follows: 


1 2 3 + > 6 7 8 
Jed iowaue + 0.0; 4-4-2520. 1.8 18 


Segments two and three pale yellowish. Wings entirely wanting. 
Abdomen more narrow than in female and bluntly rounded at the end. 
Ninth segment very large, conoid; tenth segment retracted therein; 
ninth with a short stout spine on each side of the hind edge above; 
genital apparatus protruding beyond the tip of tenth segment; a 
rounded light depression in middle of ventral plates on segments 
three to six. 

Described from five males. 

tood plants.—Flowers of various grasses and cereals, clover, wild 
carrot. 

Habitat. —England (Haliday), Germany (Burmeister, Jordan, Bohls), 
Finland (Reuter), Russia (Lindeman), Bohemia (Uzel), United States: 
Manchester, Iowa; Amherst, Massachusetts. 


136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. all 


i 1 


— 


Life history unknown except that they hibernate in dried flower 





ae 


stems and in turf. . 
I have compared my specimens with those of Osborn’s C. antennatus 


and they are identical. . 
CHIROTHRIPS CRASSUS, new species. 
Plate II, figs. 17-20. 


Female.—Length 0.78 mm.; width of mesothorax 0.26 mm. Gen- 
eral color of head and thorax brown; abdomen gray-brown or yellow- 
ish brown. 

Head very small, slightly wider than long, narrowed in front 
between the eyes and elongated anteriorily; distance between eyes’ 
equal to one-half the width of head; frons between antenne bluntly 
acuminate. Eyes reddish orange by reflected light; ocelli placed in a 
low triangle far back between hind edge of eyes; each ocellus pale, 
margined inwardly with a dark-red crescent. Mouth cone very short 
and broadly rounded; maxillary palpi short, three segmented. Anten- 
nx approximate at base; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


Or 





ie One ee 6 ee 
156 oT 6b Coes 


_ Basal segments large, longitudinally compressed, nearly twice as 
wide as long; segment two drawn out at outer angle into an acute 
process; three with slender peduncle, subpyriform, bearing one promi- 
nent sense cone on outside, as does also four; four and five rounded; 
four nearly as thick as long; five somewhat narrower; six elongated; 
seven and eight moderately slender. One and two pale straw yellow; 
three to six shading gradually to a medium brown; seven and eight 
also medium brown. 

Prothorax one and one-half times as long as head, one and three- 
fourths times as wide as long, twice as wide at posterior edge as at 
anterior; sides nearly straight, indented above fore cox, with prom- 
inent spines at posterior angles. Mesothorax one and one-fourth times 
as wide as prothorax, quite a deep constriction between mesothorax and 
metathorax; pterothorax with more or less rusty tinge. Wings long, 
saber-formed, slightly overreaching the tip of the abdomen; fore wings 
shaded with gray, hind wings nearly clear. Fore longitudinal vein 
extends through the wing; hind vein arises from fore vein at one-third 
its length; both veins disappear before reaching the tip of the wing. 
Fore vein bears two spines on distal half; hind vein bears five spines. 
Legs short; fore pair strongly thickened; all femora grayish or yel- 
lowish brown; fore tibie and all tarsi pale yellowish; middle and hind 
tibie brownish at bases and above, fading to pale gray or yellow 
beneath and at extremities. 


NO. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. = OT 


% 


, 


Abdomen elongate-ovate in outline, bluntly pointed at tip, one and 
four-fifths times as long as broad; spines upon last twe segments short, 
weak, and inconspicuous; ovipositor short and weak. Color rusty- 
gray brownish upon sides, and pale yellowish upon last two segments. 

Described from two females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6324, U.S.N.M. 

Male.—Length 0.66 mm. (0.58 to 0.78 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.23 mm. (0.19 to 0.25 mm.). General color of head and prothorax 
‘grayish or yellowish brown; pterothorax abruptly pale yellowish, 
‘shading through gray to chestnut brown upon last two abdominal 
. segments. 


Head as wide as long, 








. without ocelli; relative lengths of antennal 
‘segments as follows: 

; 1 2 3 4 5 6 it 8 

AA O20 20.9 25.0 Oi) C9). 252-0 2-6 





_ Prothorax one and one-third times as long as head, and one and one- 
half times as wide as long; mesothorax one and one-sixth times as 
wide as prothorax; wings wanting; terminal two segments conoid; 
“spines thereupon slightly more prominent than in female. 

Described from seven males. 
Cotype.— Cat. No. 6324, U.S. N.M. 
Food plant.— Panicum capilare. 
Habitat.—Amherst, Massachusetts. 
Life history unknown. 


CHIROTHRIPS OBESUS, new species. 


Plate II, figs. 21, 22. 





Female.—Length 0.78 mm.; width of mesothorax 0.29 mm.; width 
of abdomen 0.275 mm. General color of head and thorax yellowish 
brown; abdomen pale yellow. 

_ Head very small, as wide as long, narrowed anteriorly, much elon- 
gated between the eyes, acuminate between basal segments of antenne. 
Eyes dark, relatively large, occupying sides of head from close to base 
of antenne almost to posterior edge of head; distance between eyes 

one-half the width of head; ocelli rather small and placed very far 
back between hind edge of eyes; anterior angle of triangle formed by 
ocelli is very obtuse; color pale yellow, margined inwardly, or entirely 

surrounded by red patches. Mouth cone very short and blunt; max- 

‘illary palpi short, three segmented. Antenne one and three-fourths 

times as long as head, situated upon the elongated portion thereof; 
relative lengths of segments as follows: 

Dede Te Aee | DR eO 38 


1 
Ae ea TRE Re pe A ONG 8 








138 PROCE EDINGS: OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


vw 





First segment muc h compressed longitudinally; transverse diamete 
more than twice its length; two very strongly drawn out externally 
‘nto a stout. conical elongation; segments three, four, and five rounded; 
three with a quite long peduncle; three and four each bear one stout, 
transparent sense cone upon outer angle. Color of one and two clear 
pale yellow; three to six becoming gradually more brownish; six to 
eioht uniformly chestnut brown. ; 

Prothorax one and one-third times as long as the head; anterior edge 
but slightly wider than hind edge of head; sides slightly concave, 
divergent so that width at posterior edge is more than twice that at 
anterior edge; hind angles acute, without long spines; sides quite” 
deeply indented above fore coxe. Sides of mesothorax rounded, con-_ 
verging anteriorly; met tathorax narrower than mesothorax, its sides | 
also rounded but converging posteriorly. Color of thorax fone yel- | 
lowish brown, sometimes splashed with red. Fore legs very short and 
extremely thickened; other legs short, but not thickened. Legs pale 
yellow, middle and hind tibize slightly brownish on upper side, basal 
part of fore femora shading to light brown. Wings long, sabre- 
formed, overreaching tip of abdomen, shaded with gray. Two long” 
veins, the hind one branching from the fore at about one-third the | 
length of the wing; both veins disappear before reaching the apex. 
Each vein bears four to six spines; basal third of wings “unfringed;, 
fore fringe sparse, long and slender. 

Abdomen ovoid, acuminate at apex, broadly attached to metathorax, — 
one and two-thirds times as long as broad. Spines upon last two seg- 
ments very short and weak, 7 those upon ventral plates weak and 
inconspicuous. Ovipositor very short and weak, apparently not func-— 
tional; tenth segment split open above. Color of abdomen uniformly — 
clear pale yellow, except apex brownish and posterior edges of seg-— 
ments faintly brownish, receptaculum seminis over base of ovipositor 
bright reddish orange. 

Described from three specimens. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6325, U.S.N.M. 

Male unknown. 


ible hci 


Food plants.— Festuca ovina, Poa pratensis. 
Habitat.—Amherst, Massachusetts. 


Genus LIMOTHRIPS Haliday. 


Body powerful. Head longer than wide, broadened behind, and ip 
front of the eyes extending into a triangular projection upon which 
the antennxe are borne. Ocelli present in females, but wanting in| 
males. Antenne eight segmented; third segment drawn out into a 
blunt, triangular process at outer angle. Maxillary palpi two seg- 
mented (LZ. cerealium three?). Prothorax somewhat shorter than 
the head, slightly broadened at hind edge; hind angles provided with 


r 1310. ee AMERICAN THYSA LE ae A—HINDS. 139 





one long, stout spine. Legs rt rather short and thic ik Wi ing’s quite 
Jong and of medium breadth; costa bearing a fringe; veins bearing a 
few short spines. Terminal segment of abdomen in female elongated 
somewhat and approaching a tubular form, split open above; each 
side bears a short, extremely stout spine and similar stout spines are 
borne upon the sides of the eighth segment. 

Male entirely wingless. End of abdomen bluntly rounded; ninth 
segment bears a stout spine at middle of each side and a pair of simi- 
Jar spines stands closely together near the dorsal line above. 

Species of this genus move slowly and have no power of leaping. 
I found only the new species avenx of the genus. 


= SS 
crea 


LIMOTHRIPS AVENZ, new species. 
Plate I, figs. 10-12; Plate II, fig. 13. 


Female.—Length 1.57 mm. (1.48 to 1.66 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.28 mim. (0.26 to 0.30 mm.). Form elongated, slender. General color 
dark yellowish brown. 

Head a little longer than wide, tapering a little anteriorly; cheeks 
very slightly arched; surface of head not at all, or but very faintly, 
cross striated and bearing a few scattered minute spines; front strongly 
arcuate, produced considerably between bases of antennze; color of 
head dark brown. Eyes of moderate size, black with yellow margins, 
triangular above, protruding slightly; ocelli fairly well separated, 
anterior one smallest, pale yellow with very dark red crescents on 
inner margins. Mouth cone short and moderately thick; maxillary 
palpi short, only two segmented. Antenne rather short, about one 
and one-half times as long as the head, considerably separated at 
bases; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


lise 
oO 





AAA AG 1029) 21005 1A e 





i] 


eee Oe OE 2B 
) 


Oo 
Oo 
a 


Segment one much wider than long; two cup-shaped; three to five 
clavate; six fusiform; seven and eight slender, cylindrical; one and 
two dark brown; three to eight shading gradually from pale brownish 
gray to more or less dark brown; outer angles of three and four strongly 
developed (three especially so, though obtuse), and each bears one long 

pointed sense cone; six also bears one long, slender sense cone on inner 
side at two-thirds its length. 

Prothorax a little shorter than head and about one and one-third 
times as wide as long; sides diverging from head posteriorly; only 
one long stout spine at each posterior angle; other spines scattered and 
minute; transverse margins nearly straight; sides slightly rounded; 
concolorous with head. Mesothorax about one and one-third times as 
wide as prothorax; metathorax abruptly narrower; sides nearly par- 
















140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 





allele pterothorax more or less rusty brown in color. Wings present, 
‘lone and slender, about one-seventeenth as broad in middle 
long, tapering eradually from base to tip; two longitudinal veins, n 
fore wine, the second branching from the first at about one-fourth its 
leneth; both veins and costa beara few short, rather stout, dark brown | 
spines: costa about twenty, fore vein about twelve, of which only two | 
stand beyond the middle of the wing; hind vein about nine spines; 
fore wings dark, smoky gray; hind wings very slightly gray; costal} 


frinoeslone. Lees rather short, but not thickened; femora and middle | 


9. 


quite 


hind tibiz alone bearing stout spines. 
Abdomen about two-thirds the length of the body and only abo 


at tip of tenth. Spines on sides of abdomen weak and inconspicuo Ss 
before the seventh segment; eight bears three or four short, very 
stout, slightly curved, dark brown spines on each side; nine bears a_ 
circlet of long, slender spines; tenth segment split open above, sharply — 
pointed at tip, and on each side above is a short, very stout, straight, 
dark brown spine reaching but slightly beyond the tip; color of 
abdomen gray-brown, shading to almost black at tip; connective tissue” 
pale yellow; surface of segments finety reticulated. ‘ 
Described from eight long-winged females. 
Cotype.—Cat. No. 6326, U.S.N.M. 
Male.—Length 1.05 mm. (1.02 to 1.08 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.22 mm. (0.20 to 0.22 mm.). 
Head as broad as long. Ocelli generally wanting, though some- 
times vestiges are present. Antenne only one and one-third times as 
long as the head; relative lengths of segments: 
L525, 8 roe Or aso deanna 


4:89. TC ee as 





8 
3 


Color paler than in female, with more of a yellowish tinge, becoming 
yellowish brown at tip. Pterothorax without traces of wing pads; 
the dorsal plates very broad, being as wide as first abdominal segment. 
Head and thorax yellowish brown; legs yellow; femora and tibie con- 
siderably shaded with brownish. 

Abdomen but little more than twice as long as wide, though seg- 
ments overlap considerably, giving it a yellowish brown and dark- 
brown cross-banded appearance; bluntly rounded at tip; segment nine 
very large and bluntly conoid; segment ten small, cylindrical, and 
plainly visible retracted within the ninth: copulatory apparatus pro- 
Jecting a little from ten. Close together in middle of nine above stand | 
two extremely short blunt spines borne upon broader black, chitinous: 


oy 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. AT 














projections, the inner edges a ic h are parallel and fhe blak ae 
ing tapers to a point anteriorly; on eac ‘h side of these peculiar proc- 
esses stands a long, slender spine; at about the middle of each side of 
‘ninth segment is a very abrupt, angular, chitinous projection shaded 
almost black, supporting on the inside of it an exceedingly- short, 
stout, dark brown, blunt spine; other spines on this segment slender, 
but not very long. Segment ten is blunt at end and bears a row of 
short, small spines above; close to hind edge; nine is cut out on upper 
side over about half of ten, which at tip does not quite reach to tip of 
nine or under side; abdomen yellow-brown. 

Described from four specimens. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6326, U.S.N.M. 

Food plants. —Oats, Festuca pratensis. 

Habitat.—Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 

This species was very abundant upon and caused much damage to 
oats at State College, Pennsylvania, during the summer of 1898. 





Genus SH RICOTHRIPS Halliday. 


Body broad and having a silky luster due to the presence of numer- 
ous minute spines on the abdominal segments. Head fully one and 
one-half times as wide as long. Eyes large and protruding; ocelli 
present in both sexes. Antenne eight segmented. Maxillary palpi 
‘three segmented. Prothorax much longer than the head, without long 
spines at hind angles (one present in S. varvabilis). Legs, especially 
hind pair, quite slender. Wings either reduced or fully developed; 
when present, the fore wing is broad at basal fourth, the remainder 
being very narrow; only one longitudinal vein developed; fore fringe 
Jong; spines on veins numerous and moderately developed. Abdomen 
‘in some species strongly arched and its segments broad and short; tip 
of abdomen conical in both sexes. Abdomen of male much more slen- 

der throughout. 
Species of this genus leap readily. 
— The characters of this genus are extended to include the following 
species: 





SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 


Body nearly black except segments four, five, and six of abdomen almost white; 


__ wings reduced ......-..-----------++--++++-2+-02222-222----- cingulatus (p. 141) 
Body yellow with brown or gray markings; wings present and with two spines on 
ian sourth, where hind vein usually is -..: 2522-20-52. 2-2 variabilis (p. 148 


SERICOTHRIPS CINGULATUS, new species. 
Plate ITI, figs. 27-29. 
— Female.—Length 1 mm. (0.84 to 1.25 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.25 mm. (0.22 to 0.31 mm.); width of abdomen 0.37 mm. (0.31 to 


0.45 mm.). General color very dark brown; abdomen cross- banded 
with white in the middle. 





142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ‘NATIONAL MUSEUM. vou. 4 


© 























eee at the insertion of ao nnthortaeel Eyes small, rounded 
strongly protruding, occupying together only one-half the width 
the head, black, oe el: ated; margins vent yellow, oc preg 


Mouth cone reaching to san cae oe ode of aco max- 
illary BaP ee segme mes ae very eee as ae as hea 1 


ments: 
i 2 3 4 5 6 nee 
58 9.9 16.4 145 199 123-32 7 
Basal two segments thickest; spines slender and inconspicuous, 
Segments one, tw 0, and ae light yer one fhe pe ot brown 





| 
n 


than prothorax; et beeen ce notal plates dark prowl 
sides of metathorax not converging posteriorly; metanotum much 
wider than long. Wings reduced, the pads reaching only to the first 
abdominal segment. Fore and middle legs of approximately sami 
length; fore pay Jee hind pair longest and quite slender; all 


Callow ae more Ghee at basal attenuations, fore pair lightest; 
tarsi uniformly yellowish, slender, and tapering evenly from thei 
bases to tips. Surface of all femora and tibie thickly covered with 
transverse ridges; spines upon hind tibix especially long and slende1 


uniformly thickly covered with minute spines which appear most 
clearly as a fine fringe at posterior edge of each segment; a transverse 
dorsal row of about twelve quite uniformly long, brownish spines 
regularly spaced across the middle of segments ree to six, and si 
similar spines stand in as Inany small, dark depressions along the 
posterior edge of the sternal plates of these segments. First thre e 
abdominal segments light brown; four, five, and six abruptly pale 
gray, or yellowish gray, tinged with pron in middle of dorsum, 
most broadly on sixth segment; last four segments again abruptly 
dark brown. A narrow, ane brome transverse, chitinous thickening 


= 
‘No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 143 


ok 


(appearing as a stripe) extends across two-thirds of the width of the 
dorsal plates of segments two to seven near their anterior edges; 
spines upon terminal segments short and weak. 

This species possesses a well-developed power of leaping. 

Described from twenty specimens. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6327, U.S.N.M. 

Male.—Length 0.87 mm. (0.66 to 1 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.21 mm.; width of abdomen, 0.27 mm. (0.22 to 0.30 mm.). 

Relative lengths of antennal segments: 


epee ee ee ee!) 8 
e101. 1S. t09 19.87° 918! 3.7 











End of abdomen shaped as in female; a transverse elliptical depres- 
sion in the middle of ventral plates of segments five to seven. Seg- 
ment nine long and tapering; tenth elongate and retracted within the 
ninth. Genital apparatus appears to be wholly protrusile. Testes 
large and brownish yellow in color. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6827, U.S.N.M. 

Food plants.—Various grasses. 

Habitat.—Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 


SERICOTHRIPS VARIABILIS (Beach). 
Plate II, fig. 23; Plate III, figs. 24-26. 
Thrips variabilis Beacu, Proc. lowa Acad. Sci., 1895, III, 1896, pp. 220-223. 

Female.—Length 0.84 to 1.28 mm.; width of mesothorax about one- 
fourth the length of the body. General color yellow, with more or 
less striking brown or gray-brown markings. 

Head about two-thirds as long as broad, broadest through eyes, 
retracted considerably into prothorax; cheeks moderately full, con- 
verging somewhat posteriorly; anterior margin nearly straight, but 
slightly elevated between bases of antennz. Spines upon head incon- 
spicuous; but one moderately long spine on each side of fore ocellus, 
and one behind each hind ocellus; a row of fourshort, strongly curved 
spines across front near margin, and a few small spines upon cheeks; 
color of head pale yellow with dusky shadings. Eyes moderately large, 
protruding a little, nearly black, coarsely faceted, plainly pilose, occu- 
pying about three-fifths the width of the head; ocelli large, approxi- 
mate, reddish orange, heavily margined inwardly with maroon, situated 
upon a slightly raised area between the eyes. Mouth cone tipped with 
black; maxillary palpi slender, three segmented. Antenne eight seg- 
mented, more than twice as long as head, bases separated by about 
two-thirds the width of a basal segment; relative lengths of segments: 





SO AS 
ae) 































144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXYI 





Seoment one nearly spherical and slightly narrower than two which i, 
broadest: three and four fusiform; five similarly formed to four at its 
hase, but quite broad at its apex, and rather broadly joined to six which 
with style tapers gradually to tip. Color: One white and nearly tra s 
parent; two pale or brownish yellow; three and four pale yellow; three 
lieht brownish at tip and four in outer half; remainder of antenna light 
to dark brown, base of five somewhat lighter. | 

Prothorax about three-fourths as long as wide, a little longer and @ 


versely striated on dorsum; only one long, slender spine at each hind 
anele= anterior third of pronotum concolorous with head, remainder 
marked with a saddle-shaped patch of brown, the anterior edge of 
which is concave and sharply defined; six or eight medium-sized spines 
stand in this dark border, behind it there are six more or less well- 
defined brown spots. Pterothorax large and apparently symmetrically 
formed on account of first segment of abdomen being closely joined 
metathorax and closely approaching it in color; meso and metathorax 
equally wide and about one and one-half times as wide as the pro- 
thorax; metanotal plate light brown; rest of pterothorax bright or 
dusky yellow, except small brown spots at anterior edge of mesonotum 
and at anterior angles. Wings long, reaching to tip of abdomen 
fore wings very slender beyond the basal fourth, breadth at middle 
only about one twenty-sixth their length; only the fore longitudinal 
vein is fully developed, though vestiges of the hind vein may be seen 


vein placed at regular intervals; two isolated spines stand upon the 
last fourth of the wing on the line where the hind vein might be 
expected; the scale bears four spines along its inner edge and one 
discal near its base. Fore wings uniformly dusky or marked with 
three white and two gray-brown cross bands alternating; scale also 
gray-brown; anterior fringe long and fine on outer two-thirds of costa, 
Legs, especially hind pair, quite long and slender; general color pale 
yellowish with brown markings on fore femora above, both outer and 
inner sides of fore tibize, around outer halves of middle and hind 
femora, around middle of these tibie, and bases of all bladders. Tarsi 
slender and tapering; hind tibie without stout spines within. 

Abdomen cylindrical, tapering sharply from anterior edge of eight 
or acute avoid; two to two and one-third times as long as broad; thickly 
clothed with minute slender spines appearing most: prominently as é 
fringe on hind edges of dorsal plates. Eight to ten spines upon eack 
segment from two to eight, two or three of these stand quite closely 
together in a group upon each side, and the middle pair stand very 
closely together upon segments two to five, but separate more widely 
upon following segments and become larger; spines upon last two seg- 







. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 145 





ents short, weak, and not strongly radiating. Segments two to seven 
‘marked with a very prominent dark-brown cross line at anterior third 
‘of each; on each side of these segments behind this line is a more or 
ess extensive brown shading which on seven extends clear across the 
back; ground color of these segments is white or pale yellowish gray; 
eight, nine, and ten are without the brown markings, and are pale or 
dusky yellowish. 
_ Male.—Similar to female with the following exceptions: Length 
0.64 mm.; width of thorax 0.19 mm.; abdomen only four-fifths as 
wide as thorax, and more than twice as long as wide, nearly cylindrical 
to seventh segment; eight to ten conoid; spines upon last segment 


short; the testes large and brownish orange. 


y : : 
: Relative lengths of antennal segments: 

pe ee oy Bi ts 8 

e oe lO Oe oe AOL oa 

ie 

r 

Var. a. female.—Head and front third of prothorax clear, pale yel- 


_Jow; pterothorax darker yellow; hind part of prothorax and metano- 
tum abruptly brown; abdomen pale yellowish with very conspicuous 
dark brown cross-streak at first third of segments two to seven; on 


each side behind this streak is a narrow brown shading which upon 


"seven extends clear across the back. Fore wings slightly tinged with 
yellowish, darkest at base. Brown spot on femora above, darkest on 


hind femora. Abdomen acute ovoid. 
Food plants.—Clematis, clover, elm, hackberry. 
Habitat.—lowa, Massachusetts. 
“Var. b. male and female.—Body pale yellowish, immaculate; apical 


_ joints of antenne black, remainder pale; wings and fringes tinged with 


yellowish.” —Beach. 

Food plants.—Hawthorn, hackberry. 

Habitat.—lowa. 

“Var. c. male and female.—Wings nearly uniformly fuliginous; 
last three joints of antenne, distal half of joints 4 and 5 black, some- 
times intermediate altogether dusky; brown markings very distinct, 
confined to two large spots on thorax and scutellum respectively, the 
latter oblong and approximating posteriorly; abdomen immaculate.” 
Beach.“ . 

Food plants.—Hawthorn, hackberry. 

Habitat.—lowa. 

“Var. d. male and female.—This variety is characterized by having 
the wings fuliginous, trifasciate with white bands, and in being more 





al have seen and studied the specimens of Miss Beach labeled “ Thrips variabilis 
Beach, Var. c. male and female types.” These specimens seem to me to fit much 
better her description of ‘‘ Var. d.”’ An emended description based upon these speci- 
mens would not be distinguishable from the foregoing description of o Var. d.*? 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 10 








146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 








heavily marked with brown; the markings on the thorax and bands at | 
bases of first, second, and third (sometimes of second and third only), 
and seventh and eighth segments of the abdomen are extended until 
they coalesce and form broad bands; the dorsal surface of the head is 
hrown: sometimes all of the caudal segments are brown; the legs are™ 
white. with brown streaks on dorsal surface of femora, an frequently 


on tibiew also; antenne same as in preceding variety.” Beach. ; 
Food plants.—Cucumber, grass, smartweed. 2 
Habitat. —lowa, Massachusetts. 
PSEUDOTHRIPS, new genus. 

Head much broader than long. Ocelli present. Maxillary palpil 
three segmented. Antenne eight segmented (apparently nine seg- | 
) 


mented, owing to an apparent division of the sixth segment). Pro- . 
thorax much longer than head and somewhat broadened posteriorly; — 
one stout spine at each hind angle. Wings with two longitudinal | 
veins which, with the costa, are thickly and regularly set with quite 
prominent spines; fore fringe well developed. Abdominal segments 
two to eight, inclusive, bear across the middle of each dorsal plate 
four weak spines, of which the middle two are close together upon 
anterior segments but diverge posteriorly. 

This genus is erected for the single species ¢neqgualis. 

(ysevda, false; Apu.) 

PSEUDOTHRIPS INEQUALIS (Beach). 
Plate III, figs. 30-32. 
Thrips inequalis Bracu, Proc. lowa Acad. Sciences, 1895, III, (1896), pp. 223-224. 

Female.—Length 0.88 mm.; width of mesothorax, 0.22 mm.; gen- 
eral color yellow; thorax and abdomen tinged with orange. 

Head fully one and one-half times as broad as long, slightly con- 
stricted at hind edge, and retracted into the prothorax somewhat; 
cheeks full; anterior margin nearly straight. Eyes of medium size, 
rounded, slightly protruding, slightly pilose; ocelli large, well sepa- 
rated, with orange-red margins; ocellar bristles present, but not very 
long or prominent. Mouth cone moderately sharp and somewhat 
shaded with brown at tip; maxillary palpi three segmented. Antenne 
over two and one-half times as long as head; eight segmented, though 
there appear to be nine segments; relative lengths of segments as 
follows: 

Ue eae + 


Z 8 
Aire wise 


6 
8+2 3 

Segment six has a distinct annulation around it at four-fifths its 
length, the outer part appearing much like a separate segment. Seg- 
ments one and two quite stout and rounded; three irregularly, and 
four regularly clavate; seven and eight psikinidieaead Segment one 
paler than two, concolorous with head: three to six pale yellow in 





bo] ~T 


Oo] ox 






i: No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 147 


basal parts, shading to dark brown toward ‘the tips: seven and eight 
dark brown; spines distinct but not prominent, becoming more slen- 
der toward the tip. 

| Prothorax about one and one-half times as long as head, and one 
and one fourth times as broad at posterior edge; sides nearly straight, 
diverging backward; dorsal surface bearing a number of small, dark 
‘spines, mostly near lateral and posterior borders; one stout, promi- 
nent spine at each hind angle. Mesothorax over one and one-half 
times as wide as head; sides rounded and converging anteriorly; fore 
angles prominent. Metathorax but little narrower than mesothorax; 
its sides nearly parallel, curving inward abruptly at hind angles. 
Wings reaching almost to tip of abdomen; two longitudinal veins quite 
prominent; both veins and costa thickly and regularly set with prom- 
inent dark brown spines; costal twenty-four to twenty-eight, fore 
vein eighteen to nineteen, hind vein ten to eleven, scale five, internal 
one. Fore wing about one-fifteenth as broad in middle as ioe shaded 
faintly yellowish; costal fringe well developed. Legs dusky yellow, 
quite slender; fore femora slightly thickened; femora and tibie bear- 
ing numerous short spines; inner side of hind tibizw with but few 
stouter spines except one pair at tip; each hind tarsal segment with 
one stout, dark spine on the side; a dark brown spot on under side of 
each tarsus at tip. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate; few dark spines along the sides; segments 
two to eight bear across the middle of each ddoreal plate four weak 
spines, the middle two are close together upon anterior segments, but 
diverge posteriorly; posterior edge of nine bears a circlet of six stout 
spines, the median pair being only slightly more than half as long 
as the others. All spines on body, and spines and fringes on wings 
conspicuously dark brown; abdomen dusky yellow, dark brown at 
extreme tip. 

Redescribed from one female, ** Type” of Miss Beach. 

Male unknown. 

Food plant.—Aster. 

Habitat.—Ames, Iowa. 

This species bears a close general resemblance to Huthrips tritic?, 
with which it was taken. 





Genus EUTHRIPS Targioni-Tozzetti. 
PHYSOPUS.¢ 
Ocelli usually present but sometimes more or less rudimentary. 
Antenne eight segmented. Maxillary palpi three segmented.  Pro- 





«The name Physapus was used by Amyot and Serville for this genus in 1843, but it 
‘ean not hold, as this name was previously used by Leach for a genus of the Neurop- 
tera in 1817. 

I have been unable to see Targioni-Tozzetti’s characterization of his genus Luthrips, 
but as nearly as I can tell it may include the species which have been placed in the 
genus Physopus, and I therefore adopt it for this genus. 












148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





thorax as lone or somewhat longer than the head, with two long spines 
upon each hind angle and one similar spine upon each anterior angle 
in many species, but this is wanting in others. Legs usually unarmed, 
but in a few species with a stout tooth on under side of fore tibia at 
end. Wings usually fully developed but sometimes reduced. When 
present they are moderately broad, have two longitudinal veins which 
are set with numerous stout spines at regular intervals in those species 
having a spine at the fore angle of the pronotum. Spines upon 
abdomen moderately stout; anal spines long and slender. 
These species are active and can spring. 


SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 


{General color of body yellow -.-.-..---------------+---+--+-++++-+----------+- 2. 
\General color of body brown ..--<-- 22-22 -- 2 oe te eee oa 
{Fifth antennal segment about five-sixths as long as four .... occidentalis (p. 152). 
= \Fifth antennal segment about two-thirds as long as fourth -...... tritici (p. 148). 
, JAntennze about three times as long as head -.----..------------ fuscus (p. 154). 
° |Antennz but slightly more than twice as long as head.-.-.-.- nervosus (p. 155). 


EUTHRIPS TRITICI (Fitch). 
WHEAT THRIPS. 
Plate LV, figs. 36-39. 


Thrips tritici Frrcu, Count. Gent., VI, Dec. 13, 1855, p. 385. 

Thrips tritici Frrcu, Rept., 11, Nox. Ins. N. Y., 1857, pp. 304-308. 

Thrips tritici ASHMEAD, Orange Insects, 1880, p. 72. 

Thrips tritici OSBORN, Canad. Entom., XV, 1883, pp. 152, 156. 

Thrips tritici OsBorN, Trans. Iowa St. Hort. Soc., X VIII, 1883-1884, pp. 520-521; 
Coll. Bull., 2, lowa Agrl. College, 1885, pp. 96, 97. 

Thrips tritici Hupparp, Ins. Affect. Orange, 1885, p. 164, fig. 77, pl. x1, fig. 5. 

Thrips tritici Forses, Centralia, Il]., Sentinel, 1887; Prairie Farmer, June 4, 1887. 

Thrips tritict Lintner, Cult. and Count. Gent., LI, June 9, 1887, p. 459. 

Thrips tritici Weep, Prairie Farmer, LIX, 1887, p. 343; Trans. Ill. St. Hort. Soe., 
1887, pp. 230-233. 

Thrips tritici OsBorn, Insect Life, I, 1888, p. 141. 

Thrips tritici WEED, Popular Gardening, III, 1888, p. 176. 

Thrips sp. Comstock, Bull. XI, Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta., 1889, p. 131. 

Thrips tritici Ritey-Howarp, Insect Life, I, 1889, p. 340. 

Thrips tritici Forses, 16th Rept. St. Entom., Ill., 1890, p. ix, pl. v, fig. 4; 17th 
Rept. St. Entom., Il., 1891, pp. xiii, xv. 

Thrips tritici WEED, Ins. and Insecticides, 1891, p. 95. 

Thrips tritici Forses, Insect Life, V, 1892, pp. 126, 127. 

Thrips tritici Weester, Bull. 45, Ohio Exp. Sta., 1892, pp. 207, 208. 

Thrips tritici Townsend, Canad. Ent., XXIV, 1892, p. 197. 

Thrips tritici BRUNER, Rept. Nebr. St. Bd. Agr., 1893, (1893), p. 457, fig. 96. 

Thrips tritici Bruner, Nebr. St. Hort. Rept., 1894, (1894), pp. 163, 214, fig. 82. 

Thrips tritici ASHMEAD, Insect Life, VII, 1894, p. 27. 

Thrips tritici Craw, 4th Biennial Rept. St. Bd. Hort., Calif. for 1893-94, 1894, | 
p. 88. 

Thrips tritici Weep, Ins. and Insecticides, 1895, p. 146. 

Thrips tritici Uze., Mon. d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, pp. 220, 278. 

Thrips tritici Smrrn, Economic Entom., 1896, p- 102, fig. 73. 


a 
r 


% 


|g 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 149 





Thrips tritici LIntNER, 11th Rept. N. Y. St. Entom., 1896, pp. 247-250. 

Thrips tritici Rois, 10th Ann. Meet. Fla. St. Hort. Soc., 1897, p. 97. 

Thrips tritici QuAINTANCE, Bull. 42, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1897, pp. 552-564. 
Thrips tritici Powers, Fla. Farmer and Fruit Grower (editorial), March 27, 1897. 
Thrips tritici QUATNTANCE, Bull. 46, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1898, pp. 77-103, figs. 1-9. 
Thrips tritici Howarp, Bull. 18, N. 8., U. 8. Dept. Agri., 1898, p. 101. 

Thrips tritici Rours, 11th Ann. Meet. Fla. St. Hort. Soc., 1898, pp. 54-38. 

Female.—Length about 1.22 mm.; width about 0.26 mm. General 
color brownish yellow, thorax tinged with orange. 

Head three-fourths as long as broad and four-fifths as long as pro- 
thorax, but slightly withdrawn therein; cheeks but slightly arched 
behind the eyes and converging slightly posteriorly; anterior margin 
very nearly straight; back of head transversely striated. Eyes large, 
dark, and slightly pilose, occupying together about three-fifths the 
width of the head; ocelli present, sub-approximate, pale yellow, mar- 
gined inwardly with bright reddish orange crescents; spines between 
ocelli on each side long and conspicuous; post-ocular spines shorter. 


Maxillary palpi three segmented. Antenne nearly two and one-half 


times as long as the head; relative lengths of segments: 


ei. 4 5 6 Gos 
Gaeta Pole ore 10,5 2.9 

Color: One pale yellow; two light brown, base sometimes yellowish; 
three light yellow in basal half, remainder shaded light brown; four 
and five brown, yellowish at bases; six, seven, and eight brown. 
Spines upon antennal segments, especially two to five, quite stout and 
conspicuous. 

Prothorax rather rounded, three-fourths as long as broad; one pair 
of stout spines at each angle, also one short anteriorly directed spine 
standing close to lower one of each fore pair; between each posterior 
pair and median line stands a row of five spines, number four alone 
being large; color of prothorax pale orange-yellow. Mesothorax 
rounded at anterior angles; mesonotal plate with one stout spine at 
each lateral angle and two pairs of small spines on posterior margin. 
Metathorax tapering but slightly posteriorly; metanotal plate bearing 
four spines close together at anterior edge, the middle pair being 
much more stout and conspicuous. Wings nearly reaching the end of 
abdomen; breadth at middle about one-twelfth their length; shaded 
but slightly; each fore wing has two longitudinal veins extending from 
base to tip of wing; spines on veins at regular intervals; costa twenty- 


six to twenty-eight; fore vein twenty to twenty-two; hind vein fifteen 


to eighteen; scale five, interior of scale one; a light, sparse fringe on 
costa of each wing; posterior fringes heavy and wavy. Legs clear 
pale yellow, sometimes slightly shaded with light brown above, quite 
thickly set with short brown spines; a pair of stout spines at extremity 
of each tibia; rows of spines on inner side of hind tibix rather weak. 


150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 











Abdomen cylindrical-ovate, pointed at the apex; dark brown stripe 
aACTOSS segments two to seven near their anterior edges; dorsal plates, 
except nine and ten, shaded more or less with brown; three or fou ‘ 
moderately stout brown spines stand out prominently upon the pale 
ae Toer sider or segments two to eight; terminal spines long, stout, and 
dark colored; tip of abdomen dark brown, 

Redescribed from eight females. 

Male.—Leneth about 0.7 mm. (0.64 to 0.80 mm); width of meso- | 
thorax 0.195 mm. (0.18 to 0.22 mm.). General color pale yellow, 
darkest upon pterothorax. . 

Kyes somewhat smaller than those of female. Antenne about two ; 
and one-third times as long as the head. Relative lengths of segments : 
as follows: 


4.3) 8 


AiG Ot es A ee 208 6 Tee a 
11) 10:3 269 0a = eae 


Wings large and reaching beyond the tip of the abdomen. End of ; 
abdomen (ninth segment) bluntly conical; tenth segment retracted and _ 
not reaching the tip of the ninth; nine bears four pairs of long, stout, : 
dark spines, of which one pair stands on each side near the anterior — 
end of the segment, and one pair on each side near the tip; near the 
middle above stand two short spines. 

Described from four specimens. 

Food plants.—Altalta, apple, asparagus, aster (cultivated), bind- 
weed, blackberry, buttercup, canna, cherry, clover, cone-flower, dan- — 
delion, dog-tooth violet, English pea, goldenrod, grasses, hardhack, — 
heal-all, heliotrope, honeysuckle, hydrangea, lilies, mesquite, orange, — 
pea, peach, pear, pink, plum, potato, raspberry, red clover, rose, — 
shrubby Althea, smartweed, Solidago bicolor, Spiranthes simplex, 
squash, strawberry, sunflower, sweet william, wheat. 

Habitat.—California, District of Columbia, Florida, Mlinois, Iowa, @ 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York. + 

The following descriptions of early stages are taken from Quain- 4 
tance: “ 

Fqg.—Size 0.25 by 0.1 mm.; clear whitish in color; oblong, curved 
in shape. 2 

Larva, first stage.—Length about 0.5 mm.; width of thorax nearly — 
0.1 mm.; body fusiform, gradually tapering caudad from fifth or sixth — 
abdominal segment. Color, clear whitish; eyes reddish. Antenne 
distinctly four-jointed:; basal joint cylindrical, short; second somewhat 
urn-shaped, with distinct distal rim, about as long as broad; third joint — 
conical, apex of cone united to second; fourth fusiform, widest near 
basal fourth, quite as long as other three joints together. Joints two, 
three, and four ringed, two and three rather obscurely, but on fourth 
joint the rings are quite pronounced, where, on distal part, they 





“Bull. 46, Fla. Exp. Sta. 


oa TD 


"xo. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 151 


‘¥ 





appear to divide the joint into short, cylindrical segments. On the 

fourth joint the rings are minutely setate. Numerous large sete are 

also present on all joints, most numerous on fourth. Legs stout; hind 
femur about as long as tibia; tarsus one-jointed, terminating in claw- 
like fork; bladder-like expansion of adults apparently wanting. 

- Abdomen composed of ten segments, marked dorsally with four longi- 
tudinal rows of sete anda row on each side. Allof these setee appear 
to be somewhat enlarged and rounded distally, except one pair on 
dorsum of last segment. On tenth segment these sete «re quite long, 
being from two to four times longer than the others. 

Larva, second stage.—Length about 1 mm.; width of thorax about 
0.22 mm.; shape about as in stage one.- Color of body deep orange 
yellow; legs and antenne lighter; eyes reddish; antenne four-jointed, 
as in first stage; basal joint short, cylindrical, about one-half as long 
as wide: second, subcylindrical, somewhat longer than wide; third, 
subconical, about a third longer than wide; fourth, about as long as 
proximal three together, fusiform, thickest about basal fourth. Joints 
three and four plainly ringed, the rings of fourth joint quite distinct 
and minutely setate, as in first stage. Large sete are also present 
about as in stage one. Femur of hind legs about as long as tibia; tar- 
sus one-jointed, somewhat forked distally, and bearing a membranous 
expansion. 

Nymph or pupa, young nymph.—Resembles the full-grown larva in 
shape; in color it is much lighter, being light yellow, with legs, 
antennx, and wing-pads still lighter. Eyes reddish. 

In the antennz, legs, and wing-pads the nymph skin appears some- 
what as a sheath to these parts of the forming adult. The antenn 
are three or four jointed, apparently, thick and clumsy. The basal 
joint is large, swollen, slightly longer than wide; the second is about 
twice as long as wide and somewhat constricted in middle. Third 
joint is about a third longer than second, gradually tapering distally 
to an obtuse end. When the nymph stage is first entered the antenne 
project cephalad in normal position. In six or eight hours, however, 
they are laid back over the head and prothorax. In the hind legs, 
femur and tibia of about equal length; tarsus indistinctly one-jointed, 
very short, and rounded distally. Wing-pads short, scarcely reaching 
caudal end of second abdominal segment, bearing one or two sete. 
Abdomen as in larva, with dorsaland lateral rows of setee, which, how- 
ever, are acute. On the dorsum of ninth segment, near caudal margin, 
are four stubby, hook-like processes, curving cephalad, which appear 
to be the four modified setee of this region. 

Mature nymph.—Length about 1 mm.; width of thorax about 0.22 
mm.; color light yellow; shape very similar to that of adult Thrips. 
Nymph skin more or less separated from the body of the adult within, 
particularly so in the legs, antenne, mouth-parts, wing-pads, and 










152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





caudal end of atdomen® phos wing-pads reach to about the sixth 
seginent. 

Lif, history.—**The life cycle of Thrips tritict is quite short, requir- 
ing but twelve days. Eggs are deposited in the tissues of infested 
plants, and hatch in three days. The larval state lasts for about five 
davs. during which time the insect makes two molts, the second when 
emering the nymph stage. The nymph stage continues for about 
four days, during which time they take no food, rarely move to any 
extent, but remain hidden away.” 

Economic considerations.—This is one of the most widely spread 
and generally injurious species in this country. The specimens from 
which Fitch described the species were taken at Geneva, Wisconsin, 
from a wheat field which was being injured by the little pests. At 
various times it has been noticed swarming in the blossoms of orange 
and causing injury thereto. It is a very common species on a large 
number of flowering plants, both wild and cultivated, but unless pres- 
ent in great numbers their injuries are likely to pass unnoticed. By 
far the greatest damage appears to be done to strawberries, in the 
blossoms of which they swarm, and by their punctures of the essential 
parts of the flower they prevent its fertilization and the consequent 
development of the fruit. This failure of bloom, though perhaps pro- 
duced at times by other insects and in other ways, is known to grow- — 
ersas *‘buttoning.” The most serious injuries ee been reported 
from Florida and Illinois. In Florida the strawberry crop in some 
sections has been reduced to one-third in dry seasons. 


EUTHRIPS OCCIDENTALIS Pergande. 


Thrips sp. CoquttiETt, Ins. Life, IV, 1891, p. 79 ; 
Huthrips occidentalis PERGAND®, Ins. Life, VII, 1895, p. 392. 
Female.—Length about | mm.; width at mesothorax about one- | 
fourth the body length. General color head pale lemon yellow, 
thorax orange yellow, abdomen brownish yellow. | 
Head about one and one-third times as broad as long, three-fourths 
as long as the prothorax and considerably withdrawn into the latter. | 
Eyes eather large, occupying together about three-fifths the width of | 
the head, dark, slightly pilose; ocelli subapproximate, pale yellowish, 
margined with reddish orange crescents; one very prominent spine 
between ocelli on each side: post-ocular spines very conspicuous. 
Maxillary palpi thee segmented. Antenne about two and one-half — 
times as long as the head; first segment slightly shorter than the style; 
two is one : and one-half ae as long as one; three is longest; four is 
six-sevenths as long as three; five is five eras as long as four; six | 
nearly as es as ice seven very short, about one-fourth as long as _ 
five; eight is one and three-fifths times as long as seven. Color of one 
translucent whitish; two brownish yellow (uniform), basal parts of — 





wee: 1510. NORTH AMERICAN EE oe 1—HINDS. Pao 
oO = = 


three, four, and hee e pale Follow ish; apical parts shading quite 
abruptly to light brownish; six uniformly brown; sty le slightly 
lighter than six. Spines upon antennal segments, especially two to 
four, are unusually stout and prominent. 
Prothorax nearly one and one-third times wide as long; color 
intermediate between that of head and pterothorax. One pair of 
prominent, stout spines at each angle; one short anteriorly directed 
spine close to the lower one of each fore pair; a row of tive small 
spines (the fourth is stoutest) stands on each side of hind margin 
between pair at angle and median line. Anterior angles of mesotho- 
rax rounded; metathorax slightly narrower than mesothorax, its sides 
nearly straight and parallel; mesonotal plate bears one stout spine at 
each lateral angle and two pairs of small spines on posterior margin; 
metanotal plate bears two pairs of spines close to anterior edge, the 
middle pair being much the stouter; color of pterothorax bright 
orange. Wings very slightly yellowish; both longitudinal veins 
extend from base to tip of wing; both internal and the costal veins 
bear very stout, brown spines set at regular intervals; costa twenty- 
four to twenty-six, fore vein nineteen to twenty-two, hind vein fifteen 
to eighteen, scale five, internal on scale one. Fringe upon costal edge 
is very light, that upon hind edge is long and wavy; cross veins can 
‘sometimes be seen between the longitudinal veins and between the 
fore and costal veins at about two-fifths their length from base and 
sometimes a third at about four-sevenths between the fore and costal 
veins. Legs uniformly concolorous with head, bearing numerous 
small spines; a pair of strong spines at inner side of tip of each tibia. 
Abdomen elongate-ovate in outline, conical at apex; a transverse, 
narrow, brown band extends across anterior part of segments three to 
seven; brownish tinge on abdomen fades behind sixth segment leaving 
‘only the apex of the cone brown; a group of three or four stout spines 
‘stands upon each side of segments two to eight; terminal spines long, 
‘stout; all spines brown. 
Male.—Length about 0.65 mm.; width about 0.17 mm. Lighter in 
color than the females; nearly a uniform lemon yellow, slightly darker 
on throax; form more slender; apex of abdomen blunt, terminated on 
‘sides by two pairs of long, stout, inward curving spines; ninth seg- 
‘ment also bears two pairs of very long, stout spines near its posterior 
border and near the dorsal line on this segment is a pair of short 
‘spines; the brown bands across the abdomen of female are wanting in 
males and they have fewer spines on sides of segments; the bright 
orange-colored testes are very prominent. 
Food plants.—Apricot, orange, potato, and various weeds. 
Habitat. —California. 
_ Redescribed from specimens at the U. 5. Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Entomology—presumably types. 













154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XX. 


Jt 





Remarks.—This species 1s very gta to Luthrips tritici (Fitch 
but it has a longer though more retracted head, which is also slightly 
wider: the terminal segment of the antenna is one and three-fift 8, 
times as long as seven; spines on body stouter and more prominent. 

30th £ sani tritici and Luthrips occidentalis approach very close 
to Physopus nigriventris Uzel. 


EUTHRIPS FUSCUS, new species. 
Plate IV, figs. 40, 41. 


Female.—Length 0.93 mm. (0.70 to 1.08 mm); width of mesothorax 
0.21 mm. (0.18 to 0.24 mm.). General color brown. In dark speci: 
mens the abdomen is blackish brown; in light specimens the general 
color is yellowish brown. | 

Head about one and one-half times as wide as long, about one-fourth | 
retracted into prothorax; occiput deeply wrinkled transversly; ante- 
rior margin of head slightly and smoothly elevated in middle; cheeks. 
straight and parallel. Eyes moderately large, occupying together 
about one-half the width of the head, dark, slightly protruding; 
margins pale yellow; ocelli smaller than facets of eye, pale yellow 
margined with dark red, widely separated, posterior ones contiguous: 
with yellow margins around eyes; one stout spine in front of each 
posterior ocellus. Mouth cone short and tapering abruptly; maxil- 
lary palpi slender, three segmented.” Antenne inserted a little below. 
the margin, about three times as long as dorsal length of head; 
relative length of segments: 














‘ 

ieee 3 Ae 5 6 98 é 

5 (8.8 102 10 ot eee 3 

4 

First segment rounded, one-third broader than long; two is cupa 


clavate; three with very slender peduncle; six cylindrical-ovate. 
Antennx quite uniformly brown (sometimes three, four, and five 
lighter gray-brown, especially at bases), only segment three somewhat 
more yellowish; spines on segments two to five quite stout and dark 
colored. Color of head uniform grayish to orange-brown. j 

Prothorax fully one and one-half times as wide as long and one and 
two-fifths times as long as the head; sides arched; angles rounded; 
wider behind than in front; one large curved spine at each anterior 
angle and another on anterior margin between this and the median 
line; two stout spines at each posterior angle, the inner one of which 
is much the weaker; also a stout spine on the posterior edge between 
the pair and the median line; other spines on prothorax small and not 
conspicuous. Mesothorax but very little wider than the prothorax; 
projecting prominences at anterior angles; mesonotum broad, a 


shaped; three to six subequal in thickness; three to five clove 








d 


. 


Xo. 1310. subee: TH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 155 


= - — a — 


prominent s spines; posterior edge 1 ne early straight for one- third the 
width of the segment; metathorax narrows abruptly after the anterior 
edge till narrower than prothorax, then sides run nearly parallel to 
abdomen; mesonotum with two pairs of spines near anterior edge, the 
outer one of each pair being much less stout than the inner one; meso- 
thorax and metathorax together not longer than the prothorax. Wings 
reduced, barely reaching to the first abdominal segment; pads set with 
several stout spines. Legs of medium length and of moderate size, 
quite thickly set with short bristles, concolorous with, or usually 
lighter than body; bases of posterior femora and inner sides of 
posterior tibiz more yellowish; thorax colored nearly like head. 

Abdomen one and one-half times as wide as the mesothorax (short- 
winged female) and twice as long as broad, or nearly twice as long as 
head and thorax together; elliptical in outline except that apex is 
conical; broad, dark bands cross the abdomen at the anterior edge of 
dorsal plates on segments two to eight. Each segment except one and 
ten bears two or three short, stout spines on sides; in addition to 
these nine bears a circlet of eight unusually long, strong spines, and 
ten also bears a circlet of six long spines though these are somewhat 
shorter than those on previous segment. Segment ten is split open 
above; color of abdomen yellowish brown to brown-black, usually con- 
siderably darker than head and thorax; segments usually more or less 
telescoped. 

Described from eighteen short winged females taken in hibernation 
in February and Nopanoer 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6328, U.S.N.M. 

Food plant.—Grass ? 

Habitat.—Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 











EUTHRIPS NERVOSUS (Uzel). 


Plate III, figs. 33, 34; Plate IV, fig. 35. 
Physopus nervosa Uz, Monographie d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, p. 102. 
Thrips (Euthrips) maidis Beacu, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sciences, 1895, III (1896), 
pp. 219; 220. 

Female.—Length 1.33 mm. (1.22 to 1.39 mm.); width of meso- 
thorax 0.32 mm. (0.28 to 0.84 mm.). General color dark yellowish 
brown. ‘ 

Head somewhat pentagonal in form, not as long as wide; cheeks 
straight and converging slightly posteriorly; front broad and obtusely 
angular; back of head transversely wrinkled and bearing a few minute 
spines. Eyes rather small, black with light yellow borders, rounded 
‘or oyal in outline; ocelli yellow, widely separated, posterior ones con- 
tiguous with light borders around eyes; one very long slender spine 
on each side midway between ocelli. Mouth cone pointed, tipped 





a 4 


ioe 


156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. Vou. XxVis 




























with biack; maxillary palpi three segmented. Antennv slightly more” 
than twice as lone as head and very slender beyond second segment; 
comparative leneths of segments as foilows: 





ay 3 4 5) 6 Cages 
6 All -Ale SalOs oy wise 15:34. 93s 


Color of antenne dark brown, except segments three and four and 
extreme base of five abruptly yellow. Spines on first segments quite | 
dark and conspicuous, becoming paler and more indistinct toward the 
tip. 

Prothorax approximately as long as head and a little wider, almost 
rectangular in form, bearing many prominent spines; one at each fore 
angle and two at each hind angle are longest: one half way betwee nn 
fore angle and median line on front margin and one similarly placed: 
on hind margin are intermediate in size; numerous others are smaller, 
Color of head and prothorax dark brown. Mesothorax approximately 
as wide as length of antenne; front angles obtusely rounded; metanotal 
plate bears four spines close to front edge, the middle pair being large 
and prominent, the others small; pterothorax yellowish brown. Wings 
present, fully as long as the abdomen, about one-twelfth as broad as 
long, sharply pointed at ends; surface of wings thickly covered with 
minute, dark-colored spines; both longitudinal veins and costa of fore — 
wing thickly and regularly set with quite long, dark-colored spines; 
costa has from twenty-five to twenty-nine, fore vein from sixteen to | 
twenty-two, hind vein from fourteen to sixteen; fore wings shaded 
with gray; veins not prominent; costal fringe of fore wings weak and _ 
less than twice as long as costal spines. Legs moderately long, not 
thickened; femora dark brown, yellow at extremities; tibisx and tarsi 
yellow; tibise shaded more or less with brown around middle aiid tarsi 
with prominent dark brown spot at tip within; each tibia with a pair | 
of prominent, dark brown spines at tip within and a row of from five 
to seven short brown spines on inner side of hind tibize. 

Abdomen about two and one-half times as long as width of meso 
thorax, somewhat cylindrical in shape, but enlarging from base to hind” 
edge of second segment and tapering evenly from eighth segment to_ 
tip. Spines along sides and around tip of abdomen very dark brown 
and conspicuous; those on segments nine and ten are long and sub- 
equal on both segments. Color of abdomen dark brown, shading 
toward tip; connective tissue yellow; last segment split open above. — 

Redescribed from six females; no males found. Compared a 
identified with Thrips (Luthrips) maidis Beach. 

Food plants.—Corn, various grasses (first spring flowers, Uzel). 

Habitat.—Bohemia (Uzel): Ae Iowa; Amherst, Massachusetts 

Life history unknown, except that it hibernates in turf. 











NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 157 





SCOLOTHRIPS, new genus. 


: Head wider than long, retracted considerably into prothorax. 
Byes protruding; ocelli present. Maxillary palpi three segmented. 
oC short and thick; sense cones very long. Prothorax slightly 
onger than head and somewhat broadened posteriorly. Spines 
arranged as follows: One at each anterior angle, one halfway between 
these angles and the median line, one at the middle of each side, two 
at each hind angle, and one between this pair and the middle of the 
hind margin. Wings present, slender, with two longitudinal veins 
and ring vein orale developed; fore fringe very weak but spines on 
veins very strong. Intermediate abdominal segments with one spine 
‘on each side at the hind angle. 
_ This genus is erected for the species 6-maculatus. 
ee s, prickly or thorny; pz.) 


x 
; SCOLOTHRIPS 6-MACULATUS (Pergande) 

, Plate IV, figs. 42-45. 

: Thrips 6-maculata PERGANDE, Trans. St. Louis Acad., V, 1894, p. 542. 

' Thrips pallida Beacu, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sciences, 1895, III, (1896), pp. 226-227. 





_ Female.—Length, 0.83 mm. (0.72 to 0.97 mm.); width of meso- 
‘thorax, 0.21 mm. (0.18 to 0.25 mm.). General color clear pale yellow. 
_ Head about three-fourths as long as wide, frequently considerably 
tetracted within prothorax, even to the eyes sometimes; cheeks 
‘straight and parallel; front margin rounded; vertex elevated between 
the eyes. Eyes large, protruding; posterior ocelli nearly contiguous 
with mar gins of eyes; one very long, backwardly curved spine stands 
in front of each posterior ocellus, and two pairs of curved spines stand 
upon the margin in front. Maxillary palpi slender, three segmented; 
labial palpi very long and slender. Antenne rather short and com- 
pact; inserted below front margin; approximate at base, relative 
lengths of segments: 


. 





1 = 


See 4 Gaal Ge 2 ne 8 
4.9 6d 


Tee OSBe Gi eOehy vs B55 


“1 © 
-] 


=] 
S 
fe 


Segment one cylindrical, about two-thirds as thick as two, which is 
more rounded; seven and eight rather thick. Color of one and two 
nearly white, the remainder almost uniformly dusky gray; spines on 
segments two to five long and prominent as are the sense cones; the 
‘sense cone on the inner side of six arises below the middle of the 
segment and reaches beyond the end of the seventh. 

; Prothorax slightly longer than the head, but only about three-fourths 
as long as wide, broadened somewhat posteriorly and rounded at hind 
angles, sides curving gently inward anteriorly; spines extremely long 
and slender, ar feed as follows: One at each anterior angle, one half 


158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XVI, 


Wily shetwe en these a the me ‘cia line, one at middle of each side, two 
at each hind angles and one between this pair and middle of hind mar- 
ein. Mesothorax about one and one-third times as wide as the pro- 
thorax. with one slender spine at middle of each side. Wings long, 
reaching nearly to tip of abdomen, at middle about one-seventeenth as 
broad as long, pointed at tips. Fore wing with two longitudinal veins 
and a very heavy ring vein; hind longitudinal vein branches from the” 
fore vein at about one-third the length of the wing. Spines upon — 
costal and both longitudinal veins very long and stout, fully equaling” 
those upon the anal segments; costal vein bears from fifteen to twenty, : 
fore vein from nine to eleven, hind vein five or six (the third and 
fourth spines, sometimes the second also, which I have counted as_ 
standing upon the fore vein, stand at the same angle to the wing as do 
those upon the hind vein and really belong thereto, though the veins 
have united); the front fringe of the fore wings is extremely sparse, 
short and weak, and does not extend to the tip; hind fringes also” 
unusually short. Fore wings are characterized by three light brown- 
ish spots on each—one at base of wing, one immediately beyond sepa-_ 
ration of longitudinal veins, and the third halfway from the second 
to the tip of the wing (the third is a band extending clear across the 
wing). Legs concolorous with body, sparsely set with slender spines. 
Abdomen cylindrical-ovate, pointed at extremity, surface smooth; ~ 
only one spine of any prominence at posterior side angles of segments 
two to eight; spines upon segments nine and ten not as strong as those ~ 
upon the wings; color nearly uniformity pale yellow without prominent 
markings. . 
Redescribed from ten specimens. | 
Male. —Male smaller than female, but otherwise agreeing very closely — 
with the foregoing description. Abdomen bluntly conical at tip; tenth 
segment partially retracted within ninth, which is cut out in last half — 
above the tenth; spines borne on top and sides of nine are shorter and 
weaker than those on wings. 
Described from one specimen. . 
Food plants.—** Found on many plants infested with red spider, on— 
which it has repeatedly been observed to feed.”—Pergande. ‘‘ Feed-— 
ing on mites in fold of cottonwood leaf.”—Bruner. Taken on bean, 
blackberry, elm, and hop.—Beach. 
Habitat.—Missouri ‘; Ames, Iowa; Barraboo, Wisconsin; Lincoln, 
Nebraska. 
- Thrips pallida Beach is positively identical with this species, as has 
been learned from an examination of her types. 


Genus RAPHIDOTHRIPS Uzel. 


Ocelli present. Antenne eight segmented; the fifth segment short 
and cut off abruptly at the end so that it joins the base of the sixth by 
an unusually broad surface; style very slender, composed of two equally — 





: 0 . 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 159 





Doe segments, which are ‘together : as ES as are ‘the fifth ‘and sixth. 
Maxillary palpi three segmented. P fee a little longer than the 
head and somewhat broader at the hind than at the fore edge; no long 
spine at the front angles, but two at each hind angle. Legs unarmed. 
Wings usually reduced, but when present they are of medium length, 
and have two longitudinal veins which are set with small spines. 

I find here only the new species fusc/pennis. 














RHAPHIDOTHRIPS FUSCIPENNIS, new species. 


Plate V, figs. 46-48. 





Female.—Length 1.32 mm. (1.20 to 1.66 mm.); width of meso- 
thorax 0.24 mm. (0.22 to 0.27 mm.). General color nearly uniform 
chestnut brown. 

Head as long as wide, but little shorter than prothorax, into which 
it is retracted a little; anterior margin slightly elevated and rounded: 
constricted a bit close behind the eyes; cheeks nearly straight behind 
the constriction and diverging slightly posteriorly so the head is 
widest at hind edge; back of head finely striated. Eyes quite large, 
rounded, protruding; margins light; ocelli present, larger than facets 
of eye, light colored with dark crescentic margins, well separated, but 
posterior ones not contiguous with margins around eyes; ocellar spines 
very long and conspicuous; post-ocular spines quite large. Mouth 
cone extending back to anterior edge of mesosternum, slender, so that 
head from below appears considerably elongated; labial palpi small; 
maxillary palpi quite long, slender, and three segmented. Antenne 
twice as long as head; relative nea of segments: 





Be eA E a 6 Pe 8 
ee del Ls OED 6.20: 10,5: < Book Br D5: 


First segment shortest, cylindrical; second cup-shaped; third pedi- 
eellate; third, fourth, and sixth are approximately equal in thickness; 
third and fourth elliptical; fifth constricted at base and increasing in 
size to apex, where it is cut off abruptly and unites by its entire w idth 
to the equally broad base of sixth, which tapers gradually from one- 
third its length to its apex, where it is but slightly wider than seventh; 
seventh and eighth slender, cylindrical. Color: First and second uni- 
formly slightly lighter brown than head; third and fourth pale yellow 
with slight brownish tinge; fifth shading from color of fourth to a lit- 
tle lighter than sixth; sixth, seventh, and eighth eray-brown; spines 
long and fairly conspicuous. 

Prothorax slightly wider than long, widest at posterior angles; sides 
but slightly arched; no prominent spines at anterior angles; two stout 
spines stand close together at each posterior angle; surface finely 
striated and set with a few scattered small spines; bases of spines light 























160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 





yellowish; pronotum frequently extending considerably over 
edoe of mesonotal plate. Mesothorax about one and one-third ° 
as the prothorax and considerably wider than metatho 
at its anterior edge; anterior angles of mesothorax very acute; 
ispicuously large spines upon pterothorax. Wings someti 
when present, long and about one-thirteenth as broad 
middle as long; fore wings shaded with gray, pale brownish al 
veins, clear at base; second longitudinal vein arises at about two- 

the leneth of the wing, its origin indistinct. Spines upon all ve 
quite long and slender, but not thickly set or very conspicuous; @ 
hears seventeen to nineteen, fore vein eight or nine, hind vein eé 
or nine. Wing pads, when present, not overreaching the pterotho 
Lees moderately strong, but not thickened; femora and tibie d 
brown like body; inside of fore tibize, extreme tips of the others 
all tarsi pale gray or yellow; legs scatteringly set with fine spines 
apex of hind tibie alone bearing a pair of stouter spines. s 

Abdomen very long—almost twice as long as head and _ thoray 
together—and three times as long as broad, nearly cylindrical, tap 
ing abruptly from anterior edge of eighth segment to the apex; 
ments overlapping more or less when abdomen contains no eggs; 
uniform dark brown without conspicuous markings or spines exe 
those upon two terminal segments, which are quite long and slend 

Described from six females, five of them long-winged. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6329, U.S.N.M. 

Male unknown. ‘ 

This species agrees very closely in most respects with 7. longistylos 
Uzel, but differs in the following points: Head as wide as long; seco 
antennal segment somewhat shorter than third, fourth, and sixth; 
seement lighter colored at tip than sixth. Body length, average (exe 
sive of ege-filled females), 1.25 mm. 

food plant.—Grass. 

Habitat.—Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 


as wide 
except 
no col 


reduced; 





Genus ANAPHOTHRIPS Uazel. 


Ocelli present. Antenne eight segmented (apparently nine 7 
A. striatus). Maxillary palpi three segmented. Prothorax abouta 
long as head. Legs unarmed. Wings usually present (usually ab 
in the fall generations of stratus), with two longitudinal veins; sp 
upon veins small and inconspicuous. No stout spines at angles of pre 
thorax; all spines on body short except the anal spines, which are sho1 
and slender (in stratus they are short and stout). 4 

Males have usually two pairs of very short, stout spines upon thi 
ninth abdominal segment above, of which the anterior pair is stronge 
than the posterior. a 


i" 
+5 
x0. 1310, NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 16 











Species of this genus have no power of springing. 
In this genus I find only the species strzatus. 


ANAPHOTHRIPS STRIATUS (Osborn). 
GRASS THRIPS. 
Plate V, figs. 49-51. 


Limothrips poaphagus Comsrock, Syllabus ot Course of Lectures at Cornell and 
Peoria, 1875, p. 120. 

Limothrips poaphagus Lintnrr, Rept. N. Y. Agr. Soc., 1881-82. 

Thrips striata OsBorn, Can. Ent., XV, 1883, p. 159. 

Limothrips poaphagus FERNALD, Grasses of Maine, 1885, p. 42. 

= — NE: Parmer, June 19) 1886: 

Lintner, 3d Rept. Ins. N. Y., 1887, pp. 96-98. 

Limothrips poaphagus Comstock, Introd. to Ent., 1888, p. 127. 

Thrips striatus PackarD, Ent. for Beginners, 1888, p. 73. 

FietcHer, Ent. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

—— —— Howarp, Ent. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

Limothrips poaphagus Osporn, Ins. Life, I, 1888, p. 140. 

Thrips striatus PACKARD, Stand. Nat. Hist., 2d ed., II, Append., 1888. 

FLercHeER, 19th Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont., 1888, p. 11. 

Fiercuer, Ann. Rept. Exp. Farms, 1888, pp. 59-62. 

Limothrips poaphagus Lintner, Rept. N. Y. Agr. Soc., 1888. 

Phloeothrips poaphagus FiercHer, 20th Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont., 1889, pp. 2, 22. 

Broprz, 20th Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont., 1889, p. 8. 

Limothrips poaphagus Lintner, 5th Rept. N. Y. St. Ent., 1889, pp. 153, 304, 

Ossorn, Can. Ent., X XIII, 1891, pp. 93, 96. 

—— ——_ }yercHeEr, Ins. Life, V, 1892, p. 124. 

=. Forses, Ins: Life, V, 1892, p. 127. 

—— —— FrercHer, Ann. Rept. Exp. Farms, 1892, p. 3. 

Limothrips poaphagus Comstock, Man. for Study of Ins., 1895, p. 120. 

Limothrips poaphagus Uzer, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanopt., 1895, pp. 279, 485, 446, 448. 

Thrips striata UzeL, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanopt., 1895, p. 220. 

Hopxins—Rumsey, Bull. 44, W. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1896, pp. 270, 271. 

—— —— SmiruH, Economic Ent., 1896, p. 102. 

Putnam, N. E. Farmer, July 2, 1898. 

Anaphothrips striata Hips, 37th Ann. Rept. Mass. Agr. College, 1900, pp. 81-105, 
4 pls., 33 figs. 

Anaphothrips striata FERNALD and H1nps, Bull. 67, Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1900, 
pp. 3-9, pl. 1, figs. 1-6. 





























Female.—Length 1.3 mm. (1 to 1.6 mm.); width of mesothorax 0.25 
mm. (0.23 to 0.26 mm.). General color yellow, with more or less dusky 
or brownish shading upon some parts. 

Head very slightly wider than long, rounded in front; cheeks straight 
and parallel; surface back of eyes faintly striated; head yellow with 
brown posterior border, without long spines. Eyes small, rounded, 
black or very deep purplish red; ocelli subapproximate, yellow, with 
orange-red margins. Mouth cone moderately sharp, and very promi- 
nently tipped with black; maxillary palpi three segmented. Antenne 
approximate, about twice as long as head, eight segmented, though 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 11 





























162 





PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXY 


seomented, owing to the division of the sixth seg 


apparently nine 3 
ment by an oblique suture at about three-fourths its length. Rela 


tive leneths of segments: 


| 2 3 4 5 6 © 8 
5 85 f1 10 10 9572357235325 





Seoments one and two rounded; three to six fusiform. One is pale, 
snost white; two light brown; three lighter than two; three to six 
shading gradually to dark brown, almost black; spines pale and not 
conspicuous. 

Prothorax but slightly longer and a little wider than the headj | 
sides rounded slightly and without prominent spines. Mesothorax | 
much wider than prothorax; fore angles obtusely rounded.. Meta-_ 
thorax quite smoothly joined with mesothorax and tapering gradually 
to base of abdomen. Wings usually present in summer generations, 
reduced to mere pads in hibernating females; when present, approx 
mately as long as abdomen, about one-thirteenth as broad as long and 
tapering gradually; two longitudinal veins in fore wing extendin, 
from base to tip; veins quite prominent, being darker than rest of 
wing. All veins bear a few very small, rather indistinct spines; 
fringe on fore edge well developed, being nearly half as long as pos- 
terior fringe. Fore wings shaded with yellowish gray; hind wings 
nearly white. Legs of medium length and size; stout spines only on 


dle, curving outwardly at both ends. ' 
Abdomen quite long, cylindrical, widening somewhat at first twe 
segments and tapering from eight to tip; eight to ten sharply conical. 
Spines on nine and ten short and weak, but dark-colored and quite 
conspicuous; other spines on abdomen small, pale, and indistinct 
Abdomen pale yellow; segments one to seven slightly dusky on top, 
segment ten shading to dark brown at tip. | 
Redeseribed from six long-winged and four short-winged females, 
Male unknown. 
Food plants.— Poa pratensis and Phleum pratense. 
[have also found genuine ‘‘silver top” upon the following list 0} 
grasses at Amherst, Massachusetts, but I can not positively connect 
this species with all the injury: Poa serotina, P. nemoralis, P. ¢o 
pressa, P. arachnifera, P. fletcheri, P. aquatica, P. trivialis, P 
cxesia, Agrostis alba, A. canina, A. stolonifera, A. vulgaris, Festuet 
dleoll, F. heterophylla, F. datior, F. ovina, F. duriuscola, F. rubra 
Panicum crus-galli, P. sanguinale, Elymus striatus, E. virginie s 
Bromus erectus, B.inermis, Avena flavescens-vera, Agropyrum caninum 
Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Lolium perenne. 


> 


NO. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 168 





Habitat.—Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, 
Ontario. 

I have sought in vain for the males of this species, for although I 
have mounted over a thousand specimens, and have bred many more 
in bottles in the laboratory, and have taken and examined large num- 
bers of them in the field, I have never seen any that I even suspected 
were males. A series of experiments begun in the laboratory in July 
and continued into December showed that no males are developed in 
the autumn generations. Experiments were begun the following sea- 
son by obtaining hibernating females before the weather was warm 
enough for them to move out of doors and confining them in bottles 
in the laboratory. These became active and deposited eggs, from 
which succeeding generations developed without the appearance of 
any males. 1 conclude, therefore, that this species is parthenogenetic, 
and reproduces without the intervention of males, at least for a series 
of generations, in this locality. 

The following descriptions are of the early stages: 

Eggs.—The eggs are reniform, and vary in length from 0.265 mm. 
to 0.33 mm. and in width from 0.085 mm. to 0.145 mm. The average 
dimensions taken from twenty-five eggs are: Length, 0.288 mm.; 
width, 0.11 mm. The color is a translucent white. By transmitted 
light the eggs are seen to be filled with a mass of yolk globules which 
vary considerably in size. 

Larva.—As the larva emerges from the egg it is very soft, shiny, 
and nearly white. The eyes are purplish red in color; the appendages 
are folded closely against the ventral side of the body. The length 
soon after emergence is about 0.3 mm. and the width is about 0.1 mm. 
Body tapers from eighth segment to tip; head is nearly as wide as the 
thorax. Antenne are comparatively large, approximate at base, and 
composed of seven segments, of which the last four are closely joined 
and appear almost like a single conical segment; fourth segment is 
larger than any other, and distinctly ringed with whorls of minute 
hairs; the second and third are indistinctly ringed; basal segment 
bears one small spine on inner side; two has four spines which are 
directed forward and one very long spine which is directed backward 
toward the head; the third bears five short spines, and the terminal 
part of the fourth and each of the following segments a number of 
spines, which are quite long and stout. Legs are stout; tarsi one 
segmented and terminated by two claws. The bladder-like expansion 
is present. Abdomen much compressed longitudinally and, except the 
tenth segment, marked with six longitudinal rows of set, three pairs 
to each segment. The four dorsal rows also extend forward along the 
thorax and head; tenth segment bears six-very long setee—two dorsal, 
two lateral, and two ventral. 

The full-grown larva is fusiform, about 1.2 mm. in length and about 
0.3 mm. in breadth, while the width of head isabout 0.1mm. Antenne 





ee 
164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVK | 





seven segmented, somewh: ut separated at their base and rather thick 
tor their length; color darker than that of the body, often nearly 
black; segmentation beyond fourth segment more distinct than in- 
ie ens larva; first four segments suneael in thickness, and third | 
and fourth nearly equal in length, and each as long as this first and — 
second segments together; last three segments much smaller; fifth” 
shortest. Spines ar ranged much as in younger stage; third segment | 
distinctly ringed and without sete. Each segment, except last two, | 
bears short spines which are slightly thickened at their extremitiogy 
and arranged as in the young larva; spines on last two segments long , 
and acute. Integument of body roughened by transverse rows of | 
clearly defined ridges. Body marked by dorsal and lateral longitudinal i 
stripes of yellow which are most distinct upon thorax; dorsal stripe — 











widest. 

Pupa.—its general form resembles that of the larva; color of legs, 
wing pads, and antennx clear white; thorax and abdomen very light 
yellow; eyes bright red. When the pupal stage is first entered the 
antenne are apparently three or four segmented, much shortened, and 
directed forward as in the larva; but after a few hours they are laid 
back upon the head and thorax. Wing sheaths short and developed 
outside of the body; legs thick and clumsy. Upon dorsal side of 
ninth segment, near posterior margin, are four prominent, stout, 
recurved, hook-like processes; abdominal setz slender and acute. 
Wing sheaths finally extend to the sixth segment and fore pair bear 
a few small spines. : 

Life history.—About 98 per cent of the adults which hibernate are 
of the short-winged form, while from 90 to 95 per cent of the first 
eeneration in the spring develop long wings, and this form predomi- 
nates until late summer, when the proportion declines, and in October 
only a small number of winged adults can be found. ‘The females 
continue to deposit eggs and the young larve develop and may be 
taken from the grass upon warm fall days till snow covers the ground; 
but so far as I can find, only the adults survive the winter. Hiber- 
nating females do not appear to suffer from exposure to a temperature 
of —21° F., and they may be brought in at any time during the winter 
by pulling a few handfuls of grass from infested fields and bringing 
it into a warm room, where the little animals will very soon become 
lively and begin to crawl. Accidentally it was found that they could 
survive for several days though completely submerged in a weak solu- 
tion of potassium hydrate, and they have been found to revive after 
being frozen solid in a 2 per cent solution of the same; but so far as_ 
my experiments went, freezing in pure water killed them. The females 
become active very early in the spring and the development of eggs 
begins. As many as eight apparently fully developed eggs have been 
seen at one time in the body of one of these hibernated females. Ovipo- 


. 


oe 


: 
- No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 165 





sition soon begins, and lasts for from four to six weeks in many cases. 
They seem to oviposit as readily at night as in daylight. The deposi- 
tion of an egg requires about one and one-half minutes. The eggs may 
be readily seen in the leaf by holding it before a light, when they appear 
as small, lighter spots; they may be easily separated from the leaf by 
stripping off the epidermis. The length of the egg stage varies from 
ten to fifteen days for the first generation to from four to seven days 
during the heat of summer. 

The length of the larval stage varies from two weeks in early spring 
to about four days in midsummer. The mature larve select secluded 
places in which to transform and are hard to find in the field, but it 
appears that they usually go down to the basal leaves near the root or 
into the sheaths higher up the stem. The pupal stage is longer for 
the long-winged females than for the short, in the former requiring 
four or five days in early spring, whereas the short-winged form 
requires only from two to three days at the same season. As the 
weather becomes warmer they transform more rapidly. The appear- 
ance of a number of winged adults early in May marks the maturity 
of the first generation, but as the length of the period of oviposition 
exceeds the length of time required for the early stages, there is no 
distinct line between the generations out of doors after this time. 
The length of the life cycle is from about twelve to thirty days. 

Common name.—Since Professor Comstock’s first mention of the 
injury done by this species of Thrips to June grass and timothy, sev- 
eral economic entomologists have referred to the most conspicuous 
effects of its work, the dead tops of these grasses, as ‘‘Silver top” or 
** White top.” Many have questioned the agency of Thrips in produc- 
ing this injury and have ascribed it to some other suctorial insect, but 
the majority of writers are now inclined to credit Thrips with a large 
part, if not all, of this damage. As they had no means of identifying 
the little pest, they have usually referred to it as the *‘ Grass Thrips.” 
This name has been very generally used for this species and for no 
other, so far as we can learn. It therefore appears to be the gener- 
ally accepted common name. 

Economic notes.—Extensive injuries to grass have been reported 
from the New England States, New York, southern Canada, Ohio, 
northern Illinois, and Iowa. Without doubt the insect causing this 
damage infests a larger territory than this, for it is so small that 
it easily escapes observation, and the damage done by it is often 
attributed to other agencies. In southern Maine, Professor Fernald 
reported (258) that by haying time one-fourth of the June grass (/%oa 
pratensis) in the fields was dead and worthless. In 1887 it produced 
great injury around Emmet, Ohio, where 30 per cent of the grass was 
killed (272). In 1888 and 1889 widespread injury was reported from 
New York (291) and Ontario (822), where it appeared to work most 







166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. X 


upon lawns and meadows. In Massachusetts, especially in dry se - | 
sons, its injuries are severe, it having been stated by Prof. W. Py | 
Brooks that this tiny foe does more damage to grasses here than any 
other single insect. : 


Genus APTINOTHRIPS Haliday. 


Body slender, almost naked. Head longer than wide, extending” 
forward in a blunt projection between the eyes. Eyes small; ocelli” 
wanting. Antenne eight segmented (six segmented in A. rufus var. | 
connatticornis). Maxillary palpi three segmented. Prothorax shorter — 
than the head and somewhat broadened posteriorly, without long spines — 
at angles. Legs short; femora plainly thickened; tibiz very slender at 
the base, the remainder unusually broad; tarsi equally broad. Wings” 
entirely absent. Hairs at end of abdomen short and very slender. 

Males with two spines in middie of ninth segment above. , 

Species of this genus move slowly and have no power of springing. 

I have found only the species 7fus and its variety, connatticornis, — 
belonging to this genus. 


APTINOTHRIPS RUFUS (Gmelin). 


Plate V, figs. 52-64. 


“ Der rothe Blasenfuss’? v. GLEICHEN, das Neueste aus dem Reiche d. Pflanzen, — 
1764, pl. xvi, figs. 6 and 7. 

Thrips rufa GMELIN, Caroli a Linné Systema Nat., 1788, p. 2224. 

Thrips rufa Nicnoison, Journ. Nat. Phil., 179-, pl. vin, fig. 1. 

Thrips ( Aptinothrips) rufa Hauipay, Entom. Mag., 1836, p. 445. 

Thrips ( Aptinothrips) rufa Hatrpay-WaALKER, Homopt. Ins. of Brit. Mus., 1852, 
p- 1103, pl. v, figs. 5-11. 

Aptinothrips rufa LixpEMAN, Bull. Soc. Imp. d. Natur. d. Moscow, 1886, pp. 
319-320, fig. 11 

Aptinothrips stylifera TryBom, Entom. Tidskriit, Arg. 15, Haft. 1-2, 1894, pp. 
41-58. 

Aptinothrips rufa Uzet, Mon. der Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, pp. 152-154, pl. 11, 
fig. 17; pl. vi, figs 78, 79. 

Aptinothrips rufa TryBom, Ofv. Ak. Forh., 1896, p. 613. 

Aptinothrips rufa Reuter, Uber die Weissiihrigkeit der Wiesengriser in Finland, 
1900. Scattered references, especially pp. 92-120. 

Aptinothrips rufa Timpr., Die Geradfligler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 290. 


Lemale.—Length 1.22 mm. (1.06 to 1.80 mm.); width of mesothorax 
about 0.18 mm. (0.16 to 0.20 mm.). General color, entire body and 
legs clear, pale yellow; outer part of antenne, mouth parts, and tip of 
abdomen shaded with brown. Body slender and smoothly fusiform. 

Head considerably longer than broad, rounded in front; cheeks 
straight and parallel. Eyes small, black, oval, composed of few 
facets, situated at anterior angles, protruding very slightly; ocelli 
always absent. Mouth cone moderately long, not sharply pointed, 
tipped with brown-black; maxillary palpi three segmented. Antennz 








ie 
{ 0. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 167 









only one and three-sevenths times as long as the head, approximate at 
base, composed in the typical form of eight segments of following 
relative lengths: 





Segment one is broadly rounded; two has an unusually constricted 
basal stalk, though it is broader than that of three; three to five bear 

each one quite slender sense cone on outer angle, and six has one on 
inner side beyond the middle; spines and sense cones upon all segments 
pale and inconspicuous. Antenne concolorous with head at base, but 
shading outwardly gradually to brown-black at tip. 

Prothorax slightly shorter than head and a little broader than long; 
smooth and without spines. Pterothorax a little broader than protho- 
rax, without spines or traces of wings. Legs short and thick, all 
nearly equal in length, concolorous with body; tarsi tipped with brown 
within. 

Abdomen unusually long and slender, nearly three and one-half times 
as long as its greatest diameter, about twice as wide as head, nearly 
cylindrica 1 to Senin seement, then tapering toa point at tip. No 
spines upon ntaee except around segments nine and ten; these are 
quite short and slender and stand out nearly perpendicularly to the 
surface upon which they are borne. Extreme tip of ten shaded yery 
dark brown. 

Redescribed from three specimens. 

Males unknown to me. According to Haliday, they are clear yel- 
low, and the saffron-yellow spermaries show through the abdominal 

valls. The ninth abdominal segment bears two spines in the middle 
above, not far from the hind edge. 

Var. connatticornis Uzel.—This variety agrees very closely with the 
typical form except that the antenne have only six segments; the 
relative lengths of segments are as follows: 


“I| bo 


3 
5 T6566 16:3 

The sixth, seventh, and eighth segments are grown together into one 
compact sixth segment of an elongated conical form. The abdomen 
may be a little shorter in proportion and broader. 

No males have been taken. 

This species appears to be surely Apt. rufus Gmelin, but it is larger 
and differs in some other respects. 

food plants.—Various grasses and in turf. 

Habitat.—England (Haliday), Russia (Lindeman), Sweden oy 
Bohemia, Peace Helgoland (Uzel), Finland (Reuter), United States: 
Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 


168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vou. on 


Genus HELIOTHRIPS Haliday. | 

Body, especially the head and prothorax, with a deeply recticulated 
structure. Head broader than long, uneven, somewhat broadened 
behind, and with a sharp hump between the eyes in front. Cheeks 
not arched. contracted into saddle-shape in the middle. Eyes promi- 
nent but not protruding. Ocelli present. Antenne eight segmented; 
second segment of style very much longer than the first and provided 
with a short, slender hair at the tip. Maxillary palpi sometimes 
two, sometimes three segmented. Prothorax shorter than the head, 
without long spines at angles. Legs unarmed. Wings present, not 
reticulated. Fore wing broad at base, with two longitudinal veins, 
though the fore vein runs very near to and sometimes fuses with the 
costa; veins set with slender spines; fore fringe, in some species, very 
weak and sparse, and when this is the case the costal spines are very 
strongly developed. Anal spines weak and light. 

The characters of this genus have been extended to include these 


species 
SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES. 

[All tilbise: yellow... 2-1: 2-226 22s S32 ae ee oe = 2 
\Middle and hind: tibie brown. .-.222 22502 2525525 525-2 42 eee 3 
, |Antennze nearly three times) as long as+head) 2222 e222 sasee eee femoralis (p. 172) 
“ |Antenne only about twice as long as head....-..--.----- hemorrhoidalis (p. 168) 
Antennze two and one-half times as long as head; segments three and four modio- 
| liform. Maxillary palpi three segmented-.....-..----------- fasciatus (p. 174) 
° \Antannee twice as long as head; segments three and four fusiform. Maxillary 
palpi twosegmenteditttsi:. 5 2224 see ee ee fasciapennis (p. 171) 


HELIOTHRIPS HAEMORRHOIDALIS (Bouche). 


Thrips haemorrhoidalis Boucnk, Schidl. Garten-Insecten, 1833, p. 42. 

Heliothrips adonidum Waripay, Entom. Mag., III, 1836, p. 443. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Burmeister, Handb. d. Entomologie, II, 1838, p. 412. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis BurMEIsTER, Genera Insectorum, colored illustration, 
1838. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Amyor and SERvILLE, Ins. Hemipt., 1848, p. 641. 

Fleliothrips haemorrhoidalis HatipaAy, Walker, Homopt. Ins. Brit. Mus., 1852, p. 
1002, pl. vi, fig. 13. 

Feliothrips haemorrhoidalis Heecer, Finfte Fortsetzung. Sitzungsb. Kais. akad. 
Wiss., Wien, IX, 1852, p. 473, pl. xvir; separate, Wien, Gerold, 1852, VIII, 
pp. 3-4. 

Thrips haemorrhoidalis Bremi, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1855, pp. 313-315. Reprinted 
from Abhandl. d. Zurich Gartenbau-Gesell., III, pp. 260-261. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Low, Verhandl. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch., Wien, 
XVII, 1867, p. 747. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Borspuvat, Ent. Hortic., 1867, pp. 283-235, fig. 32. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Packarp, 17th Ann. Rept. Mass. Bd. Agr., 1870, p. 
263, pl. 1, fig. 2; Injurious Ins. new and little known, Daols 

Thrips adonidum Coox, 3d Ann. Rept. Pom. Soc. Mich., 1873-74, 1874, p. 501. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Packarp, Half Hours with Ins., 1881, pp. 118-119, 


fig. 86. 


t 


| No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 169 





| Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis PERGANDE, Psyche, III, 1882, p. 381. 
Heliothrips Lerrvrer, Ent., XV, 1882, p. 240. 

Thrips haemorrhoidalis Frié, Prirodopis zivocisstva, 1882, p. 113. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis LintNER, 2d Rept. Ins. N. Y., 1885, pp. 29, 31, 38, 56. 

Feliothrips haemorrhoidalis , Bull. Soc. Ent. Belgique, X XIX, 1885, p. Luxx. 

FHeliothrips adonidum Cameron, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow (new ser.), I, 
1886, p. 301. 

Feliothrips haemorrhoidalis Tarctont-Tozzerri, Cronaca entomologica dell anno, 
1887, (1888), p. 5 (7). 

FHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis Jorvan, Zeit. f. Wissens. Zool., XLVII, 1888, pp. 541— 
620, pls. XxXxVI-XXXVIII. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Reurrr, Meddal. af. Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., X VII, 

' 1891, pp. 164-168. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Uzer, Mon. d. Ord, Thysanopt., 1895, pp. 168-170, 
pl. v1, figs. 90-92. 

Thrips (Heliothrips) haemorrhoidalis FRANK, Die tierparasitiiren Krankheiten der 
Pflanzen, 1896, p. 154. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Burra, Riy. Patol. Veget., VII, No. 1-4, pp. 94-108; 
continued, VII, Nos. 5-8, 1898, pp. 129-135, 136-142. 

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Témpei, Die Geradfligler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 290. 





Female.—Lenegth 1.23 mm. (1.12 to 1.389 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.30 mm. (0.25 to 0.35 mm.). Color of head and thorax dark brown; 
abdomen yellowish brown, fading at tip to brownish yellow. Entire 
body and legs showing reticulating chitinous thickenings, which are 
heaviest upon the head, thorax, and anterior sides of abdomen. Head 
one-fourth wider than long, outline very irregular and rough; cheeks 
slightly concaved, narrowed abruptly near posterior edge into a short 
neck; anterior margin strongly arcuate; dorsal surface of head bears 
a few small spines, the bases of which appear like small air bubbles 
in the angles of reticulations; frons reticulated. Eyes protruding 
considerably, strongly pustulated; three ocelli situated on sides’of an 
elevation between the eyes, separated considerably from margins of 
eyes, pale yellowish, very faintly or not at all margined inwardly by 
erescentic pigmentation. Mouth cone short, blunt, not reticulated; 
maxillary palpi three segmented, second segment longest; labial palpi 
short. Antennz twice as long as head; relative lengths of segments 
as follows: 


ee i ees 8 
4 


3 
Oe SB etd 








Or| 


Oo 
<S 
J 


Second segment thickest, others very slender, especially peduncle 
and basal half of three; seventis nearly cylindrical, narrow, no thicker 
than bases of four and five; eight is very slender, tapering slightly, 
and bearing a single very slender bristle at its tip. Color of one and 
two light brownish yellow; three, four, and five clear pale yellowish; 
six abruptly brown, yellowish in basal third; seven and eight vray. 
Spines upon antennal segments pale and inconspicuous, three especially 
long ones being situated one each upon the outer angles of three and 













170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. Xv 





four and the inner angle ne sixes segments three to five faintly 
annulated. 4 

Prothorax transverse, only about three-fourths as long as head, but 
nearly twice as wide as long, rounded at the angles; sides slightly con? 
caved, bearing a few Saal spines, of which a the bright bases are — 
usually visible; reticulation heavy, but interrupted across the midail 4 
Mesothorax one and one-fourth times as wide as the prothorax; 
reticulation upon mesonotum quite heavy, regular upon anterior half, 
upon posterior half elongated toward a deep incision in the hind — 
margin of the plate, the longitudinal thickening becoming weaker, — 
Metanotum prominent, triangular, strongly reticulate Wings very 
slender, not nearly reaching to tip of abdomen, broadened abr ape at 
base to more than twice their diameter at middle; only one distinct 
longitudinal vein, and this sends off a short oblique branch to costal 
vein. Anterior fringe very short and sparse; posterior quite long and_ 
heavy; no prominent spines upon veins. Legs rather short and shoul 
pale yellowish, except cox brownish; first and second pairs abou 
equally long; hind pair a little longer; all legs reticulated. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate, pointed at tip; dorsum reticulated; seg-— 
ments two to eight with irregular transverse brown line near front 
edge of each. Spines upon abdomen mostly small and indistinct; most 
prominent ones situated upon middle of dorsum of segments two to. 
eight, close to median line; these gradually increase in size posteriorly; 
anal spines short and weak. Color of abdomen varies from brownish — 
yellow to dark brown; last two segments usually much lighter but less_ 
variable in color than rest of abdomen, being regularly brownish yel- 
low tipped with dark brown. 

tedescribed from eight females. 

Male unknown. 

In Germany this species is called ‘*‘ Black Fly.” 

tood plants.- =u ispidium, azaleas, Croton, dahlias, fern ns, Liliaces, 
Pellea hastata, Phlox, pinks, verbenas, vines, ete. 

Habitat.—England (Walker, Cameron), Germany (Bouché, Bur- 


SEE Ba 


PE leahdk tethe kes 


i> 


¥ *3 SLT 


: . zt c a 5 
meister, Bremi, Jordan, Bohls), Vienna (Heeger, Low), Finland (Reu-_ 
ter), United States: District of Columbia, Iowa, Massachusetts, 
Michigan. : 
Buea ete gots + 
Life history unknown. ( 


In his original description Bouché states that he believes the native 
land of this species is America. In both countries, however, it has 
been found almost entirely confined to greenhouses and feeding upon 
greenhouse plants. i 

It has been very injurious in some places. Packard calls it ‘‘one of | 
our greatest pests in hothouses,” and Cook records it as ‘‘one of the 
worst pests around Detroit, at ie and in the southern counties” 
of Michigan. 










| 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 1 


~] 
i 





HELIOTHRIPS FASCIAPENNIS, new species. 
Plate V1, figs. 58-61. 


Female.—Length 0.92 mm. (0.90 to 0.94 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.22 mm. (0.22 and 0.23 mm.). General color yellowish brown or 
dark brown. Head, thorax, and legs distinctly but not deeply 
reticulated. 

Head about one and one-third times as wide as long; form rather 
rectangular; front margin depressed at insertion of antenne; cheeks 
nearly straight. Eyes dark, quite large, prominent but hardly pro- 
truding, margins lighter; ocelli present, approximate, pale yellow 
with dark crescentic margins, well removed from eyes. Maxillary 
palpi small, two segmented. Antenne eight segmented, twice as 
long as head; relative lengths of segments: 


Mone 3) Adio ibeeeh 58 
a 6) TP SI0 9515 3.528 





_— 
t 


Segment one much narrower than two and almost spherical; two is 
thickest segment.and but little longer than thick; three and four fusi- 
form; five clavate; six and seven together of same form as five only 
inverted; eight very slender and terminated by an equally long hair. 
Segments one and two, outer half of five, six, seven, and eight brown; 
three, four, and basal half of five pale yellow. Spines on three, four, 
and five long, dark, and prominent; color around bases of those on 
three and four brownish. 

Prothorax as long as head and less than twice as wide as long; sides 
rounded slightly and diverging somewhat posteriorly; without prom- 
inent spines at angles; concolorous with head and reticulation of about 
same depth. Mesothorax somewhat wider than prothorax; anterior 

edge about straight and angles nearly right angular; membrane yellow; 
plates brown. Wings long, overreaching the abdomen; fore wing 
quite slender beyond basal fourth at which point the hind longitudinal 
vein branches from the fore vein; width in middle about one-tifteenth 
its length; both veins run close to edges of the wing, the fore one 
becoming fused with the costa while the hind one remains distinct. 
Internal veins set with few short spines; costa set with stout spines 
but without fringe except for slight vestiges along the middle; hind 
fringe long, dark, and wavy. Wing dark brown crossed with three 
bands of white as follows: At one-fifth, three-fifths, and four-fifths its 
length; outer part of scale also white; the brown area at the tip is 
confined to edge on border around last fifth, the middle here being 
grayish and in continuation of the last white band. Legs fairly stout 
but not thickened, weakly reticulated; femora yellowish brown to 
dark brown; front pair lightest and yellow at tips; fore tibie yellow 
shaded with brown around middle; the other tibiz brown, yellow at 






172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 





tips: all tarsi pale vellow with brown shading at bases of bladders; 


spines weak and light colored; hind coxe large, approximate, andl 
ee 


about twice as long as wide. : 

Abdomen elongated ovoid, about twice as long as wide; width of 
seoments gradually increasing up to the fourth, shen decreasing grad- 
ually to tip; greatest width equal to about twice that of head; dark 
line across seoments one to eight irregular, conspicuous only on the 
lighter specimen; that on segment one curving forward greatly in 
middle. Surface of abdomen very faintly reticulated, but this is not 
visible on darker specimen; spines on last two segments short and 
fine; color yellowish brown to dark brown, lightest along middle. 

Described from two females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6330, U.S.N.M 

Male unknown. 

Food plants.—Taken on grass. 

Habitat.—Amherst, Massachusetts. 

HELIOTHRIPS FEMORALIS Reuter. 
Plate V, figs. 55, 56; Plate VI, fig. 57. 
Heliothrips femoralis Reuter, Meddel. af. Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 
XVII, 1891, p. 166. 
Heliothrips cestri PERGANDE, Ins. Life, VII, No. 5, 1895, pp. 390-391. 
Heliothrips femoralis Uzer, Mon. d. ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, p. 170. 
Heliothrips femoralis Bercrotu, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique, XL, 1896, Pt. 2, p. 67. 

Female.—Length 1.3 mm. (1.12 to 1.5 mm.); width of mesothorax 
about one-fourth the body length. General color dark brown to yel- 
lowish brown, lighter at extremities. Entire surface of body weakly 
but plainly reticulated. 

Head two-thirds as long as broad, widest in front; anterior margin 
depressed at insertion of antenn; vertex carinated; bases of antenne 
separated by a prominence as high and nearly as wide as the first 
antennal segment; two transverse wrinkles near back of head more 
prominent than the others; behind the anterior one of these two the 
longitudinal parts of the reticulations become very faint; spines upon 
head scattering and small. Eyes quite large, protruding anteriorly, 
coarsely granulated: eyes and margins of ocelli bright, dark red by 
reflected light; ocelli placed on sides and front of a distinct elevation 
on top of head between eyes. Head light brown with light yellowish | 
longitudinal stripe on each side between eye and ocelli. Maxillary 
palpi three segmented, short, small; labial palpi minute. Antenne 
eight segmented, slender, nearly three times as long as head; relative | 
lengths of Pomieni as Billoses 


Les 2) 3s ae eran 8 
2 8.8 16.6 12.2 11° (8% 4a) wis 








—! 


Segment one cylindrical, three-fourths as broad as two, which is” 


ER 


c 
¥ 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 173 





barrel-shaped and annulated; remaining segments narrower than these 
two and more elongated; three and four fusiform; seven and eight 
nearly cylindrical; eight very slender; one, two, and three nearly 
concolorous, light yellow with tinge of gray or brown on one and 
two; four and five light yellow in basal half, shading to light brown on 
apical half; six, seven, and eight uniformly chocolate brown; segments 
two to five annulated; spines slender, light colored. 

Prothorax transverse, about one-fifth wider than the head, twice as 
wide as long and shorter than the head; sides rounded; without con- 
spicuously large spines. Mesothorax about one and two-thirds times 
as wide as the head; anterior angles prominent; mesonotum with deep 
incision on posterior margin; metanotum with four spines standing in 
a square near its center. Wings present, long, about one sixteenth 
as broad as long; fore wings broadened at base, with two longitudinal 
veins, the second branching from the first not far from the base of 
the wing. Spines upon veins of fore wing stout, dark colored, and 
set at uniform distances; costa bears seventeen to twenty, fore vein 
fourteen to seventeen, hind vein ten to thirteen, scale three to five 
besides pair at its tip; spines on basal fourth of wing are light colored, 
smaller and much less conspicuous; anterior fringe on both wings 
fairly long and stout; posterior fringe long, slender, and dark colored. 
Wings grayish brown to dark gray, lighter between the longitudinal 
veins; three nearly white cross bands; one across base before branch- 
ing of veins, another at three-fourths the length of wing and the third 
across the tip. Legs: All tibie, tarsi, and fore femora yellow; mid- 
dle and hind femora dark brown, yellow only at ends; spines upon 
legs small and inconspicuous except ten to twelve on inner side of 
hind tibie. 

Abdomen broadly ovoid, conical at tip, twice as wide as head; ovi- 
positor long and slender; tenth segment split open above; segments 
two to eight with dark cross line near anterior edge. Two or three 
spines on sides of each segment from two to eight, not conspicuous; 
anal spines weak. Color of abdomen yellowish brown to dark brown; 
last two segments much more yellow, but shading to brown at poste- 
rior edges. 

This species has the power of springing. 

No males found. 

food plants.—Amarillis sp., Aralia, Arum, Cestrum nocturnum, 
Chrysanthemum, Crinum, cacumber, Dracaena spp., Hucharis grandi- 
flora, Ficus elastica, F. grandiflora, Gardemia, Gossypium, Hydrangea, 
Mina lobata, moonflower, Pandanus, Phoenix, Richardia aethiopica, 
tomato, V7¢7s. 

Habitat.—Helsingfors, Finland (Reuter), United States: District of 
Columbia; Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Life history unknown. 


174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


HELIOTHRIPS FASCIATUS Pergande. 





Heliothrips fasciata PERGANDE, Ins. Life, VII, No. 5, 1895, pp. 391-392. 


© 


Female. —Leneth 1 mm.; width of mesothorax 0.29 mm. Body 
faintly reticulated. General color dark brown. re 

Head about two-thirds as long as wide; cheeks straight; anterior 
margin depressed at insertion of antenne; color uniformly brown, - 
Eves small, black, not protruding; ocelli pale yellowish margined 
with reddish. Mouth cone moderately long; maxillary palpi slender, 
three segmented. Antenne two and one-half times as long as head, 
eight segmented; bases separated by low elevation; relative lengths of 


segments: 





A <9 913 215959. 1655: 232 oeeeaes 


Segment one rounded, wider than long; two is broadest, constricted 
abruptly at base, broad at outer end; three and four are of similar 
shape: modioliform (uniformly constricted at each end with median 
enlargement regular); outer end of five is quite broadly cut off; six 
is abruptly constricted at base, outer half tapering gradually; seven” 
nearly cylindrical; eight tapers gradually and bears one very long, 
slender hair at tip nearly as long as segment itself. One and two 
uniformly brown, concolorous with head; three and four with light 
brownish ring around middle of enlargements; remainder pale yellow- 
ish, as is also basal half of five; rest of antenna brown; spines around 
middle of segments three and four and near end of five are long, — 
dark, and conspicuous. 

Prothorax fully twice as wide as long, slightly wider at posterior 
edge than at anterior, without conspicuous spines, colored like head. | 
Mesothorax widest at posterior edge; sides curving gradually inward | 
to anterior edge. Metathorax as wide at front edge as mesothorax | 
is at hind edge, and its sides curve gradually to base of abdomen, so” 
pterothorax appears smoothly rounded. Wings present, extending to’ 
tip of abdomen, slender except where broadened at base; two Jongi-- 
tudinal veins, the second branching from the first near the broadened 
base; the fore vein then inclines toward the costal and runs contiguous - 
with it to tip of wing; the hind vein runs close to hind edge, but is dis- 
tinct. Costal spines twenty in number, very large and stout, much 
longer than the very weak fringe; fore vein bears four stout spines at 
basal third and two not far from tip; hind vein bears five moderately 
long spines; posterior fringes dark, heavy, and wavy. Wings gray-. 
ish brown, darkest over veins; fore wings at base and a rather broad 
band at three-fourths their length transparently white, darkest brown 
around the outer shaded portion. Legs of medium length; femora 
and tibie dark brown except around outer ends of femora, and both. 


| 

‘No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 175 
—— a ——— es a —— 
extremities of tibiz pale yellowish; tarsi also yellowish, brownish 
around tips; legs bearing quite a number of inconspicuous spines; 
hind tibie alone bearing stout spines at their tips. 

Abdomen broadly ovate, pointed at tip, wider than thorax. Color 
dark brown, somewhat lighter on last two segments. Anal spines 
weak, especially on last two segments; the few spines on sides of seg- 
ments two to eight are inconspicuous. 

Redescribed from one specimen at U. $8. Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Entomology. 

Male not, known. 

Food plants.—Orange leaf infested with Aspidiotus aurantii. (Prob- 
ably not feeding on scale.) 

_ Habitat.—Yuba County, California. 

Life history unknown. 





Genus PARTHENOTHRIPS Uzel. 


The body, principally the head and prothorax, with deeply reticu- 
lated structure. Head broader than long, with a hump in front between 
the eyes; cheeks swollen, constricted into a short neck at hind edge. 
Eyes protruding; ocelli present. Antenne seven segmented, very 
slender except the first two segments; style one segmented, hair-like, 
as long as the sixth segment and bearing a slender hair of equal length 
at the tip. Upon the third to the sixth segments, separated from each 
other, there are always two sense cones. Maxillary palpi two see- 
mented, the second segment being distinctly longer than the first. 
Prothorax plainly shorter than the head, uneven, broadened posteri- 
orly, with one long spine upon each hind angle. Legs unarmed. 
Wings very broad and long, so that they reach beyond the end of the 
abdomen. ‘The fore wings have the form of a ‘‘cake-knife;” their sur- 
face is reticulated and there appears to be only one longitudinal vein 
and a very strongly developed ring vein. The vein arising from the 
base of the wing bends forward at the first fourth of the length of the 
wing and unites with the unusually strong ring vein from that point, 
while the hind vein, branching from the main vein at this point, bends 
toward the hind edge of the wing and runs parallel to it, but remains 
distinct. The fore fringe has disappeared and its place is taken by the 
stout costal spines. The hind vein is set with stout spines at regular 
intervals. Beyond the first fourth the wing is somewhat narrower 
than at the basal fourth. The front edge is nearly straight and the hind 
edge bending forward unites with it to form a sharp point. The last 
two abdominal segments are distinctly narrowed in the females. The 
Spines at the end of the abdomen are weak and light. The species 
belonging here have the power of springing. 

I have found only the species dracaenx of this genus, 


ee 


BOTY AO 







176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVIL 





PARTHENOTHRIPS DRAC/AEN£ (Heeger). 
Plate VI, figs. 62-65. 

Heliothrips dracene Hencer, Sitzungsb. d. math.-naturw. Classed. kais. Akad. d, 
Wissensch., Wien, XIV, December, 1854., p. 365. Separata. Beitrage zur 
Naturgeschichte d. Insecten Osterreichs, pp. 3-7. 

Thrips dracene Reaet, Bull. phys.-mathem. Acad. Sciences, St. Petersburg, 
XVI, 1858, pp. 333-336; Melang biolog., I, 6, pp. 628-633. 

Heliothrips dracenx Vv. FRAUENFELD, Verhandl. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch., 
XVII, Zool. Miscellen, XIII, 1867, pp. 793-801. 

Heliothrips dracenx PERGANDE, Psyche, III, 1882, p. 381. 

Parthenothrips dracenx Jorvan, Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool., XLVITI, 1888, pp. 541-620 
(Biological part). ; 

Parthenothrips dracene Reuter, Meddel af. Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica, X VII, 
1891, p. 166. Z 

Heliothrips dracene Trysom, Entom. Tidskrift, 15 Arg., Haft 1-2, 1893, pp. 
56-58. 

Parthenothrips dracene Uzet, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanopt., 1895, pp. 171-173, pl. m1, 
fies. 12-14; pl. vi, fig. 93. 

Parthenothrips dracene Témpet, Die Geradfliigler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 291. 

Female.—Length about 1.15 mm.; width of mesothorax about 
0.28mm. General color dusky yellow, more or less strongly shaded 
with brown, especially upon the abdomen. Head, thorax, and wings 
covered with more or less clearly defined reticulating ridges. 

Head widest in front through the eves, four-fifths as wide as length; 
general shape quadrangular above, though front margin is somewhat 
elevated in middle; heavily reticulated; cheeks straight, but abruptly 
constricted at hind edge, neck-like; color quite uniform brownish yel- 
low. Eyes black, very strongiy protruding at fore angles; a slight 
depression surrounds each eye; ocelli small, approximate, with dark 
red margins contiguous, situated upon a slight elevation between the 
eyes and well removed from them. Maxillary palpi two segmented, 
the second segment being longer and more slender than the first. 
Antenne seven segmented, very slender beyond second segment, 
about two and one-half times as long as the head; relative lengths of - 
segments: 


Sp 
=~] 


eee o 1 > 





5 OT 20.52 0 WGioaerise oer aes 
Segment one nearly spherical, fully as long as broad, narrower than 
two, which is thickest; three to six subequal in thickness and about 
one-half the diameter of two, faintly ringed; seven very slender and 
bearing at its tip a still more slender spine, which may be nearly as long” 
as the segment. Segments one and two slightly more dusky yellow 
than three to five; five is shaded with brown at its tip; six and seven | 
brown or gray-brown. | 
Prothorax transverse, fully twice as wide as long and about two- 


thirds as long as the head, wider behind than in front; sides somewhat | 


| 
! 


4 


NO. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. aL re 





rounded; surface reticulated like head and concolorous with it; one 
stout spine at each hind angle. Pterothorax on dorsal line only two- 
thirds as long as wide, one and one-fourth times as wide as prothorax; 
metathorax nearly as wide as mesothorax; color of pterothorax some- 
what more yellow than head and prothorax; mesonotal plate deeply 
incised in middle behind; reticulations converging to anterior end of 
this incision. Wings very long and about one-tenth as broad, over- 
reaching the abdomen considerably; form and venation unique; fore 
wings somewhat longer and about one and one-half times as broad as 
the hind wings; their front edge runs straight clear to the tip: the 
hind edge runs nearly parallel to it till near the end, where it curves 
forward to join the fore edge at the tip; the entire wing is bounded 
by one very heavy ring vein. There appears to be only one longi- 
tudinal vein; this at about basal fourth of wing curves forward to the 
costal vein, which it joins;¢ then it curves backward and runs parallel 
with and quite close to the hind edge till it joins the ring vein before 
the tip. The costa bears no fringe, but is set with numerous stout 
spines as is also the longitudinal vein; hind edge bears a double fringe 
of long hairs; surface of fore wing shows faint reticulation. There 
ave three rather faint brown spots on fore edge, the darkest being 
where the fore vein joins the costa, and one longer spot on hind edge; 
spines standing in these spots are much darker than the others. Legs 
concolorous with body, finely reticulated; hind coxe approximate; 
fore femora brownish yellow, the others brown, yellowish at extremi- 
ties; tibie and tarsi concolorous with second segment of antenne; 
tarsi tipped with dark brown; spines very weak and light colored. 

Abdomen distinctly wider than thorax and broadly joined to it; 
about twice as long as broad, ovoid, pointed at tip; general color 
brown or yellowish brown; last three segments yellow; sometimes 
the sides of each segment are much more yellow than its brown central 
area; anterior edge of segment one is curved forward very abruptly 
in the middle forming a rounded apex to the dorsal plate; prominent 
dark stripe on anterior edges of three to seven; anal spines weak and 
light. 

Redescribed from five females taken in Amherst, Massachusetts, on 
Kentia and Ficus. I have no male, but Heeger says: 

Male.—The abdomen in males is distinctly more slender than in 
females; is yellow-brown, thinly chitinized; about twice as long as the 
meso and metathorax together; almost cylindrical, with tapering anal 
extremity; naked, set with some long bristles only at the hinder edge 
of the last three abdominal segments. 

Food plants.—Dracena, Ficus castica, Kentia balmorina. 











“1 believe that the fore vein coincides with the costal from the spot where they 
join, the cross vein being more apparent than real, and that the vein which runs 
parallel with and close to the hind edge is really the hind vein. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02. 19 





























178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


~ Habitat.—Vienna (Heeger, Frauenfeld), Finland (Reuter), St. 
Petersburg (Regel), Germany (Jordan, Bohls), Bohemia (Uzel), United. 
States: Washington, District of Columbia; Amherst, Massachusetts. _ 
The early stages are described as follows: | 
The eggs are nearly membranous, greenish white, elongate~_ 





kgq- 
ovate, +,” long, half as broad. ¢ 
Larva.—Larve are milky white, nearly cylindrical; only the last_ 
three abdominal segments taper gradually to a blunt point; they are 
peut 14!" long, ‘i as pe The head a aps conical, a little an 
pans are thin, fone OF dienes nee seus like. “lavas are on the — 
sides of the head, circular, not raised; relatively large and clear red. 
The antenne are thread-like, white ith gray points, five segmented, 
somewhat ee than the he: id; first three segments small, cup- shaped, 
of equal size; fourth, candle: shaped, about as long as first three _ 
together; fifth is gray, conical, very pointed, coment longer than 
the fourth. 
The thorax is somewhat longer than the antennze, swollen, flat 
beneath; prothorax is rounded- triangular, somewhat shorter flan the 
pterothorax, the segments of which are grown together, and are 
aluigated-rre tangular aud rounded. ‘The legs are close together, with 
very large cox; nearly as long as the antenne; middle pair noticea-_ 
bly shortest, hind pair longest; femora shorter and thicker than tibize,” 
which are cylindrical; tarsi very short, indistinctly two segmented. 
Abdomen spindie- shaped nearly as broad and somewhat more thai | 
twice as long as the entire thorax; the nine segments are hardly per 
ceptibly marked, equality long and set at sides with single, knobbed— 
hairs. . 
Nymph or pupa.—The nymphs in the last days before their trans-— 
formation are whitish, fusiform; their eyes are raised, round, and 
red; antenne indistinctly eight segmented, laid back over the head 
near one another; wing sheaths ing at the sides of the abdomen, — 
slender, bottle-shaped, poaehine to ae fore edge of the sixth segment | 
and set with many transparent, white hairs, as is also the spindle= 
shaped abdomen; the hind edge of the next to the last and the end of 
the last segment, a with single, knobbed hairs. 











Genus THRIPS Linnzus. 


Ocelli present. Antenne seven segmented (style one eae | 
Maxillary palpi three segmented. Prothorax regularly somewhat 
longer than the head; two long spines always present upon its pos- =] 
terior angles. Fore legs cole unarmed, Wings usually present, 
moderately broad, with fore fringe developed and veins set with shor 
spines. 


he species belonging here have the power of springing. 





"No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 179 








* Although this is the largest genus of the order, I have here found 
but two species which I can place in it. These two may be easily 
distinguished by their colors. 


_Head brown, thorax reddish brown, abdomen yellow or gray-brown .perplexus(p. 184). 
Color uniformly light yellowish varying to brownish yellow. -..---..- tabaci (p. 179). 


THRIPS TABACI Lindeman. 
ONION THRIPS. 
Plate VII, figs. 69-71. 


? Limothrips tritici Packarp, 2d Ann. Rept. Ins. of Mass., 1872, pp. 5-8, 2 figs. ; 
19th Ann. Rept. Secy. Mass. Bd. Agr. for 1871, pp. 333-336, 
in 9th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Geog. Sury. Territories for 
pl. txvur, figs. 3-5. 

Thrips on onion plants, Sarptey, Bull. 10, Miscell. Information Roy. Gardens, 
1887, p. 18. 

Thrips tabaci LinpDEMAN, Die schidlichsten Insekten des Tabak in Bessarabien, 
1888, p. 15, 61-75. 

Thrips sp. Taaxter, Ann. Rept. Conn. Exp. Sta. for 1889, 1889, p. 180. 

Thrips sp. Rirey-Howarp, Insect Life, III, 1891, p. 301. 

Thrips tabaci RrrzEMA Bos, Tierische Schidlinge und Nitzlinge, 1891, pp. 577, 
578. 

Thrips tabaci Taraiont-Tozzerti, Animali ed Insetti del Tobacco in Erbal del 
Tobacco Secco, 1891, pp. 222-224. : 

Thrips sp. LintNER, Count. Gent., LVII, Oct. 27, 1892, p. 809; Abstract in 9th 
Rept. Ins. N. Y., p. 445. 

Timothrips sp. BAkrr, Amer. Florist, VII, 1892, p. 168, fig. 

Thrips striata ? Gitterre, Ann. Rept. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1892, 1892, p. 36. 

Thrips on onions, Wesster, Ins. Life, V, 1892, p. 127. 

Thrips striatus GILLETTE, Bull. 24, Col. Exp. Sta., 1893, pp. 13-15, figs. 11, 12. 

Thrips striatus Ritny-Howarp, Ins. Life, VI, 1893, pp. 4-5, 343. 

Thrips striatus ? GitLerrr, 5th Ann. Rept. Col. Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1892, 1893, 
p- 36; 6th Ann. Rept. Col. Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1893, p. 55. 

Onion Thrips, Suirn, Ann. Rept. N. J. Agr. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1893, 1894, p. 441. 

Limothrips tritici Wepsrrr, Ins. Life, VII, 1894, p. 206. 

Thrips allii StrRRINE and Lows, Bull. 83, N.S., N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1894, pp. 
680-683, pl. m1. 

Thrips allii Wessrer, Ohio Farmer, Aug. 2, 1894, p. 97; Aug. 23, 1894, p. 157; 
Nov. 7, 1894, p. 373. 

Thrips alli StrrtNe and Lows, 13th Ann. Rept. N. Y. Exp. Sta. for 1894, 1895, 
pp. 758-760, pl. 

Thrips allii OsBorN-MAuuy, Bull. 27, lowa Agr. Exp. Sta.,1895, pp. 1389-142. 

Thrips tabaci PERGANDE, Ins. Life, VII, 1895, pp. 892-395. 

LTimothrips tritici Wrpster, Bull. 58, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta., 1895, pp. xxxiii- 
xxxiy, fig. 3; also in Ins. Life, VII, 1895, p. 206. 

Thrips communis Uzet, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, pp. 176-179, pl. v1, 
fig. 100. 

Thrips tabaci UzeL, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, p. 447. 

Thrips tabaci SLINGERLAND, Rural New Yorker, LV, 1896, p. 561. 

Thrips tabaci FRANK, Die tierparasitiiren Krankheiten der Pflanzen, 1896, 
p. 134. 

? Thrips sp. near tabaci Davis, Special Bull. 2, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1896, p. 13. 


2 figs.; reprinted 
1875, pp. 742-744, 


180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 








® Thrips on aaieaas SMITH, Mfeonomie Ent., 1896, p. 102. 
? Thrips on cuc umber, Brirron, 20th Rept. Conn. Exp. Sta. for 1896, 1897. 
Thrips tabaci SIRRINE, 15th Ann. Rept. N. Y. St. Exp. Sta. for 1896, 1897, ppy- 
612-615 
Onion Thrips, SIRRINE, Bull. 115, N. Y. Exp. Sta., 1897, p. 70: | 
Onion Thrips, SuNGERLAND, Rural New Yorker, ‘May 8, 1897, p. 309. 
Thrips tabaci LuNTNER, 51st Ann. Rept. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, p. 363; 
Separata, 13th Rept. Inj. Ins. ING 1898, p. 363. 
Thrips striatus GrLLETTE, Bull. 47, Col. ie Sta., 1528, p. 44. | 
Thrips tabaci: QUAINTANCE, Bull. 46, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1898, pp. 103-114, figs, | 


10-12. 
Thrips tabaci Howarp, Yearbook, U. 8S. Dept. Agr. for 1898, 1899, pp. 142, 148, | 
fig. 27. | 


Thrips tabaci Perrrr, Bull. 175, Mich. Exp. Sta., 1899, pp. 343-345, figs. 1, 2. 

Thrips tabaci QUAINTANCE, 3ull. 20, N.S., U.S. Dept. Agr., p.59. Remedies, vari- 
ous authors, 1899, p. 60. 

Thrips tabaci WEBsTER-MALLY, Bull. 20, N.S., U.S. Dept. Agr., 1899, pp. 67-70. 9) 

Thrips in Greenhouses, FerNALD-Hrps, Bull. 67, Mass. Exp. Sta., 1900, pp. 9-12. | 

Thrips communis Témpet, Die Geradfligler Mitteleuropas, 1901, p. 293. 

Thrips tabaci GARMAN, B fll 91, Kentucky Exp. Sta., 1901, pp. 42-45. 

Thrips tabaci WEBSTER, oun Columbus Hort. gee XVI, 1901, No. 3, 7 ppm 
4 figs. | 

Thrips tabaci H1nps, Proc. 17th Ann. Cony. Soc. Amer. Florists, 1901, pp. 90-92. | 





Female.—Length about 1.1 mm.; width about one-fourth the length. 
Color quite uniformly light yellowish varying to brownish yellow. 

Head one-fifth wider than long; cheeks slightly arched behind the 
eyes; frons slightiy arcuate between them; occiput indistinctly trans- 
versely striated; hairs upon the head few and minute; eyes not pro- 
truding, coarsely granulated, very dark red by reflected light, black) 
by transmitted light, sparsely pilose; ocelli subapproximate, standing 
well back to the line of the hinder edge of the eyes but posterior 
ocelli not contiguous with margins of eyes; color light yellow, mar- 
gined inwardly with light brown crescents. Maxillary palpi three 
segmented; first and third segments equally long, second shorter. 
Antenne seven segmented; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


Ds Be ola Eero eee 
£4 Bt Ti) WO" a6 oni | 


Segment one short and globose; two barrel-shaped; three to five 
pedunculate, elongated ovoid; five joined by moderately broad surface 
to base of six which tapers somewhat from its middle to its apical 
end; seven tapering slightly, blunt at apex. Segment one lightest in 
color, clear ight yellow; two, six, and seven nao light grayish 
brown; three lieht brownish yellow; four and five colored like three at 
their bases but apices nearly as dark as six. 

Prothorax as long as head, one-half wider than long; pronotum, 
indistinctly transv oc sthinted and sparsely clothed with small 
spines; each hind angle bears a pair of very stout, conspicuous spines, 








“No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. TRI 





and between these pairs, along the hind edge of pronotum, stands a 
row of three smaller spines on each aie. Metathorax one-third wider 
than prothorax; metanotal plate bears a few small spines. Wings 
about one-fourteenth as broad as long, slightly colored with light 
yellow; costal fringe of fore wings composed of short, stout bristles 
intermixed with a row of shorterspines. Fore longitudinal vein bears 
from ten to twelve spines arranged in three groups, as follows: Two 
groups upon the basal half of vein, the first of three or four spines, 
the second group of three, and beyond the middle of the wing four to 
six spines scattered at considerable distances along the yein to its tip; 
when only four are present in last group they stand at nearly equal 
distances apart; hind vein bears from fourteen to seventeen spines. 
Occasionally one or two cross veins may be seen between the fore vein 
and the costal at about one and two-thirds its length, but usually they 
are not present; hind vein arises from fore vein at about the middle 
of second group of spines. Hairs composing posterior fringes on both 
wings are long, slender, wavy, and light colored. Legs concolorous 
with body or somewhat lighter, quite long and slender; second seg- 
ments of tarsi much longer than first; spines on inner side of hind 
tibix weak, except the pair at its extremity; legs sparcely clothed 
with fine hairs. 

Abdomen as wide, or slightly wider, than the mesothorax, about 
twice as long as wide; each dorsal plate of segments two to eight 
marked near its anterior edge with a narrow, transverse line of dark 
chestnut-brown color, widest at its middle and tapering gradually 
toward the sides, disappearing at the upper edge of the groups of 
three to five short spines which stand upon these segments just above 
the pleural plates. Posterior edge of ninth segment bears a circlet of 
eight long, stout spines, most prominent dorsally; terminal segment 
bears six spines which are nearly as long as the preceding; besides 
these long spines both of these segments bear a few finer spines. 

Redescribed from many specimens. 

Male.—*Head and abdomen yellowish white; thorax yellow. The 
first two antennal segments white, the third at the end very weakly, 
the fourth and fifth more strongly shaded with gray; the sixth is gray, 
at the base or even to the middle white; the seventh segment entirely 
gray. Wings present.”—U-zel. 

food plants.—Apple, aster (cultivated), blanket flower, blue grass, 
cabbage, candytuft, catnip, cauliflower, celery, chickweed, cinque- 
foil, clover, coneflower, crab-grass, cucumber, dandelion, /yechthites, 
Erigeron canadensis, four-o’clock, garden leek, goldenrod, heal-all, 
honeysuckle, Jamestown weed, jimson, kale, melons, mignonette, 
mullein, nasturtium, onion, parsley, pink, plum, pumpkin, Rubus sey- 
eral species, shepherd’s purse, Specllaria, squash, stonecrop, sweet 
clover, timothy, tobacco, tomato, turnip, wheat. 





182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XX 











Habstat.—Russia (Lindeman), England (Shipley), Italy (Targioni- 
Tozzetti), Bohemia, Helgoland (Uzel), Bermuda, United States: Mas- 
sachusetts. Connecticut, New York, Long Island, Pennsylvania, New” 
Jersey, District of Columbia, Virginia, Florida, Kentucky, Ohio,” 
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, southern Canada, Colorado, Cali. 
fornia. 

The early stages are described by Quaintance “ as follows: 2 

qq. Length 0.26 mm.; width 0.12 mm.; in shape the egg is 
elliptical and curved. Fresh eggs are clear white. In eggs with 
advanced embryos, the reddish eyes are distinctly visible. 

Larva, first stage.—(About one-half hour after hatching). Length, 
0.38 mm.; width of thorax, 0.14 mm.; somewhat fusiform in shape; 
eradually tapering caudad from fourth or fifth abdominal segment; 
body, legs, and antennz clear white; eyes reddish. Head in dorsal 
aspect about as broad as long; the eyes are situated at the cephalic 
lateral margins; no ocelli. In cephalic aspect the head is seen to be 
considerably produced—ventrad and caudad; suboval in outline. The 
four jointed antenne are borne upon the vertex, and are approximate at 
base. Basal joint short, cylindrical, about half the length of second; 
second segment subpyriform, slightly longer than wide; third sub- 
spherical, about as long as secoad; fourth joint as long as the proxi- 
mal three together, club-shaped, thickest near the basal third, tapering 
distally toa point. Joints three and four ringed; in the distal part 
of four these are much more pronounced, dividing it into what might 
be taken for short, indistinct segments. The antennee bear sete, which 
are much more numerous on fourth joint. Legs stout; coxa and 
trochanter short; femur about as long as tibia and tarsus together. 
The tarsus appears to be composed of but one joint, which terminates 
distally in two diverging claw-like processes; the bladder-like expan- 
sion on tip of tarsus does not seem to be present in this stage. Abdo- 
men composed of ten segments; on the dorsum are four longitudinal 
acute sete, and a row on each lateral margin. On the tenth segment 
these sete are quite large, being from two to four times longer than” 
the others. : 

Mature larva (second stage).—Length 0.94 mm.; width of meso- 
thorax 0.22 mm. Body elongate; abdomen tapering caudad from 
about fifth segment. Head slightly longer than wide. Color green- 
ish yellow, varying to greenish white. Legs and antenne lighter; eyes 
reddish brown; ocelli wanting. Sete practically as in stage 1. 
Antenne four-jointed;? basal joint short, cylindrical; second, sub-— 
cylindrical, about twice as long as first. Third joint a fourth longer 





“Quaintance, Bull. 46, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 

>**Lindeman regards the antennze as six jointed, but to me joint four has not 
appeared to allow of being considered as made up of three joints, although there are 
four more or less well-defined parts, as determined by the rings, which, if considered 
as joints, would make seven in all, instead of six.” 


i 
, 


No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 183 





than second; subpyriform, united to second by narrow *‘neck,” rather 
‘closely ringed. Fourth, about as long as proximal three together, 
club-shaped, ringed as in stage 1. Antenne bearing setee much more 
numerous on fourth joint. Tarsi without the pronounced claw-like 
structures of the first stage. In other respects essentially as in pre- 
ceding stage. 

Nymph (about two days old).—Length about 0.7 mm.; width of 
mesothorax about 0.15 mm.; color yellowish, varying to almost color- 
less; eyes reddish. Pupa-skin somewhat separated from the body 
proper, being particularly noticeable in the caudal end of the abdomen, 
wing-pads, legs, and antennze. In these two latter the joints are very 
obscure, the pupa-skin covering them as a sheath. The wing-pads 
reach to about the eighth abdominal segment. There are numerous 
setee on the body, antennse, legs, and wing-pads. On the abdomen 
they have practically the same position as in the adult larva. The 
dorsal setze of the last segment in the nymphs are very stout, almost 
hook-like, curving cephalad. 

Life history.—Dyr. Lindeman’s conclusions, quoted by Dr. Lintner, 
are so different from those which have been reached by workers upon 
the same species in this country that we are led to suspect that he has 
confused the early stages of very different species. 

In Massachusetts, using specimens found infesting a cucumber house 
in January and February, I have found that the egg stage varies from 
four to seven days. Pupation takes place in seven or eight days and 
lasts for nearly a week, when the adults emerge and after a few days 
lay their eggs. The whole life cycle ina greenhouse thus occupies 
from three to four weeks. 

In Florida Quaintance found that the egg stage lasts in summer 
from three and a half to four days; the larval stage from seven to nine 
days, during which time the larva molted twice; the nymph stage four 
days, the total life cycle thus requiring about sixteen days. There 
appeared to be no distinct broods at any season. 

In Ohio Professor Webster has found that this species hibernates 
in larval, pupal, and adult stages, the first predominating, being found 
in matted grass or refuse tops left in the onion fields, and that they 
safely passed through winters when the temperature fell to —23 to 
—25 degrees F’. 

Economic considerations.—Dr. A. S. Packard, in 1872, was the first 
to record the ravages of the ‘‘ Onion Thrips,” which he called Zimo- 
thrips tritici Fitch, believing it to be identical with the ‘* Wheat 
Thrips.” While Dr. Packard’s description is unidentifiable, it is suffi 
cient to show that the insect was not Thrips tritici Fitch, nor did it 
belong to the genus Limothrips. Furthermore, Packard states that 
the antenna consists of eight segments, which would separate it from 

Thrips tabaci, which has only seven. Still the injury recorded is so 
like that which is known to have been committed by Thrips tabaci at 


184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 





é 
various times that I have ine eluded a reference to it under this species, | 
though its correctness is questionable. 

Dr. Packard found that this insect has been observed attacking onions — 
for fifteen years previously, but the damage in 1872 was unusually 
severe in Essex County, Massachusetts, amounting that year to at 
least one-tenth of the crop, and having a money value in that one> 
county of at least $10,000. 

In 1889, Dr. Thaxter found the Onion Thrips generally distributed 
and very injurious to onions in Connecticut, the injury produced being 
known as ‘* White Blast.’ 

The next report of very serious injury was made by Prof. C. P._ 
Gillette from Colorado, where for several seasons it had been noticed 
as very abundant and doing considerable harm. It has also been found 
a serious pest all through the Middle States and in several of the | 
Atlantic coast States as well as on the Pacific coast. This shows its ) 
very wide general distribution, and since its attacks seem to be most | 
severe upon onions and cabbages—two important garden crops—it_ 
must be considered as, perhaps, the most injurious species of the order. 


THRIPS PERPLEXUS (Beach). 


Plate VI, figs. 66-68. | 


Sericothrips? perplexa Bracu, Proc. lowa Acad. Sciences, 1895, III, (1896), pp. 
216-218. - 

Female.—Length 0.935 mm. (0.80 to 1.0 mm.); width of mesotho- | 
rax 0.197 mm. (0.18 to 0.21 mm.). General color: head brown and 
thorax reddish orange-brown, very much darker than the pale yellow | 
or gray-brown abdomen; body slender. 

Head very large, eee pentagonal, approximately as long as_ 
broad or but slightly shorter, almost as large as prothorax, within | 
which it is slightly withdrawn; cheeks nearly straight and parallel; 
anterior margin broadly elevated; without special prominences between | 
bases of antenne; occiput transversely wrinkled; without conspicuous | 
spines. Eyes black, not protruding, together occupying about one- 
half the width of the head, margins lighter colored; ocelli conspicuous, 
large and well separated, placed far forward, all three being in front 
of the middle of the eyes, reddish yellow with maroon inward margins; 
ocellar bristles moderately long. Maxillary palpi three segmented. | 
Antenne fully twice as long as head, subapproximate; relative lengths | 
of segments: | 





Ae aS iB A ee eee 
55. 17.6 104 TON is: eet 


Segment one broader than two which is intermediate in thickness 
between one and three; three and four thickest at about their middle . 
then tapering eradually to the ends; seven bluntly conical. Spines | 





‘Bo. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 185 
—_—<— ~ ~-— 
long and slender, but not very conspicuous; those on three to five 
nearer the middle than usual. Color of one, two, five, six, and seven 
brown like head; three and four pale yellowish or gray; four shaded 
slightly with brown, increasing toward tip; basal constriction of five 
yellowish. 

Prothorax not longer and but very slightly wider than the head, 
nearly square, without stout spines upon fore angles but with two 
long spines at each hind angle. Mesothorax about one and one-half 
times as wide as head, slightly wider than metathorax; greatest width 
at hind edge; color reddish or orange-brown. Wings reaching 
usually beyond the tip of abdomen, about one-seventeenth as broad as 
long; fore wing with two longitudinal veins; the origin of the hind 
yein indistinct; neither vein heavy; costa set with about twenty quite 
long spines besides the fringe hairs; fore vein bears ten to twelve 
rather weak spines and the hind vein about thirteen similar spines. 
Legs rather short; fore femora slightly thickened; yellow to gray- 
brown, bases of bladders dark brown; spines small except row of 
eight or nine on inner side of hind tibiz. 

Abdomen nearly cylindrical and long, two and two-thirds times as 
long as wide; but very slightly wider than mesothorax; last three 
segments very short and tapering very abruptly to the acute apex. 
Color pale yellowish or grayish brown, very much lighter than thorax 
and head; ninth and tenth segments shading to brown-black; inter- 
seomental membranes pale yellowish or gray. Segments not over- 
lapping; receptaculum seminis placed far back beneath eighth dorsal 
plate, very conspicuous, bright orange-red; ovipositor indistinct, 
vestigial; tenth segment split open above and sides nearly meeting 
beneath; anal spines long, slender, not very dark. 

Redescribed from seven females taken on grass at Amherst, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Male unknown. 

Food plants.— Cyperus sp., corn and grass (lowa), Dactylis glomer- 
ata, Panicum sanguinale, and various other grasses (Massachusetts). 

Habitat.—Ames, Iowa; Amherst, Massachusetts. 

These specimens have been compared with Miss Beach’s types and 
are identical. The vestigial condition of the ovipositor, however, 
misled her into thinking her specimens all males, whereas they are 
really all females. 

This species is exceptional among the Terebrantia in lacking a 
functional ovipositor, but it is surely vestigial in this case. The 
egos are very large, while the ovipositor is disproportionately short 
and weak, and it seems that it must be impossible for this species to 
deposit its eggs in the plant tissue. In this respect they thus show a 
divergence toward the Tubulifera, which lay their eggs wholly exter- 














186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXV 


mally: It also seems probable that the so-called **rod” of the Tubu. 
liferan female is but the vestige of a former ovipositor. The wins 
venation also indicates that the olothripide come nearest the prime 
itive form and that Phleothripide have diverged farthest from th 
type, with the Thripide somewhere in between. This species is- 
therefore of considerable interest as possibly being one of the puidem 
posts to the phyllogeny of the order Thysanoptera. 








CHARACTERS OF TUBULIFERA (PLGZOTHRIPID:). 3 


The members of this suborder agree so closely in general characters 
that they have all been included in the single family Phleothripide, 
They are, as a rule, considerably larger a more powerfully formed 
than the Terebrantia, some of them being the giants of the order. 

In the insects belonging to this suborder the head is always as long” 
as broad, and may be two or three times as long. In most of those 
species which have comparatively short heads the front is smoothly” 
rounded, but in those having very much elongated heads the vertex is 
conside rably elevated, in some cases even forming a very prominent 
conical projection of the vertex beyond the bases of the antennae. 
The eyes vary widely in size and number of facets. Ocelli are gen- 
erally present. The cheeks are usually nearly straight and parallel, 
and in some species ‘set with more or less numerous spine- bearing 
warts. Nearly every species has a pair of well-developed spines stand- 
ing immediately behind the eyes, and therefore called post- -ocular 
spines. The antenne are invariably eight segmented in the adult 
stage and the sense cones on the intermediate segments are always 
simple. The mouth cone varies in form, being in some species short 
and blunt, and none of the external parts are acute at the tips; in. 
others the labrum is abruptly constricted beyond the middle, its end 
forming a sharp spine-like process, which reaches beyond the broadly 
rounded labium; in still others the entire mouth cone, labium and 
all, is elongated and tapers to a quite slender tip, which, however, 
is not spine-like. These different forms of mouth cone have been 
thought to possess a generic value in classification, but my studies 
thus far have led me to the conclusion that too hiek a value has 
been placed upon this single character. The maxillary palpi have 
always two segments, of which the basal is very short, and the labial 
palpi are also two segmented, though frequently they are short 
and indistinct. 3 

The prothorax has, in most cases, a trapezoidal form, and this is 
especially noticeable in those species in which the fore femora are 
much enlarged. The regularity of the outline of this trapezoid is, 
however, more apparent than real, as will be seen by reference to Plates. 
VIII, IX, and X. The projecting fore coxe fill in the hind angles” 
so smoothly that in many cases careful focusing is necessary to show 
that the outline is not entirely that of the proiaee: alone. ‘The pro-_ 


Mau alate 


me Osi. 


: “No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—ITINDS. 187 





notum usually bears around its outer portion a number of conspicuous, 
Jong spines. The fore femora are frequently greatly enlarged, and 
when this is the case there will be found upon the fore tarsus a more 
or less stout tooth or hook. In most species the femora and tarsal 
teeth are larger in the males than in the females. The pterothorax is 
very compact and nearly rectangular in outline. The wings, which 
are usually present, are all very similar in form, venation, etc. They 
-are cither quite slender throughout or somewhat constricted near the 
middle, and are rounded at the tips. They have almost no veins, there 
being no ring or cross veins, and only one partially developed median 
yein in cach wing. Along the margins of each wing there is borne a 
long, slender fringe, which is single except near the outer end of the 
hind margin of the fore wing, where it is double for a short distance. 
The membrane of each wing lacks microscopic spines such as are 
found upon the wings of Terebrantia. When brought to rest the 
wings are laid back closely upon the middle of the abdomen, so that 
they overlap in their second halves. They are here held in place, and 
the long, slender fringes confined by the rows of inwardly curved 
spines which stand upon each side of the second to seventh segments. 
In some species the wings are reduced to short, rounded pads, while 
in others even these are wanting. 

The abdomen is very similar in both sexes, except that in the male 
it is usually more slender, especially through the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth segments. The female has no ovipositor, The sexual opening 
is between the ninth and tenth segments in both males and females. 
The last segment is a simple tube in both sexes and at its base, beneath, 
are found the distinctive sexual characters. The female is distin- 
guished by a short, strongly chitinized rod upon the ninth segment 
near the base of the tube which is regular and entire. The male is 
distinguished by a semicircular notch in the base of the underside 
of the tube, providing an opening for the protrusion of the copulatory 
‘apparatus which is wholly retracted into the ninth segment. In many 
species the abdomen is somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally so that a 
cross section is elliptical in outline. 

Tubuliferans live usually in secluded places, as between the parts of 
composite flowers, under the bark of trees, on the underside of foliage, 
in galls, moss, turf, fungi, etc. Their movements are very deliberate 
and they never run or spring. 


SYNOPSIS OF PHL(HOTHRIPID A. 
Body more or less thickened, head less than one and one-half times as 


Me aa me ween ce tert ee te Sone Mtoe. ee eee a he Stk 
{ Breadth of abdomen of female nearly or quite one-half its length ..----.-- 


Body slender, head more than one and one-half times as. long as wide -- -- 8 
1 


o> bo 


Breadth of abdomen of female not nearly equal to one-half its length - -- - - 4 
3 Head broadly rounded in front, cheeks without warts. -.-..-.Trichothrips (p. 191) 
MumnmArTOWeM dm front... 2. Sons kb sas see eek aes ----- Eurythrips (p. 202) 


ee nd 
tires Ww 


185 PROCE] EDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXYVI 


( Wings always present, ee aie eTapne fisies 2 Soe Se 





Genus ANTHOTHRIPS Uzel. 


oI Wines usually reduced, usually inhabitine) barks ors tities 
_ ( Cheeks without spine-bearing warts. -----------------------4 Anthothrips (p 
? ( Cheeks with spine- -bearing warts ..-.----------------------------------- 
Fore femora with teeth at tip w ithin, intermediate antennal segments un- 
3 | usually long and slender. -.----------------------------4 Acanthothrips (p. 198) _ 
2 Kore femora without teeth in female and usually in male, intermediate 
antennal segments not elongated....--------------------- Phileothrips (p. 195) — 
_ ( Head very large, rounded in front.--.-.------------------ Cephalothrips (p. 194) | 
‘Sartead stnall, narrowed in front..0222 Jo.) 02564 = eee Malacothrips (p. 200) — 
-¢ Head more than twice as long as wide. --------------------- Idolothrips (p. 206) — 
: \ Head less than twice as long as wide ©....-2-,---=-===2-2-5- Cryptothrips (p. 205) | 
| 


Head but little longer than wide, reunded in front; cheeks nearly | 
parallel, without warts. Antenne nearly twice as long as the head. 
Ocelli and wings always present in both sexes. Wings narrowed in- 
the middle. Mouth cone not longer than the breadth at its base; 
labrum narrowed toward tip but not sharply pointed. Fore tarsi 
armed with a tiny tooth which is somewhat larger in males than in- 
females. Males without a scale at base of tube. 

The two species belonging here may be easily separated by the 
presence or absence of spines upon the head. In A. niger (p. 188) 
the cheeks are smooth, without spines, and there are no post-ocular 
spines, while in A. verbasci (p. 189) the cheeks bear small spines not 
standing on warts and the post-ocular spines are well developed. 

ANTHOTHRIPS NIGER (Osborn). 
Plate VII, figs. 72-75. 

Phleothrips nigra OsBorn, Canad. Entom., XV, 1883, p. 154; Rept. U.S. Dept. 
Agr. for 1887, (1888), pp. 163, 164; Ins. Life, I, 1888, pp. 137-142; Insi 
Life, V, 1892, pp. 112-113.—Davis, Bull. 116, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1894, 
pp. 62, 63. 

Anthothrips nigra Uzet, Mon. d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, p. 242. 

Female.—Length 1.5 mm. (1.1 to 1.8 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.34 mm. (0.8 to 0.4 mm:.). General color more or less dark reddish 
brown. 

Head approximately as long as broad, longer than prothorax, 
smoothly rounded in front; cheeks straight, parallel, and without 
warts. Eyes small, finely faceted; ocelli quite large and well sepa- 
rated, posterior ocelli almost contiguous with margins of eyes; no 
post-ocular bristles. Mouth cone shorter than its breadth at base and 
blunt at tip. Antenne subapproximate, as long as width of meso- 
thorax; segments quite short and stout; fourth thickest and most 
rounded; relative lengths of segments as follows: 





1 2 is 4 5 ni be 8 
NO ADS 19:9. I TOR eee G ae 





A ; 
_ No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 189 


- Color nearly uniform brown; three and base of four yellowish 
brown; spines short and weak; sense cones short and blunt. 

Prothorax one-half as long as breadth to outer angles of coxe; 
front and hind edges nearly parallel, gently curved; one short spine 
at each posterior angle and one nearly halfway between this and 
middle of hind edge. Mesothorax somewhat wider than prothorax 
but usually less than twice as wide as the head; sides of pterothorax 
nearly straight, shorter than its breadth. Legs short and moderately 
stout; fore femora but slightly thickened; fore tarsi armed with a 
tiny tooth near tip within; middle and hind tibie with one prominent 
spine externally at tip. Legs brown; middle and hind tarsi slightly 
yellowish, sometimes brown; fore tarsi and tip of tibix yellow. 
Wings always present, narrower in middle than at ends, shaded with 
brown only at base, where fore wing bears three erect spines. Wines 
and fringes nearly equal; fringes single, except on hind border of fore 
wing near tip, where for seven or eight hairs they are double. 

Abdomen about twice as broad as head, averaging about two and 
one-half times as long as wide; segments overlapping somewhat; sides 
nearly parallel to middle, then tapering gradually to base of tube. 
Tube about four-fifths as long as head, only slightly tapering; sides 
straight; terminal spines shorter than tube. All spines on abdomen 
short, weak, and not conspicuous. 

Redescribed from seven specimens. 

Male unknown. 

Food plants.— Achillea millefolium, ox-eye daisy, red clover, white 
clover, various grasses. 

Habitat.—lowa, Michigan, Massachusetts. 


ANTHOTHRIPS VERBASCI (Osborn). 


Plate VII, figs. 76-78. 





OssBorN, Ins. Life, I, 1888, pp. 137-142. 
Phleothrips verbasci Ossorn, Proc. Iowa Acad. Se., III, 1896, p. 228. 

Female.—Length 1.8 mm. (1.42 to 2.12 mm.); width of mesotho- 
rax 0.38 mm. (0.32 to 0.44 mm.). General color dark brown. 

Head but slightly, if any, longer than wide; cheeks nearly straight 
and parallel, set with few minute spines; post-ocular bristles prom- 
inent; hind margin of head not covered by front margin of prothorax. 
Eyes finely and closely faceted, rounded, not protruding; ocelli 
widely separated, posterior ones contiguous with the light margins 
of eyes; front ocellus placed at extreme vertex. Mouth cone about 
as long as it is broad at base, pointed. Antenne approximate, almost 
twice as long as head; relative lengths of segments: 





= 








1 ee oko 6 7 coe 
OPO sel ees eam Amalia, © OG 













VOL. XXVI. 


190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 





Segment three cl: ae foun fusiform: five and six becoming mor 
sle nder and less fusiform; seven ya val; eight sharply conics 4 


sieht sie Seen - bere sesame pale salle Sind 
pale and weak: sense cones short and blunt. 

Prothorax short, only about three-fourths as long as head; fore and_ 
hind margins nearly parallel and curving backward; one stout spine. 
at each angle, one in middle of sides, and one on each side between | 
those at the angle and the median line on both fore and hind margins; 
hind angles appear to entirely cover the fore coxx as arule; each fore 
coxa bears one stout spine. All these stout spines are blunt but not | 
knobbed. Sides of pterothorax full and smooth; fore angles oblique; 
color of thorax uniform dark brown or yellowish brown, more or less | 
irregularly mottled with dark red. Wings present, adem in mid- 
dle, transparent except at base, where the fore wing bears three long. 
spines upon the remnant of the single median vein. Fringes long, 
single, except near end of hind fringe of fore wing where it is doubil 
for ten or twelve hairs. Legs moderately long and slender; fore 
femora only slightly thickened; fore tarsus one segmented and armed 
with a tiny tooth. All femora and middle and hind tibie dark brown; 
middle and hind tarsi slightly yellowish or grayish brown; fore tibiz 
and tarsi bright yellow like middle of antenne; fore tibiz shaded 
a little with brown toward their bases outside. One long slender) 
spine near base of each fore femur below; each fore coxa with one- 
long spine. | 

Abdomen broadly joined to metathorax and but slightly wider, 
widest at base but less than twice as wide as head; segments more or} 
less imbricate, tapering gradually to tube. Tube about four-fifths as- 
long as head, tapering slightly, not swollen at base, bearing a circlet 
of spines at tip which are enone than the tube. All spines on abdom: 
inal segments slender and rather faint; color of abdomen quite uniform | 
yellowish brown to dark brown. In the lightest colored specimens : 
the irregular dark mottlings show up most prominently. 

Redescribed from eight females. 

Male. —The male agrees quite closely with the foregoing description; 
it is usually somewhat smaller throughout; relative lengths of antennal 
segments are as follows: 


1 2). 98) 9 Ge ae 


8.5 11.5 13.54 15ers eee 


Fore tarsi are armed with a medium-sized tooth, which is larger than 
that in the female. Of the four spines standing near the hind edge of | 
the ninth segment, the outer pair is very short, stout, and acute; the 
abdomen seems to be somewhat more slender than in female. | 

Described from four males. 






0, 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 191 


— Food plant.—Mullein. 
Habitat.—Ames, Iowa: Amherst, Massachusetts. 








Genus TRICHOTHRIPS Uzel. 


saree 


_ Head about as broad as long, broadly rounded in front. Eyes 
small. Ocelli present in both these species, but often wanting. Mouth 
cone not longer than its breadth at base; labrum pointed at tip. Fore 
femora somewhat enlarged and tarsi armed with a tooth. Wings 
usually wanting, but present in both these species, slender throughout. 
Abdomen very broad and heavy; tube very slender in proportion to 
width of abdomen; no scale at base of tube in the male. 

The two species which I have placed in this genus may be distin- 
guished by the following characters: 
Sueimilyoas long asthe head = 1<...- <2 .0..2.----.22-l------ beachi (p. 192) 
Sere bwo-thirds as long as the head...._._...........--..--...---- ambitus (pp. 191) 


TRICHOTHRIPS AMBITUS, new species. 
Plate VIII, figs. 81, 82. 


- Female. Length 2 mm.; width of mesothorax 0.45 mm. General 
color brownish yellow shading to brown or reddish brown. 

Head slightly longer than wide, widest just behind the eyes, rounded 
in front; cheeks straight and converging posteriorly; at hind edge 
only six-sevenths the diameter at widest part; frons slightly elevated 
between bases of antennze; post-ocular bristles present; a few scat- 
tering small spines upon head not raised upon warts; surface faintly 
reticulated. Anterior half of head light brown flecked with reddish, 
posterior half fading to yellow at the neck. Eyes small, finely gran- 
ulated, compact, not pilose, purplish by transmitted light, reddish 
orange by refiected light; ocelli present, subapproximate, pale yellow 
Margined inwardly with reddish brown crescents. Mouth cone reach- 
ing nearly to posterior edge of prosternum; maxillary palpi two seg- 
mented; labial palpi short and thick; labium broad and rounded; 
maxille converging abruptly below the palpi and short. Antenne 
one and three-fourths times as long as the head, eight segmented, 
though the joint between seven and eight is very indistinct; relative 
lengths of segments as follows: 


Gu 
ee 


5 
(Oe ciSesOe ObecOl <20 15 


o0| 0 


_ Segment one truncate, conical; two constricted toward base into a 
broad stalk, cut off squarely at end; three to seven slenderly stalked 
at bases; three to six clavate; seven cylindrical-ovate, very closely 
united by full width of end to eight which is conical. Color of one 
le brownish yellow; two and three clear yellow; four yellow at base 







199 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 


shading to light brown at end; remaining segments dark brown. 
Sense cones on segments three to six very long a slender; transpar 
ent spmes upon each segment also long and slender 

Prothorax thre e-fourths as long as head and three fifths as long ag 
wide; fore cox project considerably beyond posterior angles. One 
medium length spine on each side of middle and near anterior edge 
one near each anterior angle, one at middle of each side and one longer 
one at each posterior angle. Mesothorax equal in width to prothorax 
and concolorous with it; mesonotum bears one long spine close to base 
of each fore wing. Metathorax equal in width to mesothorax, nar-- 
rowed but very slightly posteriorly, pale yellow in middle, shaded on 
sides, splashed with red. Each fore coxa bears a single long spine on. 
outer side; fore femora somewhat enlarged; each femur bears ¢ single 
long, erect spine on the outer side near its extremity; tarsi short and 
thick, fore pair armed with a stout tooth. Femora gray-brown, fore | 
pair yellowish brown; fore tibie and tarsi pale yellow; caedle and 
hind tibiz and tarsi almost white. Wings reaching to tip of abdomen; 
both pairs equal in size, edges parallel, heavily fringed; fore wings 
bearing a costal group of three long slender spines between the fringe: 
and base of wing. Color of wings dea: transparent, except a slightly, 
clouded band across fore wings at about one-third their length. i 

Abdomen broad and ee last three segments tapering abruptly 
at sixth segment one and one-sixth times as broad as thorax. Tube 
two-thirds as long as head and at middle one-seventh as bro ad as the 
fourth aidomanal: segment; terminal spines about as long as tube. A 
stout bristle projects anteriorly from each side angle of first segment; 
each following segment, except tube, bears on each side one spine; 
these are short upon first segment and increase in length and size pos 
teriorly. Color brownish yellow in middle, shaded aan dark reddish 
brown on sides; tube bright brownish yellow tipped abruptly with 
gray-brown. 

Described from one female. 

Male unknown. 






















Food plant.—Grass. 
Habitat.—Awherst, Massachusetts. r 


TRICHOTHRIPS BEACHI, new species. 
Plate VII, fig. 79; Plate VIII, fig. 80. 


Female.—Length 1.84 mm. (abdominal segments one-third tele- 
scoped); width of mesothorax 0.48 mm. General color y ellow-brown. 
Head as broad as long, rounded in front; cheeks slightly converging 
behind the middle, set with scattered, small, stout spines borne upon 
small warts; post-ocular bristles quite long and acute. Eyes small, 
finely faceted, rounded; ocelli large, distant, posterior two almost 





% 
‘ 
a 


. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 193 









‘contiguous with light yellowish margins around eyes, color reddish 
yellow. Antennx more than twice as long as the head; length and 
breadth of segments increase gradually from base to middle, then 
decrease to tip of antenna; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


Peers 475" 6 


8 
Seow ko eh 145 3 





Color dark brown; bases of three to five yellowish; spines of 
medium length, but not very conspicuous; sense cones about one- 
third of the length of the segment bearing them. 

Prothorax about five-sixths as long as head, and nearly twice as 
broad as long, broadly rounded at hind edge; spines upon fore edge 
much smaller and weaker than the mid-lateral and those on hind edge; 
all these spines are acute. Mesothorax about one and one-half times 
as wide as prothorax, uniting closely and evenly with metathorax so 
that sides of pterothorax are nearly straight. Wings present, long and 
powerful; fringes long, double for from nine to eleven hairs in hind 
fringe of fore wing near tip. Legs of medium size and length; fore 
femora a little thickened and tarsi armed with a very tiny tooth; mid- 
dle legs much the smallest. All femora chestnut brown; tibize at base 
brown, fading to yellowish at tips; fore tibix lightest; tarsi yellow. 
Fore cox project a little beyond sides of prothorax and each bears 
one long spine; each femur bears one long slender spine on under 
side near base; three or four long slender spines stand around tips of 
middle and hind tibi. 

_ Abdomen large and heavy, somewhat broader than thorax, slightly 
more than twice as broad as head; segments overlapping about one- 
third; sides nearly parallel up to eighth segment, then tapering very 
abruptly. Tube slender in middle, about one-eighth the breadth of 
the abdomen, fully as long as the head, tapering but slightly; ter- 
minal circlet of spines shorter than tube; spines on abdomen light 
colored. 

Color of whole body generally yellowish brown, lightest along mid- 
dle of back of thorax and abdomen: abdomen darkest where segments 
overlap; thorax and abdomen show some irregular dark red hypo- 
dermal pigmentation. All spines acute. 

Described from one female taken under quince bark in early spring, 
together with many bright-red larve around it. 

Male unknown. 

Food plant.—Taken under quince bark. 

_ Habitat.—Ambherst, Massachusetts. 

_ I take pleasure in naming this species for Miss Alice M. Beach in 
Tecognition of her work upon the Thripidee of Iowa. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02——13 








194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXV 





Genus CE PHALOTE EEE S ere 


Head considerably longer than its bre adth or the length of the pro | 
thorax, broadly rounded in front and larger than in most species im 
proportion to the other segments. Eves small; ocelli present. Anten-_ q 
ne about one and one-half times the length of the head. Mouth cone | 
shorter than its breadth at base; labrum not narrowed in the middle | 
and ending in a blunt point. Fore femora slightly thickened and | 
tarsi with a tiny tooth. Wings usually reduced or wanting entirely, 
Male without a scale at base of the tube. | 

I place here only one species, yece. 


CEPHALOTHRIPS YUCC£:, new species. 





Plate VIII, figs. 83, 84. 















Female.—Length 1.48 mm. (1.40 to 1.56 mm.); width of meso- | 
thorax 0.29 mm. (0.28 to 0.30 mm.). General color yellowish brown, | | 
irregularly mottled with dark-red hypodermal pigmentation. | 

Head broad and large, about one and two-fifths times as long as 
wide; cheeks slightly arched and smoothly joined to eyes, converging” 
slightly toward neck; front smoothly rounded; post-ocular bristles. 
present, but rather small and not prominent; cheeks smooth. Eyes_ 
small, each being less than one-fourth the breadth of the head through | 
them, triangular above and surface even with that of head, very dark | 
red in color; ocelli small, situated far forward, quite widely separated, | 
with very dark red inner margins. Mouth cone short and rather 
blunt. Antenne nearly one and one-half times as long as head, con-— 
siderably separated at bases with but slight elevation between them; 
relative lengths of segments as follows: ‘| 


1 2 3 4 5 6 v 8 
6.5 ° 11.6, 12.50 Taro eS se ee eee! 





Segments three to five subequal in breadth and similar in shape. 
Antenne yellow, segments one and two shaded with brownish. Sense_ 
cones quite long and slender; spines shorter and light colored, so} 
inconspicuous. 

Prothorax two-thirds as long as head and across outer angles of 
coxe about one and two-fifths times as wide as head; sides of thorax | 
really considerably indented above fore coxe. Anterior marginal| 
and mid-lateral spines wanting; those at angles present, but weak and} 
inconspicuous. Pterothorax as broad as prothorax through coxe, 
equal to about one-fifth the length of the body; its sides straight and) 
parallel; about four-fifths as broad as abdomen. Wings usually” 
reduced to mere pads, but when occasionally present they are of mod- 
erate length, though not very powerful. (Winged specimens have the. 


0. 1310, NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 195 





pterothorax nearly as w wide as the abdome en.) meee rather short and 
thick; fore cox project somewhat beyond thorax; fore femora 
‘slightly thickened and the tarsi armed with a tiny tooth; tibia of each 
Tee slightly shorter than its femur; all tarsi short and thick. All 
femora and middle and hind tibie brown; all tarsi and fore tibie, 
except at base outside, pale yellow; a prominent brown spot at tip of 
tarsi within. 

Abdomen about three-fifths the length of the body; about one and 
one-fourth times as broad as the mesothorax; nearly cylindrical to 
seventh segment, then sides curve smoothly to base of tube. Tube less 
than one-half as long as head and at middle only about one-ninth the 
breadth at middle of abdomen. Spines on abdomen of moderate 
tength, slender, acute, light colored, and not prominent. The abdo- 
‘men is darkest at sides and tip; on each side of segments two to 
eight, slightly outside the line of wing-confining spines, there is a 
rounded or elliptical clear yellow spot. The bedy lacks any striking 
coloration. 

Described from ten wingless and two winged females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6331, U.S.N.M. 

Male.—The males are about five-sixths as large as females. Their 
antennz are about one and two-fifths times as long as the head; there 
‘appears to be less difference in the length of antennal segments than 
in female; relative lengths of segments as follows: 








ee 8. oT 8 


Git lee 10> 010 987d.) O75. "%, 





ns 


Abdomen about one and one-fifth times as broad as mesothorax; 
tube about one-half as long as head and at middle about two-fifteenths 
as broad as middle of abdomen. 

Described from nine males, all short winged. All of my males 
were taken in September, and it may be that winged specimens occur 
earlier in the season. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6331, U.S.N.M. 

Food plants. — Yucca jfilamentosa, goldenrod. 

FHabitat.—Amherst, Massachusetts; Washington, District of 
Columbia. 





Genus PHLGOTHRIPS Haliday. 


_ Head somewhat longer than wide; ‘cheeks with small warts, each 
bearing a tiny spine. Intermediate antennal segments not particu- 
larly elongated; the whole antenna less than twice as long as head. 
| Mouth cone as lens or longer than its breadth at base and narrowed; 
labrum sharply pointed at tip. Fore femur enlarged and tarsus 
armed with a tooth. Wings not narrowed in middle, present in both 
‘sexes. No scale at base of tube in male. 













196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 


; | place two species in this genus. They may be separated by the 
following characters: | 
All femora dark brown; tibiee and tarsi bright yellow: 22 sseeer see uzeli (p. 196). 
Legs gray-brown; tarsi somewhat lighter; fore tibize yellowish. .-pergandei (p. 197). 

The female of the species vze/ comes within the definition of the 
venus Phleothrips, but the male of this species has the teeth at the: 
tip of the fore femora, which is the principal character upon which 
Uzel has separated his genus Acanthothrips. This species, therefore, 
appears to unite the characters of these two genera, and as more 
emphasis is placed upon the description of the female than upon that 
of the male, I have preferred to include this species in the established” 
eenus Phlwothrips rather than to erect a new genus for it. 


PHLGOTHRIPS UZELI, new species. 
Plate VIL, figs. 87-90; Plate IX, figs. 91, 92. 


Female.—Length 1.76 mm. (1.72 to 1.86 mm.); width of mesothorax” 
0.39 mm. (0.38 to 0.40 mm.). General color dark brown with yellow — 
tibie and tarsi. 4 

Head about one and one-fourth times as long as wide, rounded in- 
front; cheeks nearly straight and parallel, set with several short, stout _ 
spines borne upon smali warts; post-ocular bristles quite long and 
knobbed. Eyes moderately large,- rounded, finely faceted; ocelli 
prominent, distant, reddish yellow, posterior ones contiguous with 
light borders of eyes. Mouth cone long and pointed, reaching to pos 
terior edge of prosternum. Antenne about one and three-fourths 
times as long as the head, slightly more than twice as long as width of - 
head; relative lengths of segments as follows: 5 


he 2. Br Sa eee Cpe 
9.72 12.3 “18 1815 16ers eee 





one-third the length of the segment bearing them. 

Prothorax two-thirds as long as head, and to angles of coxe twice 
as wide as long; usual anterior marginal, posterior marginal and mid- 
lateral spines present, knobbed. Mesothorax slightly wider than pro-— 
thorax; sides of pterothorax straight and converging a little to base of 
abdomen. Wings long and powerful. Legs of medium length and 


femora dark brown; all tibiz and tarsi bright yellow, the middle and 
hind ones being slightly shaded with brown. 





No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 197 





Abdomen large « and stout, about four times as long as he: ad, as wide 
“as mesothorax; sides nearly parallel to seventh segment, from there 
tapering roundly to base of tube; segments overlapping about one- 
. Tube four-fifths as long as head; sides straight and converging 
‘slightly; breadth in middle one-seyenth that in middle of abdomen; 
Germinal circlet of hairs about the length of the tube, very slender. 
; Spines on sides of abdomen blunt; abdomen quite uniformly yellowish 
brown (dark brown where segments overlap). 
Described from three females. 
© Cotype:—Cat. No. 6332, U.S.N.M. 
Male.—Males about ea as iarge as females. Cheeks 





slightly fuller; relative lengths of antennal segments as follows: 


4 
S 
2 
® 
z 


A ch 3 4 5 6 7 8 


Peo t eG tel Ors bor. tae Tt 7.9 





_ Fore femora larger than in female and terntinating in two teeth at 
tip within; fore tibixe have each a small tooth near base within; teeth 
on fore tarsi large. (The teeth upon femora and tibie are not found 
at all in the female of this species.) Tube at middle about one-sixth 
the width at middle of abdomen; abdomen tapering slightly. 
_ Deseribed from five males. 
& Cotype.—Cat. No. 6332, U.S.N.M. 
Food plants.—Taken on various grasses, clover, and (/imus montana 

var. pendula. 

Habitat.—Anmherst, Massachusetts. 

This species is named for Dr. Henry Uzel, of Koénigeriitz, Bohemia, 
whose Monograph of the Order Thysanoptera js by far the best work 
that has been published upon this order. 


PHLG@OTHRIPS PERGANDEI, new species. 


Plate VIII, figs. 85, 86. 





Female.—Length 1.68 mm. (abdominal segments overlapping for 
about one-fourth their length); width of mesothorax 0.42 mm. Gen- 
eral color yellowish brown, with considerable irregular red hypoder- 
“mal pigmentation. 
Head about one-sixth longer than wide, widest close behind the 
eyes, rounded in front; cheeks slightly curved and bulging behind 
eyes, converging slightly posteriorly, set with a number of short, 
stout spines borne upon quite prominent warts; post-ocular bristles 
long and knobbed. Eyes about medium in size, slightly elongated, 
finely faceted; ocelli quite large, distinct, subapproximate, reddish 
_ yellow with date red crescentic margins, situated well forward upon 
vertex, which is slightly elevated. Mouth cone quite lone, reaching to 
back of prosternum; labrum sharply pointed and overreaching the 






a 


198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XX 


labium. te twice as long as width of head; relative lengths of 


seoments as follows: 





J0. 14 99 91 1% 14 eae 




















Color of antenne brown with bases of three, four, five, and six 
decreasing in area and intensity of yellowishness; sense cones about 
one-third the length of segment three; spines quite long, dark, and 
conspicuous. 

Prothorax only five-sevenths as long as head, and to outer angles of 
fore cox slightly more than twice as wide as long; usual prothoracie¢ 
spines present, quite long and knobbed. Mesothorax as wide as width 
across fore cox, closely joined with prothorax; pterothorax very 
compact, sides converging slightly to base of abdomen. Wings long 
and powerful. Legs quite strong; fore femora much thickened, over” 
one-half as broad as head; fore tarsi armed with a small tooth. Colal 
of legs uniformly gray-brown; tarsi somewhat lighter; fore tibive yel- 
lowish. shaded with brown at bases and on top. 

Abdomen less than twice as broad as head, equal in width to meso-_ 
thorax, nearly cylindrical to eighth segment; eighth and ninth taper- 
ing abruptly to base of tube. Tube only renee as long as head; 
sides straight, tapering somewhat; breadth in middle about one-eighth 
that of middle of abdomen; terminal hairs a little longer than tube. — 
All large spines on body, except those on hind edge-of nine and at tip 
of tube are short and knobbed; those on nine and tube are acute. — 
Color of abdomen pale brownish yellow, lightest in middle; blood-— 
red pigmented tissue confined mostly to sides of abdomen in this 
specimen. 

Described from one female. 

Male unknown. 

Food plant.—Taken on grass. 

Habitat.— Amherst, Massachusetts. 

I name this species for Mr. Theodore Pergande, by whom several o 
our native species have been described. 


Genus ACANTHOTHRIPS Uzel. 


Head somewhat longer than wide; cheeks with spine-bearing warts 
Antenne very nearly twice as long as head; intermediate segments 
elongated and bearing very long sense cones. Mouth cone consider- 
ably longer than its breadth at base and quite slender.. Fore femora 
enlarged in both sexes and with one or two teeth at tip within; tarsus | 
armed with a stout tooth (Uzel says the tooth is weaker in the male — 
than in the female). Wings present in both sexes. No scale at base— 
of tube in the male. § : 

| 


. 


2 


‘No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 199 


iI have placed the single species magnafemoralis in this genus, though 
Ido not know the female. The characters of the fore femora and 
antenne are sufficient to separate it generically from PAlwothrips. 


ACANTHOTHRIPS MAGNAFEMORALIS, new species. 
Plate IX, figs. 93, 94. 


Male.—Length 2.16 mm.; width of mesothorax 0.42 mm. General 
color yellowish brown with antenne, legs, and eighth and ninth abdom- 
inal segments banded with nearly transparent or yellowish white. 

Head nearly one and one-fourth times as long as wide; cheeks bulg- 
ing abruptly and greatly behind the eyes, then converging to the neck, 
which is as wide as the diameter through the eyes; cheeks, especially 
anterior parts, set with short spines borne upon very prominent tuber- 
cles; front between eyes very narrow, carinated. Eyes large, finely 
faceted, reniform above, inner edges parallel; ocelli small, approxi- 
mate, and placed between the middle of the eyes. Proboscis long, 
slender, pointed; labrum sharply pointed. Antennz scarcely twice as 
long as the head and very slender; relative lengths of segments as 
follows: 


Missi Dini ies Ay | 5 GirechG8 
Oe he PO 265, 28s Vy dbs 9 


Segments one to five subequal in thickness; three to five similar in 
shape, elongated, urn-shaped; eight sharply conical.. Segments one, 
two, seven, and eight quite uniformly dark brown; bases of three to 
five and tips of three and four pale yellowish, nearly white on three; 
six entirely pale yellow, with slight brownish tinge on outer half; 
antenne appear annulated with pale yellow and dark brown. Spines 
and sense cones long, slender, and light colored; the cones on three to 
five fully one-third the length of segment three and on six about three- 
fifths its leneth. 

Prothorax about two-thirds as long as head: width to outer angles 
of cox nearly twice its length; transverse margin nearly straight; 
the usual stout spines on thorax and abdomen, except those at tip of 
tube, are extremely short and blunt. Mesothorax slightly wider than 
the abdomen; middle of pterothorax concaved slightly. Wings long 
and rather slender. Legs moderately long; fore femora extremely 
thick and large, almost as wide as length of fore tibiew; fore femora 
armed with a stout tooth at the tip within; fore tibixe bent outward at 
base; fore tarsi one segmented, armed with a very stout tooth; middle 
and hind tibiz rather short and swollen in the middle, their tibis 
quite slender and their tarsi two segmented. Fore femora yellowish 
brown; fore tibix and tarsi pale yellowish, tibie alone shaded with 
brown on middle of outside; middle and hind femora almost trans- 
parent white at base, outer half shaded with brown and having a 


900 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





roundish, light yellowish spot on side of dark area; middle and hind — 


tibiw pale yellowish at base and tip, banded with dark brown around — 


the middle, these tarsi pale yellow, brown at tips; surface of all legs 
rough, being thickly set with minute warts, each bearing a small — 


spine. 


Abdomen about two-thirds the length of the body, tapering gradu- 


ally from second segment to tip; width at second segment but slightly 
less than that of mesothorax. Tube slightly more than three-fourths 
as long as head; diameter at middle of tube about one-sixth that at 
middle of abdomen. Sides of metathorax and surface of abdomen, up_ 
to about the seventh or eighth segment, peculiarly roughened with — 
closely set small warts, many of which bear small spines. The tube — 
is nearly cylindrical, without a scale at its base, and at the tip bears a 
circlet of eight extremely long, slender, acute hairs, which are nearly 
three times as long as tube. The basal third of tube is very pale yel- 
lowish white; the outer two-thirds is abruptly brown-black; segments 
eight and nine pale yellow; three to seven appear irregularly striped 
with pale yellow and dark brown; dorsal stripe pale yellow and about 
the width of the wings; a subdorsal row of dark-brown, semicircular — 
spots, which stand one in the middle on each side of these segments 
with the straight side toward the dorsal line, gives the appearance of 
a subdorsal stripe; then follows on each side an irregular, pale yellow 
stripe, and the middle of the sides of the segments is shaded with 
brown. Spines on sides of abdominal segments and the back of eighth 
and ninth are extremely short and blunt. 

Described from one specimen. 

Female unknown. 

hood plant. ¢ 

/labitat.—Miami, Florida. 


MALACOTHRIPS, new genus. 


Head plainly longer than wide and narrowed in front. Cheeks full — 


and with spine-bearing warts; vertex elevated. Antenne nearly twice 
as long as head. Mouth cone as long as its breadth at base, reaching 
the hind edge of the prosternum; labrum quite sharply pointed at tip. 


Prothorax two-thirds as long as head. Pterothorax somewhat con- — 


stricted in middle. Fore tarsi with a tiny tooth. Wings usually 
reduced to pads. Abdomen large and full in the female. A closely 
lying scale at base of tube in the male. 

Phis genus contains only one species, zonatus. 

(Hakakos, soft; Apu.) 


MALACOTHRIPS ZONATUS, new species. 
Plate IX, figs. 95-98. 


Female.—Length 1.62 mm. (1.50 to 1.68 mm.); width of pterothorax 
0.30 mm. (0.27 to 0.84 mm.). General color pale bright yellow on 


ee oe 


No. 1810. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 201 





thorax and segments one, three, four, and five of the abdomen; head 
and other abdominal segments brown. Body apparently weakly 
chitinized. 

Head nearly one and one-third times as long as wide, narrowed in 
front; cheeks moderately full and set with a few small spines borne 
upen small warts; head appears constricted close behind the eyes, and 
slightly so at neck; post-ocular bristles well developed; front of head 
between eyes developed into a prominence bearing the antennz; ver- 
tex produced into a sort of hump, which, however, does not overreach 
the insertion of the antenne. Eyes small, finely faceted, dark pur- 
plish red, surrounded by pale yellow margins; ocelli present, subap- 
proximate, borne well forward upon the hump, the front ocellus being 
upon its vertex; pigmentation around ocelli bright red. Mouth cone 
moderately long and slender; labrum abruptly constricted and sharply 
pointed at tip. Antenne approximate at base, almost twice as long as 
head; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


Wipe esawes asta Oe aeG eign co Br 
9.8 13.5 184 16.5 15.8 18.9 12.4 11.4 








Basal segments large, truncate-conical, placed divergently; three 
clavate; from three to eight the segments become gradually more nar- 
row. Antenne nearly uniformly brown, except three, which is yel- 
lowish brown; spines and sense cones quite long, but slender and light 
colored, so inconspicuous. 

Prothorax about two-thirds as long as head and across outer angles 
of cox about twice as wide as long. All the usual prominent pro- 
thoracic spines well developed, but light colored; hind margin not 
sharply defined. Pterothorax in middle slightly narrower than width 
across fore cox; mesothorax short, slightly narrower than metatho- 
rax and slightly brownish yellow in color. Wings reduced to very 
small pads, each fore pad bearing three quite long, bluntspines. Lees 
of medium length and middle and hind pairs quite slender; fore coxee 
projecting considerably beyond thorax; fore femora slightly thickened 
and tarsi armed with a small tooth. All legs pale yellow or pale 
brownish yellow with prominent brown spot within tip of tarsus. 

Abdomen about one and two-fifths times as broad as metathorax, 
quite stout to eighth segment, then sides converging to base of tube. 
Tube about three-fourths as long as head and one-third as wide at mid- 
dle as long; sides straight, tapering slightly; terminal spines about as 
long as tube; spines on sides of abdomen pale, but quite prominent in 
reduced light. Segment one is concolorous with metathorax; three to 
five are clear, bright yellow; two, six, seven, and eight are yellowish 
brown, darkest on sides; nine and tube are darkest brown. 

_ Described from four females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6333, U.S.N.M. 







202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI, |} 





Malv._Leneth about five-sixths that of female; head and prothorax 
nearly as long as in female; relative lengths of antennal seements 
follows: 

pope up ee 5 6 t 8 
(0 11 16 14 138° ieee 





Abdomen only about four-fifths as long or as broad as in female and 
tapering more uniformly from base to tip. 
Described from two specimens. 4 
Cotype.—Cat. No. 6333, U.S.N.M. | 
Food plant.—Vaken in turf. 
Habitat.— Amherst, Massachusetts. 


EO ROY as EUR Ss men ven Geils. 


Head as long or somewhat longer than wide, narrowed in front. 
Eyes small and vertex between them elevated. ne fully twice | 
as long as the head and thicker than in most species. ' Prothorax: 
about two-thirds the length of the head. Fore tarsi with a small’ 
tooth, which is larger in the male than in the female. Wings usually, 
reduced to short pads. Abdomen unusually large and heavy in pro-| 
portion to the rest of the body. Males with a closely lying scale at 
the base of the tube. | 

The species umpliventralis is the type of this genus. 

(evpus, broad; Fz.) ‘ 

The two species belonging to this genus may be separated by the 
breadth of the abdomen, which in ampliventralis (p. 202) is about one | 
and two-thirds times as wide as the pterothorax, while in osbornd (p. 208) | 
it is only about one and one-fourth times as wide as the pterothorax. | 





EURYTHRIPS AMPLIVENTRALIS, new species. 
Plate IX, figs. 99-101. 


Female.—Length 1.08 mm. (1 to 1.20 mm.); width at middle of}! 
pterothorax 0.24 mm. (0.22 to 0.25 mm.). General color of head and 
legs clear yellow to brownish yellow; body shading posteriorly to dark, 
brown beyond middle of abdomen. | 

Head slightly longer than wide, slightly narrowed in front, broadest 
at neck; cheeks diversine gradually behind the eyes; vertex drawn | 
out into a hump between and in front of the eyes; post-ocular bristles: 
quite long; head clear, brownish yellow with some red hypodermal 
pigment on vertex. yes extremely small and composed of but very 
few large facets, slightly protruding, oval in outline, black; ocelli) 
wanting. Mouth cone short and blunt; labrum not onstnttel beyond 
middle. Antenne approximate, large, and heavy, fully twice the: 
length of the head, with peculiar, semicircular, shelf-like support! 
visible on under side at base; relative lengths of segments as follows: | 


| 
| 
| 
1 





1. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 203 


ie 








Is 2 3 4 5 6 i 8 
at ois 5 108 11,9 9:5 6.4 

Segment one is broadest, cylindrical, and following segments decrease 
gradually in diameter; three is clavate, four to seven each barrel- 
shaped, with a short stalk. Antennal segments shade gradually from 
concolorous with head at base to very dark brown at tip; spines and 
sense cones very long, slender, and quite prominent. 

Prothorax quite variable in length, butaveraging slightly more than 
two-thirds as long as head; width also unusually variable, but averag- 
ing twice its length and equal to width of pterothorax. Anterior 
marginal spines wanting; others present, moderately long, blunt, but 
not knobbed. Pterothorax very small, rather shorter than prothorax 
and usually slightly narrower. Wings reduced to mere pads. Fore 
and middle legs rather short and thick, but hind legs quite long and 
slender; fore femora but slightly thickened and tarsi armed with a tiny 
tooth. Legs concolorous with head; femora shaded somewhat with 
brown, but without hypodermal pigment. 

Abdomen exceedingly large and heavy, about one and two-thirds 
times as broad as pterothorax; posterior half rounding up to base of 
tube. Tube fully two-thirds as long as head and almost one-half as 
broad at middle as it is long; sides straight and tapering evenly; 
terminal hairs slightly shorter than tube; spines on sides of abdomen 
quite long and prominent. 

Prothorax concolorous with head, but much more suffused with 
irregular, bright red hypodermal pigmentation. (Seen by reflected 
light on white background.) Pterothorax and base of abdomen more 
shaded with brown, and the latter becoming darker toward tip, where 
it is dark brown or almost black. Pterothorax, and sides of abdomen 
especially, thickly marked with bright red hypodermal pigment. 

Described from five females. 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6334, U.S.N.M. 

Male unknown. 

food plant.—Taken in turf in fall. 

Habitat.— Amherst, Massachusetts. 





EURYTHRIPS OSBORNI, new species. 


Plate X, figs. 102, 1038. 





Female.—Length 1.12 mm. (1 to 1.22 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.27 mm. (0.25 to 0.30 mm.). General color light yellowish brown to 
dark brown; head and legs yellow. 

Head approximately as long as wide, narrowed in front; the antenne 
standing upon a triangular projection between the eyes; head enlarged 
quite abruptly behind the eyes; cheeks not converging posteriorly. 
Kyes very small, depressed, finely faceted, almost oval in outline, 


i 


Bs 


904 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 








seoments as follows: 










AG 
Oo 


1 2 4 be sO em 
83 10.5- 15.8 149 4129 11-9] 


Segment one large and cylindrical; two cup-shaped; three ver 
slender at base. clavate: four to seven also slender at bases, decreasing 
eradually in diameter and length of stalk; eight enlarging to one- i 
its length and then tapering to a sharp point. Color shading gradu- 
ally from concolorous with head at base to dark brown at tip. = 
and sense cones long, slender, and quite conspicuous. Head clear, pal 
yellow to brownish yellow. 3 

Prothorax and pterothorax (in short-winged specimens) along dorsal 
line, each approximately as long as head; “width of prothorax across- 
coxe nearly twice its length, its sides indented considerably above: 
them. Anterior marginal spines wanting; others present as usual (at 
angles, mid-lateral and posterior marginal) long, slender, and blunt. 
Mesothorax approximately as broad as prothorax; in long-winged | 
specimens about one-fourth longer than in short-winged, and also 
slightly fuller. Legs short and moderately stout; fore femora but) 
slightly enlarged and tarsi armed with a small tooth; one long, erect, 
knobbed spine upon the back of each femur. Legs yellow; femora | 
shaded with brown; in darker specimens femora more strongly shaded. 

Abdomen large and heavy; fore angles abrupt; about one-half us 
wide as long; nearly cylindrical to on segment, then sides curve. 
roundly to base of tube. Tube as long or slightly nos than head, 
about one-third as broad in middle as nae more slender in outer thai 
in basal half; terminal spines only about two-thirds as long as tube; 
those on sides of abdomen quite long and prominent, knobbed. : 

Thorax and abdomen uniform in color, abruptly darker than head 
and legs, ranging from yellow-brown to dark brown, with considerable e, 
dark red, irregular, hypodermal pigmentation. , 

Deseribed from ten females, eight long and two short winged, 

Cotype.—Cat. No. 6335, U.S.N.M. 

Male.—Males about six-sevenths as large as females. Relative’ 

lengths of antennal segments as follows: 















Bt 
#4 
zi 





i 2° 8 * 4-95 Spee 
8 10-126 19 19) 202 Rete eare 








The prothorax is a little wider than the mesothorax. Fore femora | 





0. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 20D 





nsiderably enlarged and tooth upon tarsus quite stout. Abdomen 
more slender than in females and tapering more gradually. 

_ Described from five mates, all short winged. 

§ Cotype.—Cat. No. 6335, U.S.N.M. 

_ Food plants. —Grasses. 

_ Habitat.--Amherst, Massachusetts. 

_ This species is named for Prof. Herbert Osborn, who has for many 
years shown considerable interest in the study of these tiny insects. 





Genus CRYPTOTARIPS Uzel, 


Head cylindrical, fully one and one-half times as long as wide. 
Byes large and prominent. Vertex strongly elevated and bearing the 
anterior oceilus at its extremity. Mouth cone about as long as its 
breadth at base and reaching about two-thirds across the prosternum; 
labrum blunt. Prothorax about as long as width of head. Legs 
slender; fore femora but slightly enlarged; fore tarsi unarmed. Wings 
present, slightly narrowed in middle. Male with a scale at base of 
tube. 


I find only one species belonging to this genus, @spersus. 
CRYPTOTHRIPS ASPERSUS, new species. 


Plate X, figs. 104-106. 





Female.—Length 1.68 mm. (1.45 to 2 mm.); width of mesothorax 
0.32 mim. (0.28 to 0.36 mm.). General color yellowish brown to brown- 
black; body and legs considerably marked with irregular, dark-pur- 
plish, hypodermal pigmentation. 

Head cylindrical, one and one-half times as long as wide, about as 
wide as length of prothorax; cheeks almost straight and nearly parallel, 
set with a few minute, slender spines; postocular bristles short; sur- 
face of head finely cross-striated. Eyes quite large, finely faceted, 
very slightly protruding, dark-purplish red with pale yellowish inner 
margins; ocelli present, small and inconspicuous, frequently concealed 
by local hypodermal pigmentation, situated far forward; posterior 
ceili close to margins of eyes, front one on apex of prolonged vertex 
of the head. Mouth cone rather short, reaching only to middle of 
prosternum; maxillary palpi long and slender; sides of labrum straight, 
its point blunt. Antenne inserted below vertex, approximate at base, 
slightly more than one and one-half times as long as the head, quite 
slender; relative lengths of segments as follows: 


Disa + 5 6 Lay. 8 
fe ee te A816 = Th Id-.6 8 
Segments one and two concolorous with head; three pale yellow; 
test of antenna shading gradually to dark brown at tip, except bases 
of four and five, which are pale yellow; spines and sense cones short 
and i inconspicuous. 


206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXY: 





Prothorax small, scarcely two-thirds as long as head. One spine 
each posterior angle alone prominent; those at fore angles smalle 
than the anterior marginals; ali indistinct; midlaterals w anting; poss 
terior marginals small and not visible except on lightest specimen 
with careful focusing. Pterothorax approximately as wide as abdomen; 
its sides nearly straight and parallel. Wings present; hind fringe of 
fore wing double for five or six hairs near tip. Legs long and slen= 
der; fore coxe projecting strongly; fore femora sce coe thic kened | 
and tarsi unarmed; one spine near base of each femur below much 
longer than others on legs and longest on fore femora; legs concol- 



















orous with body. y 
Abdomen long and slender, cylindrical to about seventh segment, | 
about twice as wide as head, from seventh segment tapering quite | 
eradually to tube. Tube short, only one half as long as head; its sides | 
straight and converging slightly; width at middle about one-third 
width of head; terminal hairs about as long as tube. Spines at sides: 
of abdomen slender, pale, and not very prominent; segments usually, 
overlapping considerably; sides darkest in color. i 
Described from eight females. 
Cotype.—Cat. No. 6836, U.S.N.M. 
Male.—Male about five-sixths as large as female, though antennal 
are of about same size in both sexes; relative lengths of segments as 
follows: x 
LD 3 Ae 6 Sone 
8 19." 16:5 16) To. eoes ieee 








Abdomen much smaller than in female and tapering gradually from 
base to tip. 
Described from one specimen. 
food plant.—Grape. 
[labitat.—Ambherst, Massachusetts. 


Genus [IDO LOT ERE S petellticlanyac 


Anterior ocellus remote from the base of the antenne. Proboscis 
reaching the base of the prosternum; labial palpi papiiiform; vein 
one of the fore wings shortened by one-half or abbreviated. Head 
very long, rounded; abdomen hoitlowed out. Antenne siender, three 
or four times as long as the thorax; prothorax unequally tuberculated; 
metatarsi unarmed. Size large, marked with three or more lines. 

In this genus I find onty the species con/ferarum. 





IDOLOTHRIPS CONIFERARUM Pergande. 
Plate X, figs. 107-110. 


Idolothrips coniferarum PERGANDE, Entom. News, VII, 1896, pp. 63-64. 
Idolothri me ana um TRYBOM, F estskrift f6r oer oE 1896, p. 218. 











“This generic deseription i is translated from Haliday’ 8 original description. 





Be 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—IHINDS. 207 
; 
| 





_ Female.—Length oat te mm. (3 3+ to 4. 26 mm. o breadth of meso- 
thorax 0.55 mm. (0.50 to 0.60 mm.). Color coal-black without mark- 
ings. 

~ Head long and cylindrical; proportional length more variable than 
in most species, but averaging about two and one-third times as long 
as wide; surface of head transversely finely striated; cheeks set w ne 
a number of short, stout spines; head broadened a trifle just before the 
neck-like constriction at the base; vertex produced into avery promi- 
nent, conical hump in front of the eyes and overreaching the insertion 
of the antennxe. Eyes large, finely faceted, bulging slightly, extend- 
ing as far around on under side of head as on upper; ocelli small, 
widely separated, the anterior one occupying the extreme vertex; the 
posterior ones, nearly on a line with the middle of the eyes and close 
to their margins, are often invisible, unless in fav orable light, owing 
to the opacity of the head. Mouth cone short and rounded. Antennze 
approximate at base, inserted under the vertex, only about one and 
one-sixth times as long as the nead, and slender; relative lengths of 
segments as follows: 


Ware ig 6 fi 8 


1210-38 230) 9G 17-5 13:38. 15 

Segment one concealed at base; three to five clavate; six to eight 
fusiform. Three mostly yellow (two-thirds); four nearly one-half, 
and five about one-third yellow; rest of antenna brown-black. Spines 
and sense cones light and inconspicuous, but the cones especially are 
long, slender, and acute; three apparently bears only one sense cone, 
and that is on outer side; six has but one, which is on inner side; four 
and five have four each. 

Prothorax small, only about two-fifths as long as head; only the one 
long spine on the outer angle of each fore coxa is at all conspicuous. 
ae othorax appears nearly square; sides straight and parallel; more 
than twice as wide as head. Wings present, but short as compared 
with great length of abdomen, not reaching beyond fifth or sixth seg- 
ment, heavily fringed; hind fringe of fore wing double for about 26 
hairs near tip. Legs short as compared with length of body; fore 
femora but slightly thickened and tarsi armed with a tiny tooth; legs 
set with a number of quite long, slender, black spines. Legs black, 
except fore tibie dark yellowish brown along middle of inside, and 
all tarsi dark brown. 

Abdomen extremely long and slender, about two-thirds the length 
of the entire body and less than one-fourth as wide at base as it is 
long; tapers gradually from second segment to tube. Tube of female 
fully five-sixths as long as head and a little more than one-third the 
width of head; iad hairs weak and only about two-thirds the 
length of the false. spines on sides of abdomen short and weak. 

\ Redescribed from four females. 
aad 








205 EO Ee OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


fant one fonsles ioe 4. 2 mm. ee to 4.10 sah They are 
somewhat more sle Lee espe Cl ially three one eee of abdomen. 


than in female, about one and oniestitit times as a as need: “ctl 
leneths of segments as follows: 


Ms 


1 2 3 4 oe 6 4 By 
[4.90 49 34 995 22105 2 ee alae 


Prothorax nearly one-half as long as the head; fore femora consid= 
erably thickened (almost as broad as the head) and each fore tarsus_ 
hearing an extremely stout tooth; fore tar si and inside of tibiee yellow. 

Abdomen at second segment only two-elevenths as broad as long; 
tube three-fourths as long as head and very slender. ‘ 

Male newly described from two specimens. a 

Food plants.— Pinus ops, Juniperus virginiana, and Abies sp. i 

Found on either green or dry branches in spring and early fall and : 
hibernating under bark. : 

Hubitat.—Near Washington, District of Columbia; Amherst, Massa~ 
chusetts. 
UNCLASSIFIED DESCRIPTIONS. 2 


LIMOTHRIPS TRITICI (Fitch) Packard. $ 


“The females alone are winged, the males being wingless and closely 
resembling the larvee. The body of the female is smooth and shin- 
ing, uniformly open yellow, with no other markings; the legs are. 
a little paler toward the articulations. The antenne are eight- jointed, 
slightly longer than the head; the two basal joints are the largest; the 
three succeeding joints equal, regularly ovate, the sixth a little longer 
than the fifth; seventh and eighth minute, seventh a little shorter than’ 
eighth, each joint bearing four large bristles. This species differs) 
from the European Z. ceraliwm in having but eight joints, the seventh 
and eighth being minute, and with no intermediate short one, as. 
described in the European insect. 7 

“The prothorax is square, the scutellum short, crescent-shaped, and) 


the abdomen is long and narrow, smooth and shining, ten-jointed. 


Length, four one-hundredths of an inch, or less than half a line. ; 
‘The larva (fig. 2) is entirely gre penien yellow, the head and protho- 


rax of the same color as the rest of the body. The eyes are reddish. 
The feet and antennx are whitish, not annulated, as in JZ. cceralium. 
The feet (tarsi) consist of but a single joint ending ina point. . 

“The male differs from the larva in having two-jointed feet (tarsi) 
and seven-jointed antennw, those of the larva being four-jointed. ‘The: 
second joint is exactly barrel-shaped, with two ridges or lines sur- 
rounding it, third and fourth joints long, ovate, the third being a lit- 
4 





” 


: 
no. 1510. - NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 209 





— = 





tle larger than the fourth, and with about twelve transverse lines, there 
being about eight on the fourth joint, from the end of which projects 
a remarkable tubercle, as seen in the figure. The fifth joint is square 
at the end, with about eleven transverse lines, and three or four stout 
hairs externally; sixth joint minute and spherical, while the seventh is 
three times as long as the sixth, and is finely striated, and with four 
unequal stout hairs. It is just twice the length of the female, meas- 
uring 0.08 inch.” 
THRIPS TRIFASCIATUS Ashmead. 





‘* emale.—Length 0.8 mm. Light brown; eyes strongly faceted, 
purplish-brown in certain lights; three basal segments of the abdomen 
above, dark brown; segments 4, 5, and 6 white; apical segments light 
brown, the sutures dusky; legs, except hind femora toward tips, white; 
wings linear, strongly fringed, without nerves, the ground color brown 
or fuscous, with three transverse white bands, i. e., the front wings 
have a white band at base, another at about two-thirds their length, 
and with the apices white. 

** Habitat.—Near Utica, Mississippi.” 


THRIPS SECTICORNIS Trybom. 


I have been unable to see the description of this species which was 
published in Ofversigt af k. Vetenskaps-Akademiens. Férhandlingar, 
1896, page 620. 

PHLC@OTHRIPS MALI Fitch. 


‘‘This insect measures only six-hundredths of an inch in length and 
one-hundredth in width. It is polished and shining, and of a blackish 
purple color. Its antenne, which are rather longer than the head and 
composed of eight nearly equal joints, have the third joint of a white 
color. The abdomen is concave on its upper side, and is furnished 
with a conical tube at its tip which has a few bristles projecting from 
its apex. The wings when folded are linear, silvery-white, and as 
long as the abdomen; they are pressed closely upon the back, spread- 
ing asunder at their bases, and appear like an elongated Y-shaped 
mark. Viewed from above, the head is of a square form, longer than 
wide. The first segment of the thorax is well separated from the 
second, is broadest at its base, and gradually tapers to its anterior end, 
where it is as wide as the head. The following segment is the broad- 
est part of the body and square, with its length and breadth equal.” 


PHLC@OTHRIPS CARY Fitch. 


‘This insect is 0.07 long, of a deep black color and highly polished. 
Its head is narrower than the thorax and nearly square. The third, 
fourth, and fifth joints of the antenne are longer than the others, yel- 
low, and slightly transparent; the last joint is shortest and but half as 
— . Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02-——14 


= 


é 


210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. —_ VoL. XXVI. 





thick as those which precede it. The abdomen is egg-shaped, with its 
tip drawn out into a tube thrice as long as it is thick, with four long 
bristles at its end, and the abdomen is furnished with bristles at each 
of its sutures. The wings do not reach the tip of the abdomen. 
They are white and slightly transparent and fringed with black hairs, 
In its larva state it hasa more slender linear form. witha dull greenish 
vellow head, a white thorax witha broad black band anteriorly, a pale 
red abdomen with a black band at its tip, and whitish legs.” 


FOSSIL THYSANOPTERA. 


Tiny though they are, these insects are not unknown as fossils. The 
White River deposits are the only ones in this country from which they 
are yet known. Three species, representing as many genera, have been 
found there in Tertiary rocks, and have been described by Dr. S. H. 
Seudder (174, 336), whose descriptions of these insects follow. The 
last two genera are extinct. Of the genus J/elanothrips, no living 
representative has as yet been found in this country, though a species 
of this genus is known in Europe. 


MELANOTHRIPS EXTINCTA Scudder. 


Melanothrips extincta ScuppEr, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., I, 1875, p. 221; 
Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., XIII, 1890, p. 371. 

‘*Head small, tapering; the only appendages visible are the antenne; 
these are only sufficiently preserved to recognize that they are very 
long and slender, longer than the thorax. The thorax is rather small, 
quadrate; wings nearly as long as the body, fringed on the costal 
border as in Palxothrips fossilis. The abdomen is composed of only 
eight joints, but is very long and very tapering, fusiform, the last joint 
produced, as usual in the Physapods; the third joint is the broadest; 
of the wings only the costal border and a part of one of the longi- 
tudinal veins can be seen; there are no remains of legs. 

‘Length of body, 2.2 mm.; of antenne, 0.8 mm.; of head, 0.14 mm.; 
of thorax, 0.5 mm.; of abdomen, 1.56 mm.; greatest breadth of 
abdomen, 0.5 mm. ! 

“Chagrin Valley, White River, Colorado. One specimen, W. 
Denton.” | 

Genus LITHADOTHRIPS Seudder. | 

Bat 

Lithadothrips Scupprr, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., I, 1875, p. 221; Rept. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., XIII, 1890, p. 372. | 

‘‘Allied to Melanothrips Haliday. The head is large, broad, globose; 
the eyes exceedingly large, globose, each occupying on a superior. 
view fully one-third of the head; the antennz very slender, equal, as 
long as the thorax, the joints eight or nine in number, cylindrical, 
equal, scarcely enlarging toward their tips. The prothorax is no 


ine 





NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. PA 





larger than the head, of equal breadth with it, the w hole thorax shaped 
asin Paleothrips. Only fragments of the wings remain, sufficient to 
render it probable that they agree well with the character of the group 
to which Melanothrips and Molothrips belong. The legs resemble 
those of Paleothrips, but are slender and appear to be rather profusely 
supplied with hairs. The abdomen differs considerably in the two 
specimens referred to this genus. In one it is very broadly fusiform, 
the tip a little produced, nine joints visible, the apical furnished with 
a few hairs, and bluntly rounded at the tip; the other has the sides 
equal, the apex not at all produced, but very broadly rounded, only 
seven or eight joints vaguely definable. 
**A single species is known.” 


LITHADOTHRIPS VETUSTA Scudder. 


Lithadothrips vetusta ScuppEr, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., I, 1875, p. 222; 
Rept. U. 8. Geol. Surv. Terr., XIII, 1890, p. 372. 

‘The specimens, both of which represent the upper surface of the 
body with fragments and vague impressions of the members, are too 
poorly preserved to add anything to the above description of their 
generic features, excepting the following measurements: 

** Furst ee tact of body 1.76 mm., of antennz 0.6 mm., 
of thorax 0.6 mm., of abdomen 0.87 mm.; breadth of head 0.28 mm., 
of thorax 0.52 mm., of abdomen 0.56 mm.; length of fore femora, 0.37 
mm. ?; breadth of same, 0.14 mm.; length of hind femora, 0.42 mm.; 
breadth of same, 0.13 mm. 

** Second speciémen.—Length of body 1.96 mm., of antenne 0.76 mm., 
of thorax 0.56 mm., of abdomen 1.10 mm.; breadth of head 0.38 mm., 
of thorax 0.59 mm., of abdomen 0.59 mm. 

** Fossil Canyon, White River, Utah. Two specimens, W. Denton.” 


Genus PALA OTHRIPS Scudder. 


Palxothrips ScuppER, Bull. U.S. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., I, 1875, p. 222. 


**This genus is allied to Molothrips Haliday. The head is small, 
globose; eyes rounded, much smaller than in Lithadothrips; antenne 
slender, fully as long as the thorax, not more than seven jointed, the 
joints cylindrical, subequal. Prothorax considerably larger than the 
head, the thorax as a whole very large, stout, and tumid; fore femora 
very stout, scarcely more than twice as long as broad; fore tibiz also 
stout, a little longer than the femora; the other legs are moderately 
stout, long, reaching beyond the tip of the abdomen, with a few scat- 
tered, rather short, spinous hairs; the hind tarsi three jointed, the last 
joint smaller than tie others, and altogether two-sevenths the length 
of the tibie. Fore wings unusually peoad. broadest apically, w here 
their breadth more than equals one-fourth of their entire length, pro- 
vided with two longitudinal veins, dividing the disk into three nearly 
3y 





212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. Vou. XxVI 


equal portions, connected in the middle by a cross vein, and with - 
either border by other cross veins at about one-third and two-thirds of 
the distance from the base to the tip of the wing; the wing is heavily 
fringed, especially along the hind border. Hind wings veinless, nearly 
as long, and at the tip nearly as broad, as the fore wings. Abdomen 
nine jointed, half as long again as the thorax, rather tumid, scarcely — 
or not at all produced apically.” 


PALAZZOTHRIPS FOSSILIS Scudder. 


Palxothrips fossilis ScuppER, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr., I, 1875, 
pp. 222-223.—Zirre,, Handb. d. Paleontology, I, Pt. 2, 1885, p. 784) 
fig. 999; Rept. U. 8. Geol. Surv. Terr., XIIT, 1890, pp. 373-874. 

‘‘Head small, tapering a little in front, where, however, it is broadly 
rounded. The antenne are certainly seven jointed, and none of the 
apical joints show any indication of being connate, the last joint being 
of the same length as the two preceding it, tapering, and bluntly 
pointed; none of the joints show any enlargement in the middle, but 
the middle joints are slightly larger at the distal extremity than at the 
base; they appear to be destitute of hairs. The prothorax is sub- 
quadrate, a little broader than long, with rounded sides; the fore 
femora are unusually stout, as long as the width of the prothorax. 
The longitudinal veins of the fore wings approach each other somewhat 
abruptly in the middle, where they are united by a cross vein, and at 
the tip of the wing they curve away from each other; the two cross 
veins on the lower third of the wing are, respectively, slightly farther 
from the base of the wing than the corresponding veins of the upper 
third; the fringe on the posterior border is largest near the tip of the 
wing, where the hairs are about three times as long as those on the 
costal border. The first hind tarsal joint is scarcely longer than broad, 
cylindrical; the second of about the same length, but decidedly broader 
at apex than at the base; the apical joint is nearly globular, smallest 
at base, as large in the middle as the base of the other joints. There 
are a few hairs at the tip of the abdomen and a few short ones on the 
hind tibiz; the apical ones stouter than the others, resembling spines; | 
but the insect appears to have been unusually destitute of hairs, _ 
excepting on the wings, where not only the edges but also all the 
veins are fringed. | 

** Length of body 1.6 to 1.8 mm.; of antenne 0.58 mm.; of fore” 
femora 0.32 mm.; breadth of same 0.14; length of fore tibiz 0.32_ 
mm.; of hind femora 0.38 mm; breadth of same 0.11 mm.; length of | 
hind tibiz 0.42 mm.; of hind tarsi 0.12 mm.; of fore wings 1.4 mm.; 
of hind wings 1.27 mm.; greatest breadth of fore wings 0.37 mm.; 
length of prothorax 0.16 mm.; breadth of same 0.32 mm.; length of | 
whole thorax 0.64 mm.; of abdomen 0.92 mm.; greatest breadth of the 
same 0.37 mm. 


| 
** Fossil Canyon, White River, Utah. W. Denton.” 






No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. oS 


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 


As has been shown in Jordan’s conclusion in regard to the system- 
atic position of this group (see p. 82), Thysanoptera have branched off 
from the line of the Orthoptera-Hemiptera and resemble the Homop- 
tera more closely than they do any other group. 

Starting with a given form which we may call Prothysanopteron, I 
believe that changes in the degree of development of any of its organs 
must be correlated with changes in its habits and environment. What 
was Prothysanopteron like? Judging from its line of phyllogeny, it 
must certainly have been an active running and flying insect, having 
elongated mouthparts which were probably becoming suctorial in 
function and bearing near the other extremity of the body a saw-like 
ovipositor. Having these organs which would be concerned in the 
chief relations of its life to its environment-—nutrition, locomotion, 
and reproduction—what can we infer as to the habits of that primi- 
tive insect? It fed externally upon the juicy parts of plants, probably 
puncturing them with its elongated mouthparts and sucking up the 
exuding juices. It flew from flower to flower or tree and ran about 
actively thereupon. In the tissue of its food plants it deposited its 
egos, cutting the necessary slits for them with its saw-like ovipositor. 
Its legs, used chiefly in running or crawling, would present few, if 
any, modifications, while its wings, though surely slender, were prob- 
ably broad as compared with those found in the order to-day, and the 
hairs which happened to stand along their edges had begun to elongate 
so as to compensate, in some degree, for the narrowness of the mem- 
branes. With such an insect and such habits as this hypothesis sug- 
gests, if we can name reasonable changes in habits which, acting m 
accordance with the laws of Nature as we know them to be acting 
to-day, will produce the various forms of insects which we now include 
in this order, we feel that our hypothesis can be as well sustained as 
any such hypothesis with reference to primitive forms is capable of 
being. 

If some of the descendants of our external-feeding Prothysanopteron 
in their struggle for existence should, in the course of numerous gen- 
erations, acquire a habit of feeding in some well-protected part of the 
plant, e. g., inside the closely rolled central leaves of Yucca filamentosa, 
where they would be comparatively safe from the attacks of their ene- 
mies (a change of habit easily produced by natural selection), then, 

this environment being favorable, they would no longer find as fre- 
quent or as urgent use for their wings and legs as had their ancestors, 
‘and they would be favored by remaining in a very restricted place. 
Asa result, wings would degenerate from disuse, and the movements 
of the insects upon their feet would become slower. Wings might, 
and probably would, be a distinct disadvantage in such a fectneted 
pei so that many influences would tend toward their reduction, 


| 


914 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. “7 





which, however, “eould not be complete without entailing a decided 
disadvantage to the species by hindering its spread to other food plants. 
Nature has established her line of equilibrium somewhere between the) 
two extremes, and we have a majority of short-winged individuals: 
favored by the absence of long wings, but yet in nearly every species 
will be preserved in some sex, generation, or individuals fully devel-| 
oped wines to assist in the’ spr eading of the species. This line of | 

‘“halance” will be affected by nearly every habit of the species, so that. 
we may naturally expect to find it in different places in species having. 
different habits, and such is indeed the case. (See p. 105.) | 

Such a change of habit from frequenting an exposed to a protected 
feeding ground would affect other organs than the wings. There 
would no longer be any need of embedding the eges for protection, 
and should the atmosphere prove sufficiently moist, they would: 
undoubtedly develop though laid upon the surface of the leaf or stem. | 
This would save much of the energy of oviposition, and in the course 
of time the practice of embedding the eggs would cease altogether. | 
Having now no use for the ovipositor, that, too, would degenerate | 
from disuse till, at most, a mere vestige would remain of this origi- 
nally well-developed organ. Some such course of development I be- 
lieve to have taken place in the Phloeothripide, and the chitinous rod 
now found on the underside of the ninth abdominal segment just in: 
front of the sexual opening seems best explainable as the remaining 

vestige of the former ovipositor. (See Plate X, fig. 115.) As the: 
ovipositor became weaker and weaker other changes feed to this. 
must have been in progress. The sheath which had contained the 
ovipositor, being no longer needed, would naturally become closed up. . 

The ventral plates which had previously disappeared to provide room 
for the sheath would not again develop, but the edges of the dorsal 
plates closing around still further would meet on the ventral line. 
forming the tube of the Tubulifera. At the same time the sexual | 
opening seems to have moved backward till it reached the hind part! 
of the ninth segment, where it is now found. 

Other modifications of the Prothysanopteron, found in the Tubulifa 
era (mainly), may logically be traced to this one change of habit. I 
refer to the trapezoidal form of the prothorax, the enlargement of 
the fore legs, and the development of a tooth upon the fore tarsus. 
which thereby has lost one segment in a large number of forms, also. 
the flattened character of the body, and possibly its elongation. 

In regard to the modifications of the prothorax and the fore pair of 
legs, it is very evident that they may all be related to the one simple. 
change of habit in regard to the place of feeding, which has been. 
assumed. Naturally considerable effort would frequently, perhaps: 
usually, be required to drag their bodies through such narrow places: 
as those in which they lived. Any variation in the line of a more: 





} 
| 
| 
| 
} 


| 
| 
’ 
| 


; 


NO. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 215 





powerful development of the muscles of the fore legs or of any modifi- 
cation of the tarsus which would tend to give a firmer hold in crawling, 
being favorable to the insect, would be preserved by natural selection, 
and thus in the course of many generations the tarsal tooth and the 
powerful, thickened femora of most Tubulifera would be developed. 
There would also be a correlative broadening and flattening of the 
prothorax, which would necessarily result in pushing farther apart the 
fore coxe, which are attached to its hind angles. The logical result of 
these changes is the trapezoidal form of the prothorax always found 
in those species having such thickened femora and well-developed 
tarsal hooks. 

The elongation and flattening of the body are doubtless referable in 
some degree to the same change in the conditions of external life, for 
such a changed form would certainly have been favorable to its pos- 
sessors, and we are surely safe in assuming that the favorable changes 
are the ones which have been preserved, while the unfavorable ones 
have been eliminated. We do not presume to say that all the descend- 
ants of Prothysanopteron followed this suggested line of change; some 
of them certainly may have done so. Neither do we presume that all 
the descendants of those which did follow some such line of develop- 
ment would continue in an even similar environment till all the modi- 
fications which have been named had been accomplished. We have 
just as much reason to expect a change of environment any where along 
the phyllogenetic line as at its beginning, and such changes certainly 
must have taken place. What would be the result if this were the 
ease? Different environments acting upon different subjects, or even 
upon like subjects, would favor entirely different variations. Struc- 
tures which had become developed during the changes subsequent. to 
Prothysanopteron might be lost, but those that had been lost could 
never again be developed in their original form; e. g., tarsal teeth 
and thickened femora might develop and then disappear, but an ovi- 
positor of the original type would never again be found in the Tubu- 
lifera. We would expect then that the descendants of Protubuliferan 
would vary in habits, habitat, form, and life rather than in the tubu- 
lar nature of the terminal segment of the body. Such is indeed the 
case, and so while there do take place great modifications of each 
organ, the presence of the tube is constant. We feel justified in con- 
cluding that the family Phlceothripide has now diverged far more 
widely from Prothysanopteron than has either of the families of the 
Terebrantia. 

_ The two families constituting the suborder Terebrantia resemble 
each other quite closely in many respects. We find between them no 
such marked points of difference as we do between each of them and@ 
the Phleothripide. The principal differences which do exist are 
Mainly various modifications of the same organ, and the most impor- 


ex 
nS 


5 


- 





O16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI,_ 


4 
tant structures which we must notice are the antennz, wings, and ovi- 
positor. What are the chief points of difference that we find in the 
structure of these organs? Only a modification in the structure of 
each organ has taken place. In Holothripide we find always nine | 
seemented antenne, comparatively broad wings, which are rounded at 
their extremities, and have, in the fore wing, the fore fringe and | 
the spines along its veins very weakly developed, a strong ring vein, 
two longitudinal veins, and four or five cross veins, and finally a 
strongly developed ovipositor, which curves upward toward the tip of 
the abdomen. In Thripide we find antenne with from six to eight 
segments, wings which are nearly always slender and quite sharply 
pointed at their tips; that in the fore wing the fore fringe and numer- | 
ous spines along its veins are nearly always well developed, two | 
(sometimes only one) longitudinal veins are present, the ring vein is — 
rarely strongly developed, cross veins are absent or but slight traces 
of them occasionally appear, the ovipositor is moderately well devel- 
oped in most cases, but sometimes is small, weak, and functionless, 
though it is always plainly present and curves downward away from 
the tip of the abdomen. 

Between these two families we shall find it much more difficult to 
decide just what influences may have favored the development of the 
differences noted. Certainly many influences were concerned, and 
they could not have been of such a nature as to favor such radical 
changes as have resulted in the development of the Tubulifera. Rather 
than attempt to outline these varied influences and their probable 
results, we prefer, in this case, to base our conclusions upon the gen- 
eral tendencies which now appear to be acting, and which we may 
reasonably assume to have been acting in the same way during much, 
perhaps all, of the past history of this suborder. 

We have shown that Phlceothripide have diverged more widely from 
Prothysanopteron than have any other members of the order. A 
comparison of the antenne in the three families will aid us in deter- 
mining the order in which the families must be arranged. In the 
Phlcothripide these organs are always eight segmented. The inter- 
mediate segments are, as a rule, much thicker in the middle than at 
the ends, and are sometimes rounded. Stout spines are borne around 
the apical thirds of segments two to six, inclusive, and more slender 
spines are more generally distributed over the last two segments. A 
whorl of small spines stands also around the first third of each segment 
from three to six, inclusive, and simple, stout, specialized sense cones 
are borne at about the outer third of these segments in most cases. 
The antenne of Thripide consist of from six to eight segments, of 
which the intermediate ones are always considerably thicker in the 
middle than at their ends. Stout spines are usually present around 
the apical ends of segments two to five inclusive. More slender spines 


ie 


i 


no. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. Pay 


are generally distributed over segments six, seven, and eight, and 
from three to five whorls of small spines are often discernible around 
the middle half of each intermediate segment. Sense cones are found 
upon segments three to six, inclusive; in some cases these are all sim- 
ple, though in the majority those upon segments three and four are 
double or crescentic in form. The antenne of Molothripide have 
always nine segments, of which the intermediate ones are always much 
elongated and regularly cylindrical in form. Stout spines are found 
only around segment two, while the remaining segments, except the 
basal, are thickly set with small spines, which are irregularly, but 
generally distributed. Of these last two types of antenna, that of 
Thripidze unquestionably approaches more closely to that of Phlceo- 
thripide. Granting that the latter exhibits the extreme degree of 
divergence from the original type, we must place Thripide next, and 
this leaves the antenna of Aolothripide as resembling most closely 
that of Prothysanopteron. 

If we examine the wings in like manner, we shall find that both 
pairs of those of Phlceothripide are similar in form, long, slender, and 
rounded at their ends. Ring vein and cross veins have entirely disap- 
peared. Each wing has only one longitudinal vein, which is median 
and though quite strong at its base usually disappears before the mid- 
dle of the wing. The fringes upon both margins are equally well 
developed and quite similar in all respects. The membrane of the 
wing is smooth and the veins are not set with spines except for about 
three, which usually stand near the base of the vein in the fore wing. 
Thripide have wings which differ in many regards from those of 
Phieothripide just described. The fore and hind winys are dissimi- 
lar in many respects. They are both, however, long, very slender 
(except the fore wing of Parthenothrips), and sharply pointed at the 
tips. The fore wing is always somewhat stronger than the hind wing 
and has more veins and heavier fringes. There are usually present in 
it two fully developed longitudinal veins (sometimes only one), and 
these disappear before reaching the end of the wing. The ring vein, 
though very strong in the one species of Parthenothrips, is weakly 
developed in most species and in some is hardly distinguishable. 
Traces of cross veins can sometimes be seen, but they are never 
strongly developed except the one between the two longitudinal veins 
at the first third of the wing. While entirely absent (with the excep- 
tion named as strongly developed) in most species, there may occa- 
sionally appear individuals having wings which show traces of cross 
veins, and it is very significant that these always occur at just the 
same positions in the wing as are occupied by the cross veins of Molo- 
thripide, which will be more fully described in connection with that 
family. The hind wing has one longitudinal vein which is median, 
but no ring or cross veins are present. Fringes usually occur upon 


918 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 








both margins of both wings, but are ‘Gimerenn upon the two margins, 
the fore fringe being single, shorter, and usually stouter than the hind 
one. The veins of the fore wing alone bear more or less strongly 
developed spines w hich upon the costa may even take the place of the 
fringe. The membranes of both wings are thickly set with very 
minute, microscopic spines. In /Holothripidse we find wings which | 
are long, comparatively broad, and rounded at their extremities. 
Here also the fore and hind wings are dissimilar in many respects, 
the fore wing being stronger and far more heavily veined. The — 
fore wing has always a strongly developed ring vein,“ two longitudinal 
veins which extend throughout the wing and unite with the ring vein — 
on each side of the tip, and four or five well-developed cross veins — 
situated as described on p. 129. The hind wings have no fully devel- 
oped longitudinal vein and no trace of cross or ring veins. No fringe 
is developed on the front margin of the fore wing and only a very 
short, weak fringe is here present upon the hind wing. The veins of — 
the fore wing bear only short spines and the membranes of both wings — 
are thickly set with small spines which, though minute, are larger 
than the similar spines in Thripidee. 

Comparing now these three types of wing point by point, and bal- 
ancing the weight of evidence, we are led to the conclusion that A¥o- 
lothripidx and Phloeothripide stand at the extremes in respect also to 
their wings, with Thripidee somewhere between them but nearer to the 
former than to the latter group. The strong, constantly developed 
ring vein of Aolothripide has become much weaker or entirely dis- 
appeared among Thripidee, while in the widely divergent Phlceothrip- 
ide no trace of it is found. Cross veins are also disappearing in 
Thripidie, and their occasional presence in much the same position in 
the wing as in Aolothripide suggests the idea that they are under- 
going degeneration and that ee process has gone farther in some 
species than in others. In Kolothripide the longitudinal veins join 
the ring vein near the tip, in Thripide they do not reach this point but 
taper out and disappear before the tip, while in Phleeothripide they 

rarely reach beyond the middle of the wing. The microscopic spines 
upon the membranes and the comparative development of the fore 
fringes both point to this same relation of the families. In only one 
character do the wings of the extreme groups closely resemble each 
other—this is in the broadly rounded tips. The Phloeothripide being, 
as we have seen, the most widely divergent group, we must conclude 
that, so far as wings are concerned, those of Molothripide resemble 
most closely the wings of Prothysanopteron. 

In regard to the ovipositor but little will need to be said. It is 
always found more strongly developed in Aolothripide than in Thrip- 





“This heayy ring vein is a most remarkable character and, so far as the writer can 
learn, nothing like it is found in any other order of insects. 


' 


no. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA 







HINDS. 219 





— ee = : - ! = 
‘ids, while in Phlceothripide it is entirely wanting. Moreover, there 
exists in Thripidee a wide variation in the degree of its development, 
as has already been shown. So in this respect, also, we must place our 
three families in the same relation to each other, and if Prothysanop- 
| teron possessed an ovipositor, as we can not doubt from its phyllogeny 
-must have been the case, the well-developed organ found in Molo- 
thripide must very probably approach most closely to the primitive 
form. 

Summarizing the conclusions which we have now reached, we find, 
first, that the Tubulifera (Phlaothripide) have diverged more widely 
from Prothysanopteron than have either of the families of the Tere- 
brantia. Second, a comparative consideration of antennae, wings, and 
ovipositor shows that Afolothripide and Phloeothripide present the 
extreme types of these structures found in the order. Therefore we 
conclude that the AZolothripids most nearly preserve the characters 
present in the Prothysanopteron ancestor of this order. From this it 
appears that the descendants of Prothysanopteron early divided into 
two main groups, one of which diverged widely from the original form 
and has developed the Tubulifera of to-day. The other of these 
groups continued nearly along the original line, but in time it divided 
again and a group (Thripidee) branched off, taking in some respects the 
direction of Phlosothripide, while in the majority of characters it fol- 
lowed a line of its own. The group which still continued most nearly 
in the original direction includes the insects which we now place in 
the family “olothripide. 











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~ 80. 


81. 
82. 
*83. 


84. 


85. 


*102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 


«107. 
108. 
109. 


*110. 
ell: 
112. 

£113. 


114. 
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116. 
7. 


#118. 
2119. 
120. 


pes 


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924 


121. 
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129. 
130. 
Se 


99) 
os. 
99 
oo. 

*134. 


*135. 


136. 
137. 
158. 
159. 
140. 
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142. 
143. 
1434, 
144. 
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147. 
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163 
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Pe VATE REE 


yl. Iv, fig. 23. 

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Wacner, R., Stett. Ent. Zeit., XX VII, 1866, p. 67. 

Dryro.e, E., Annales de la Soe. Ent. de France, 4th ser., VI, 1866, Bulletin, — 
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Watsn, B. D., Pract. Entomol., I, 1867, pp. 19, 49-51. ; 

Sc eee S. H., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XI, 1867, p. 117. 

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Ritey, C. V., 6th Rep’t Ins. of Missouri, 1874, pp. 50-51, fig. 9. 


we 


no. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 925 











166. Beruuns, C. J. 8., 5th Rep’t Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1875, p. 60. 
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179. Macauister, A., Introd. to Animal Morphology and Syst. Zool., Pt. 1, 1876, 
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183. TAscHENBERG, E. L., Brehm’s Thierleben, 2d ed., IX, 1877, Insekten, pp. 567, 
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189. Boprerzky, N., Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool., XX XI, 1878, p. 202. 
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191. Packarp, A. S., Zool. for students and general readers, 1879, p. 370. 
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195. Reuter, O. M., The Scottish Naturalist, V, 1880, pp. 310-311. 
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198. AsHmEAp, W. H., Orange Insects, 1880, p. 72. 
199. Cosrr, A., Comptes Rendus, XCI, 1880, pp. 462-463. 
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203. Packarp, A. S., Half hours with Insects, 1881, pp. 118-119, fig. 86. 
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205. Bennett, Psyche, III, 1881, p. 249. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02———15 





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206. Darwin, C., Psyche, III, 1881, p. 250. 
207. Hart, W. E., Psyche, III, 1881, p. 204. 
208. Kircuner, Psyche, III, 1881, p. 256. 
209. Taraioni-Tozzertr, Annali di Agric. No. 34, scientific part, 1881, pl. 11, “| 
s 





14, 15, Art. V, pp. 120-134. 

210. TARGIONI eee 3ull. Ent. Soe. Ital., XIII, 1881, p. 210. 

211. Ormerop, E. A., Manual Inj. Ins., 1881, pp. XXVU, XXvlil, 86-88, figs. 

212. Howarp, L. ae Rept. Dept. woe , 1881, p. 137. 

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214. Lintner, J. A., First Ann. Rept. Ins. N. Y., 1882, pp. 79, 3038, 332. 

¥215. Krauss, H., Tooluneene Jahresbericht, f. 1880, Pt. 2, 1882, p. 185. 

216. PerGanpr, Th., Entom. Monthly Mag., X VIII, 1882, pp. 235-236. 

217. PerGanpg, Th., Entomologist, XV, 1882, pp. 94-95. 

218. Ossporn, H., Psyche, III, 1882, p. 369. 

219. PerGanpg, Th., Psyche, III, 1882, p. 381. 

220. Lerevre, E., Entomologist, XV, 1882, p. 240. 

221. , Wiener Entomologis. Zeitung, I, 1882, p. 104. 

222. Duncan, P. M., The Transformations of Insects, Sixth thous., 1882, pp. 376-377. _ 

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224. Osporn, H., Trans. Iowa St. Hort. Soc. for 1882, 1883, pp. 205-209. ng 

225. SAUNDERS, Wm., 13th Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1882, 1883, p. 66. 

226. SaunpERs, Wm., Ins. Inj. to Fruits, 1883, pp. 158, 238. i 

227. Packarp, A. S., Guide to Study of Ins., 8th ed., 1883, pp. 69, 80, 378, 547-550. 

228. Packarp, A. S., 3d Rept. U. S. Entom. Commission, Pt. 3, 1883, p. 297. q 

229. Sicarp, Henrt, Elements der Zoologie, 1883, p. 422 

230. Coox, A. J., Ins. Orchard, Vineyard, etc., 1883, pp. 122-123, figs. 100-102. 

231. Osporn, H., Canad. Entomol., X V., 1883, pp. 151-156. ci 

232. Arum and Lanpors, Lehrbuch der Zoologie, 5th ed., 1883, p. 109. 

233. CassELi, Natural History, VI, 1883, pp. 146-147. 

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235. Curtis, J., Farm Insects, 2d ed., 1883, pp. 285-289, 431-482, pl. 5, figs. 7-9, pl. 
0, figs. 14-17. ; 

236. Packarp, A. 8., Amer. Nat., XVII, Pt. 2, 1883, pp. 820-829; Ann. and Mag. 7 
Nat. Hist., (5), XII, 1883, pp. 145-154. 


ftowes 


Ente AY Sa ae! 
- 2 om 





Agams sy 








*237. Costa, A., Atti Acad. Napoli, (2), I, 1883, p. 71 
238, , Entomologisk Tidskrift, 1884, p. 90. : 
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240. Wiruaczit, E., Zeit. f, Wiss. Zool., XL, 1884, p. 633. 
241. Ciaus and Sepawick, Elem. Text- Hose of Zool., 2d ed., Pt. 1, 1884, p. 559; sth 
ed., 1892. 
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243. OrmeERop, K. A., Guide to Methods of Ins. Life, 1884, pp. 30, 149, 150, fig. 
244. TArGIonti- ae Trt, Letta alla R. Acead. dei Georgeult 1885; Di Aleuni Rap-— 
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245. WHITEHEAD, 11th Rep’t to Agr. Dept. Gt. Brit., 1885, pp. 152-153. f 
246. Kirpy, Wm., Text-book of Entomology, 1885, p. 95, 2d ed., revised and aug- y, 
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247. Osporn, H., Coll. Bull. 2, St. Agrl. College, lowa, 1885, pp. 96-97; Trans. Iowa 
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248. Woop, Animate Creation, III, 1885, p. 393. z 
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200. Zirrer, Handb. d. Paleontology, I, Pt. 2, 1885, p. 784, fig. 999. 
251. , Bull, Soc. Ent d. Belgique, 1885, p. lxx. 





Ba) te or 


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#256. 
¥257. 
r 258. 
*259, 
— 260. 
261. 
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*263. 

264. 


265. 
—*266. 


§ 267. 
#268. 
269. 


= 270. 
e271. 
. Lintner, J. A., 40th Rep’t N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist. for 1886, 1887, pp. 96-98. 
S273. 

274. 
| 275. 
=7276. 


272 


277 


~ 


#293. 


- 294, 
#295, 
296, 

297. 








—_ 


: eee i Ae, Eeeond Rep’t Ins. of N. Y., 1885, pp. 29, sas 56. 

. Fernap, C. H., Grasses of Maine, 1885, p. “42. 

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1885, pp. 237-413. 

Werner, H., Handb. d. Getreidebaues, 1885. 

Krauss, H., Peoleecanes Jahresbericht fur 1883, Pt. 2, 1885, p. 160. 

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Hupparp, H. G., Ins. Orange, 1885, pp. 164, 165, fig. 77, pl. x1, fig. 5 

Perez, J., Comptes rendus, de I’ Acad. d. Sciences, CII, 1886, pp. 181-183. 

Krauss, H., Zoologischer Jahresbericht for 1886, Pt. 2, 1886, p. 222. 

BrrrKkau, Px., Archiy f. Naturgeschichte, LII, 1886, Pt. 2, p. 126. 

Taraioni-Tozzerri, Atti d. R. Accad. d. Georgofili, 4th ser., VIII, 1886, pp. 
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Leunis, J., Synopsis d. Thierkunde, 3d ed., II, 1886, pp. 535-537, figs. 

Lrypeman, K., Bull. Soc. Imp. d. Naturalistes d. Moscow, LXII, 1886, No. 4, 
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Scupper, 8. H., Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 31, 1886, p. 63. 

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, New England Farmer, editorial note, June 19, 1886. 

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Lone, Our Insect Foes, 1887, p. 27. 

Nicnotson, H. A., Manual of Zoology, 7th ed., 1887, p. 408. 

Woop, Insects at Home, 1887, pp. 259-260, fig. xxvii. 

Weep, C. M., Prairie Farmer, LIX, 1887, p. 343; Popular Gardening, III, 
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*278. 
#279. 
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281. 
= 282. 
5*283. 
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285. 
286. 
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— 288. 
_ 289. 
5*290. 
a291. 
5* 2.92. 


Berrkav, Pu., Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, LIII, Pt. 2, 1887, p. 131. 

ForBEs, S. A., Centralia, Illinois Sentinel, 1887; Prairie Farmer, June 4, 1887. 

Para pane: J., Annalen d. k. k. Naturh., atrameanes 1887. 

Vv. SCHLECHTENDAL, D., Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., LX, Pt. 6, 1887, pp.551-592. 

Cook, A. J., in W. J. Beal’s Grasses of North America, I, 1887, pp. 375, 401. 

Suretey, A: E., Bull. 10, Miscel. Inform. Roy. Gardens, 1887, p. 18. 

LinpEeMAn, K., Entom. Tidskrift, VIII, Pts. 2-3, 1887, pp. 119-127. 

Ro.ieston and Jackson, Forms of Animal Life, 2d ed., 1888, p. 510. 

Howarp, L. O., Entomol. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

SmirH, Entomol. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

Wesster, F. M., Entomol. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

FLEtTcHER, J.. Entomol. Amer., IV, 1888, p. 152. 

Lintner, J. A., Vinyardist, I], May 1, 1888, p. 113. 

Lintner, J. A., Albany Evening Journal, July 7, 1888, p. 7, col. 3 

BerreGrota, EF. parin es rendus de la Soe. Ent. d. Sean) YO. 98, XXXII, 
1888, p. Xxx. 

Linpreman, K., Die schiidl. Insekten d. Tabak in Bessarabien, 1888, pp. 15, 
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LinpEMAN, K., Psyche, V, 1888, p. 23. 

Hoskins, T. H., Garden and Forest, I, 1888, pp. 476-477. 

Ospory, H., Rep’t U. S. Dep’t Agr. for 1887, 1888, pp. 163-164. 

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228 
298. 
*299. 
300. 
301. 
302. 
303. 


304. 


305. 


306. . 


307. 
308. 
309. 
FLO! 
SMe 
ol2. 
313. 
314. 
B15. 
316. 
Siz: 
*318. 


319. 
320. 
o21. 
322. 
323. 
d24. 


325. 


*326. 


327. 


328. 


329. 
330. 


del. 


oo2. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 
Pita 
Osnorn, H., Ins. Life, I, 1888, pp. 187-142. 
Low, F., Wiener Landwirtschaftliche Zeitung, 1888. 
Packarp, A. S., Entom. for Beginners, 1888, pp. 55, 73, figs. 58, Se 
PACKARD, A. 8., Riverside Nat. Hist., 2d ed., 1888, Appendix. 
FLETCHER, J., 19th Rept Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1888, p. 11. 
Woop, Tu., The Farmer’s Friends and Foes, 1888, pp. 154-159, fig. 
Tarciont-Tozzerri, Cronaca entomologica del’anno 1887, 1888, pp. 3, 5, 8 (or 
5; #; 10): 
Comstock, J. H., Amer. Naturalist, XXII, March, 1888, pp. 260-261. 
TorpAN, K., Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool., XLVI, 1888, pp. 541-620, pls. XXXVI-XXXVII, 
91 figs. 
Lintner, J. A., Fourth Rep’t Ins. of N. Y., 1888, pp. 66, 198. 
Comstock, J. H., Introduction to Entomol., 1888, pp. 123-127, figs. Wd, es 
Ritey-Howarp, Ins. Life, I, 1888, p. 167. 
Unsanin, W. H., Embryology of Physopoda, Moscow, 1888? 
Fiercuer, J., Ann. Rep’t Exp. Farms for 1888, 1889, pp. 59-62. 
Ritey-Howarp, Ins. Life, I, 1889, p. 340. 
NicHotson, Dictionary of Gardening, IV, 1889, pp. 30-31. 
Ritey, C. V., Ins. Life, I, 1889, p. 301. 
Lintner, J. A., 5th Rep’t Ins. of N. Y., 1889, pp. 302, 304. 
Jorpan, K., Journ. Roy. Micros. Soc. Lond., 1889, Pt. 2, pp. 203-204. 
Corrs, E. C., Indian Museum Notes, I, 1889, pp. 109, 110. 


Uzet, J., Puchyinatky (Physopoda), Vesmir. Praha. Boténik osmnicty; Cislo — 


21, 1889, pp. 241, 243, a 245; cislo 22, pp. 258, a 259. 
THaxter, R., Ann. Rep’t Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1889, 1889, p. 180. 
Lane, Lehrbuch d. Vergleich. Anatomie, Pt. 2, 1889, p. 454. P 
Comstock, J. H., Bull. XI, Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta., 1889, p. 131. 
Fiercuer, J., 20th Rep’t Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1890, pp. 2, 3. 
Bropigr, 20th Rep’t Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1890, pp. 8, 9. 
Wesster, F. M., Ins. Life, II, 1890, p. 266. 
Rrtey-Howarp, Ins. Life, II, 1890, p. 338. 
Mayer, P., Zoololischer Jahresbericht for 1888, 1890, pp. 60-62. 
GARMAN, H., Bull. Essex Institute, X XII, 1890, pp. 24-27. 
Ritey-Howarp, Ins. Life, ITI, 1890, pp. 34, 77, 128. 
GARMAN, H., Ins. Life, III, 1890, p. 83. 
Garman, H., Canad. Entomol., X XII, 1890, pp. 215, 216. 
Forses, S. A., 16th Rep’t St. Entom. of IIL, 1890, p. ix, pl. v, fig. 4. 
Kriicer, Berichte d. Versuchs-Station f. Zackerrohr in West Java, 1890. (No- 
ticed editorially in Exp. Sta. Record, Dec., 1891.) 


3. Mayet, V., Les Insects de la Vigne, 1890. 
. Hyarr and Arms, Guides for Science Teaching, No. VIIT, 1890, pp. 115-114, 


fig. 62. 


5. OrmeRoD, E. A., Manual of Inj. Ins., 2d ed., 1890, pp. 97-99, 384. 

3. ScuppER, 8S. H., Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., XIII, 1890, pp. 371-374, figs. 

. Lintner, J. A., 7th Rept. Ins. of N. Y., 1891, pp. 316, 366, 384. 

. Osporn, H., Canad. Entom., X XIII, 1891, pp. 93-96. 

9. Epwarps, 21st Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1891, p. 103. 

. Forses, 8. A., 17th Rept. Ins. Illinois, 1891, pp. xiii, xv. 

- Matty, F. W., Bull. 24, U. S. D. A., Div. of Entom., 1891, pp. 30-31. 

. Lane, Textbook of Comparative Anatomy, Transl. by H. M. and M. Bernard, 


I, Pt. 1, 1891, p. 440. 


. Ritey-Howarp, Ins. Life, IIT, 1891, p. 301. 
. Wesster, F. M., Ins. Life, III, 1891, p. 453. 
. Rirzema Bos, Tierische Schiidl. u. Nutzl., 1891, pp. 574-578, fig. 349. 











orgs 





7 No. 1810. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 229 
346. Taratont-Tozzerri, Animali ed Insetti del Tobacco in Erbal del Tobacco Seceo, 


347. 


348. 
349. 
#350. 


*351, 


302. 
353. 
304. 
355. 
356. 
357. 
308. 
309. 
360. 
361. 
362. 
363. 
*364. 
*365. 
366. 
367. 
368. 
369. 


370. 
371. 
372. 


373. 
o74. 
375. 
376. 
377. 
*378. 
379. 
380. 
381. 
382. 
383. 
384. 
385. 
386. 
387. 
*388. 
389. 
390. 
*391. 


392. 


1891, pp. 222-224. 

Bouts, J., Die Mundwerkzeuge d. Physapoden, Inaug. dissert. GOttingen, 1891, 
36 pp. 

Baker, Amer. Florist, VII, 1891, p. 168, fig. _ 

Weep, C. M., Insects and Insecticides, 1891, p. 95. 

Reuter, O. M., Meddal. af. Societas pro Fauna et “lora Fennica, X VIT, 1891, 
pp- 161-167. 

Hormann, J. H., Verein f. vaterl. Nattirkunde in Wurtemberg, XLVIT, 1891, 
pp. 24-28. 

Coquitert, D. W., Ins. Life, IV, 1891, p. 79. 

FERNALD, C. H., Bull. 19, Mass. Exp. Sta., 1892, p. 116. 

Ritry-Howarp, Ins. Life, 1V, 1892, p. 354. 

Riury, C. V., Ins. Life, V, 1892, p. 18. 

Osporn, H., Ins. Life, V, 1892, pp. 112-118. 

FietcHer, J., Ins. Life, V, 1892, pp. 124, 125. 

Forsss, 8. A., Ins. Life, V, 1892, pp. 126, 127. 

Wesster, F. M., Ins. Life, V, 1892, p. 127. 

TownsEenp, C. H. T., Canad. Entom., X XIV, 1892, p. 197. 

ScHNEIDER, Book of Choice Ferns, I, 1892, pp. 170, 172. 

Kosus, J. D., Bull. 43, Proefstation, Oost-Java, 1892, figs. 1-4. 

GituETTE, C. P., Ann. Rept. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1892, 1892, p. 36. 

Rizey, C. V., Bull. 39, Smithsonian Inst., Part F, 1892, pp. 18-19, fig. 22. 

TASCHENBERG, E. L., Brehm’s Thierleben, IX, 1892, pp. 609-611, 2 figs. 

Criaus and Sepewick, Elem. Textbook of Zool., 4th ed., I, 1892, p. 559. 

Lintner, J. A., Country Gentleman, Oct. 27, 1892, p. 809. 

Ormerop, E. A., Textbook of Agric. Entom., 1892, pp. 33, 195-197. 

Tararont-Tozzerri, Animali ed Insetti del Tobacco in Erbe e del Tobacco Secco, 
1892, pp. 9, 10. 

Luaaerr, O., Bull. 28, Univ. of Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1893, pp. 120-121. 

GREEN, Indian Museum Notes, IJ, 1898, No. VI, p. 172. 

Korps, H. J., Einfiithrung in die Kentniss der Insekten, 1893, pp. 211, 225, 
284, 287, 598. 

Lintner, J. A., 8th Rept. Ins. of N. Y., 1893, pp. 254, 255. 

Fiprcuer, J., Ann. Rept. Exp. Farms for 1892, 1893, p. 145. 

Bruner, L., Rept. Neb. St. Bd. Agr. for 1893, 1893, p. 457, fig. 96. 

Woopworta, C. W., Rept. Agr. Exp. Sta. Univ. Calif. for 1891-1892, 1893. 

Davis, G. C., Bull. 102, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1893, p. 39, fig. 10. 

JABLONOWSKI, J. Potfuz. Termes. Kozl., XXII, 1893, pp. 17-24. 

GILLETTE, C. P., Bull. 24, Col. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1893, pp. 13-16. 

Lintner, J. A., Ninth Rept. Ins. of N. Y., 1898, pp. 377, 445. 

Smirn, J. B., Ann. Rept. N. J. Agr. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1893, 1893, p. 441. 

GILLETTE, C. P., Ann. Rept. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1893, 1893, p. 55. 

Hoskins, Psyche, VI, 1893, p. 557. 

Ritry-Howarp, Ins. Life, VI, 1893, p. 45; 1894, pp. 211, 348. 

Osgporn, H.,.Ins. Life, VI, 1893, pp. 74, 80. 

AsHMEAD, W. H., Ins. Life, VII, 1894, p. 27. 

Tryzom, F., Entom. Tidskr., XV, Pts. 1, 2, 1894, pp. 41-58. 

Bruner, L., Ann. Rept. Neb. St. Bd. Agr. for 1893, 1894. 

McMuraicu, J. P., Textbook of Invertebrate Morphology, 1894, pp. 509, 510, 526. 

Davis, G. C., Bull. 116, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1894, pp. 62, 63. 

JABLONOWSKI, J., Termes Fuzetek, XVII, 1894, pp. 44-47, pl. m1; pp. 95-99, 
pl. tv. 

Wesster, F. M., Ins. Life, VII, 1894, p. 206. 


*394. 
395. 


396. 


397. 


398. 
399. 
400. 


401. 
402. 
405. 
404. 
405. 
406. 
407. 
408. 
409. 
*410, 
*411. 
412. 
*413. 
414. 
415. 
416. 


434. 
*435, 
436. 


457. 


458. 


2 Grrrmgand Lows, Bull. 83, new series, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1894, pp. 680-682, 


5. Trysom, F., Lilljeborgs Festskrift, 1896, pp. 213-229. 

5. Lapureav, A., La Nature Ann., XXIV, 1896, p. 80, 1 fig. 

. SLINGERLAND, M. V., Rural New Yorker, LV, 1896, p. 561. 

. GarmAN, H., Amer. Naturalist, XXX, 1896, pp. 591-593, 1 pl. 

. TryBom, F., Zool. Centrabl., IV, No. 12, 1896, p. 419. 

. THEOBALD, F. V., Insect Life, 1896, pp. 200, 210, 211 (London). 
. Frank, Die tierparasitiiren Krankheiten d. Pflanzen, 1896, pp.1381-134, fig. 35. 
32. Smirn, J. B., Economic Entomology, 1896, pp. 101-108, fig 73. 
. Zeuntner, L., Overzicht van de Ziekten van het Suikerriet op Java 2 deel. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXYI 





pl. 11; also in 13th Ann. Rept. N. Y. Exp. Sta. for 1894, 1895, pp. 758-760, pl. 
Reuter, E., Finska Landtbruksstyrelsens Meddelanden, 1894, No. VII. 
Durry-PERGANDE, Trans. St. Louis Acad., V, 1894, pp. 533-542, pls. x, x1. 4 
Nace, Wu., Biol. Zool., X VIL, 1894, pp. 67-182; Summary in Biol. Centrabl., 
XIV, pp. 547-551. { 
Wesster, F. M., Ohio Farmer, Aug. 2, 1894, p. 97; Aug. 23, 1894, p. 157; 
Nov. gal 1895, p- Biloe 4 
SMITH, : B., Rept. Entomol. N. J. Agr. Col. Exp. Sta. for 1893, 1894, p. 441. 
Craw, A., Fourth Bien. Rept. St. Bd. Hort. Calif. for 1893-94, 1894, pp. 87, 88, 
Woopwortu, C. W., Fourth Bien. Rept. St. Bd. Hort. Calif. for 1893-94, 1894, ~ 
p. 140. 3 
3ruNER, L., Introd. to Entomology, 1894, pp. 9, 44, 185, 189, 186, 202, 295. 
Bruner, L., Rept. Neb. St. Hort. Soc. for 1894, 1894, pp. 163, 214, fig. 82. 
CocKERELL, T. D. A., Bull. 15, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1895, p. 71. 
OsporN-MALLY, Bull. 27, Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta., 1895, pp. 159-142. 
Wesster, F. M., Bull. 58, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta., 1895, pp. xxxiii, xxxiv, fig. 3. 
Ormerop, E. A., 18th Rept. Obs. on Inj. Ins., 1895, p. 41. 
Corrs, E. C., Indian Museum Notes, III, 1895, p. 48. 3, 
Comsrock, J. H., Manual for the Study of Ins., 1895, pp. 119-120, figs. 137, 138. 
Uzex, H., Monographie d. Ord. Thysanoptera, 1895, 500 pp., 10 pls. 
. Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, LXI, Pt. 2, 1895, p. 214. 
UzEL, H., Zool. Centrabl., III, No. 24, ee pp. 845-848. . 
Trysom, F., Entom. Tidskr., X VI, Pts. 1-2; 1895, pp. 1o7—194. rf 
Buorescu, Feuille Natural, X XV, 1895, p. 76. 
PEerRGANDE, TH., Ins. Life, VII, 1895, pp. 390-395. 
Suarp, D., Cambridge Nat. Hist., V, 1895, pp. 172, 173, 175. 
Lintner, J. A., 49th Rept. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1896, pp. 241-250; also, ~ 
as 11th Rept. Ins. of N. Y. for 1895, 1896, pp. 241- 250, 








7. Davis, G. C., Special Bull. No. 2, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1896, au 13-14, fig. 4. . 
. Beaca, A. M., Proc. Iowa Acad. Se., 1895, III, 1896, pp. 214-22 


9. Osporn, H., Proc. Iowa Acad. Se., 1895, ILI, 1896, p. 228. € 
. Brrerots, E., Ann. Soc. Ent. Beene XL, 1896, pp. 66-67. ~ 
. PERGANDE, TH., Entomological News, VII, 1896, pp. 63-64. @ 


2. Hopxrns-Rumsey, Bull. 44, W. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1896, pp. 270-271. 
23. Trypom, F., Ofy. Ak. Forh., 1896, pp. 618-626. : 
. Tryzom, F., Ent. Tidskr., X VII, 1896, pp. 87-104, figs 1-4. Abstract in Amer. 









Nat., XX XI, 1897, pp. 545-546, 4 figs. 


Vijanden nit het Dierenryk. Arch. Java-Suikerind, 1897, 10 pp. See also 
Zool. Centrabl., 1898, p. 803. 
Brirron, W. E., 20th Rept. Conn. Exp. Sta. for 1896, 1897. 
JapLonowskl, J., Potfuz. Termes. Kozl., 1897, pp. 146-157. 
SoMERVILLE, Wm., Farm and Garden Ins.,1897, pp. 60, 61, fig. 20. 
Comstock, J. H., Insect Life, 1897, pp. 74, 75, fig. 57. 
Srrring, F. A., 15th Ann. Rept. N. Y. St. Exp. Sta. for 1896, 1897, pp. 612-613 





zg 
> 


439. 
440. 
441. 

¥449, 
443. 
444, 
445. 

#446. 

#447, 
448. 


449. 
450. 


451. 
452. 
453. 
454. 


455. 
456. 
*457. 
458. 


459. 
460. 
461. 
462. 
*463, 


464. 
465. 
466. 
467. 
468. 
469, 


470. 
471. 
472. 


473. 
474, 
475. 
476. 
477. 
¥478. 
 *479, 
> 480. 


) 
| 
1 No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. fol 





QuaintTance, A. L., Bull. 42, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1897, pp. 552-564. 

Pacxarp, A. 8., Zoology for high schools and colleges, 10th ed., 1897, p. 348. 

Tapuin, W. H., Garden and Forest, X, Mar. 17, 1897, p. 106. 

Rotrs, P. H., 10th Ann. Meet. Fla. St. Hort. Soc., 1897, p. 97. 

Ecxstern, Forstliche Zoologie, 1897, p. 566. 

SrrRIneE, F. A., Bull. 115, N. Y. St. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1897, p. 70. 

SLINGERLAND, M. V., Rural New Yorker, May 8, 1897, p. 309. 

Lucas, Ros., Archiy f. Naturgeschichte, LXI, 1897. 

Acioqug, A., Fauna de France, IT, 1897, Orthopteres. 

Revrer, O. M., Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., X VII, 1897?, No. 2, 69 pp., fig. 
Abst. in Zeitsch. f. Entom., V, Dec. 15, 1900, p. 387. 

Howarp, L. O., Bull. 18 (new ser.), U. S. Dept. Agr., 1898, p. 101. 

Lrytner, J. A., 51st Ann. Rept. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, p. 363. Also 
in 13th Rept. Inj. Ins. of N. Y., 1898, p. 363. 

Rotrs, P. H., 11th Ann. Meet. Fla. St. Hort. Soc., 1898, pp. 34, 38. 

Putnam, F. A., New England Farmer, July 2, 1898. 

Burra, P., Riv. Patol. Veget., VII, No. 1-4, 1898, pp. 94-108. 

QuarntTance, A. L., Bull. 46, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1898, pp. 77-114, 12 figs.; 
Abst. in Exp. Sta. Record, X, No. 9, pp. 867, 868. 

Packarp, A. 8., Textbook of Entomology, 1898, p. 597. 

Howarp, L. O., Yearbook, U. 8. Dept. Agr. for 1898, 1899, pp. 142, 148, fig. 27. 

Matsumura, M., Zool. japon., III, No. 1, 1899, pp. 1-4, 1 pl. 

Burra, P., Riv. di Patol. Veget. VII, Nos. 5-8, 1899, pp. 129-135, 136-142, pl. v, 
figs. 1, 2, 3; pl. vim, figs. 19-22 

Bruner, L., Ann. Rept. Neb. St. Hort. Soc. for 1898, 1899. 

Puppet, M., Schr. nat. Ges. Danzig. N. F., X, 1899, pp. 46-48. 

CarPenter, G. B., Insects, their Structure and Life, 1899, pp. 183-185, fig. 100. 

SHarp, D., Cambridge Nat. Hist., VI, 1899, pp. 526-531, fig. 254 

DEL GueErcio, G., Atti della R. Acad. dei Georgofili, X XII, No. 1, 1899, pp. 
50-76, 6 figs. Also in Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., X XX, pp. 165-186, 6 figs; also in 
Nuove Relazioni della R. Sta. di Ent. Agraria, No. 1, 1899, pp. 207-233, 5 figs. 

Perrit, R. H., Bull. 175, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1899, pp. 343-345, figs. 1, 2. 

QuarnTance, A. L., Bull 20 (new ser.), U. S. Dept. Agr., 1899, p. 59. 

Wesster, MAtty, Bull. 20 (new ser.), U. S. Dept. Agr., 1899, pp. 69-70. 

Trysom, F., Ent. Tidskrift, XX, 1899, pp. 194-196, 267-277. 

SCHENKLING, S., Illust. Zeitsch. f. Entom., V, No. 1, Jan., 1900, p. 9. 

Hinps, W. E., 37th Ann. Rept. Mass. Agr. College, 1900, pp. 81-105, 4 pls., 
33 figs. 

Smirn, J. B., Rept. Entom. Dept. N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1899, 1900, pp. 427, 428. 

FrerNALD-Hinps, Bull. 67, Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1900, pp. 1-12, 1 pl. 

Reuter, E., Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., XIX, 1900, pp. 16, 17, 68-75, 92- 
94, 97-99, 115, 116, 117, 120. 

Tipe, R., Die Geradfliigler Mitteleuropas, 1901, pp. 278-298, pl. xx1mt, 7 figs. 

Garman, H., Bull. 91, Kentucky Exp. Sta., 1901, pp. 42-45. 

Leonarpt, G., Gli Insetti Nocivi, IV, 1901, pp. 614-657. 

Wesster, F. M., Journ. Columbus Hort. Soe., X VI, No. 3, 1901, 7 pp., 4 figs. 

Hinps, W. E., Proc. 17th Ann. Cony. Soc. Amer. Florists, 1901, pp. 90-92. 

Lucas, R., Archiv f. Naturgesch., LXV, ii, 1901, p. 900. 

Reuter, O. M., Ofv. Finska Vetensk. Forh. Helsingfors, XLIIT, 1901, p. 214. 

CHITTENDEN, F. H., Florists’ Review, April 17, 1902, pp. 738-740. 


INDEX TO GENERAL SUBJECTS. 


Introduction ......-..--22--- 2006-25 = eee aie ie = eee ere 
History of Thysanoptera ...-..-.------------------+-+++--+--+-++----++-------- 
Systematic position of Thysanoptera....-.-----------------+-------+-+------- 
Collection of Thysanoptera -..-.-.-------------------------++---+----------- 
Preservation ax Outing eo See eee nna 
External anatomy....---------<-- <5 =25 525 fee oo oe 
Integument: adult, larva, pupa -.--.-------------------------------------- 
Head antenns 22225. ee oe Se oe ee eee ee ee eee 
Organs of vision: eyes, ocelli....-..-------------------------+------------- 
Mouth parts: labrum, maxillze, labium, mandible, maxillary lobes, other mouth 

structures, movements of mouth parts ----------------------------------- 
Thorax: prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax, variation in structure of ptero- 

thorax invwingless species 2222 92 = = ea ee 


Appendages of the thorax . :=--5. -- 22-222 - S25 32 oe ih ie 
Legs: coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, spines, bladder, bladder mech- 
anism, other organs of doubtful function- <=> === eae eee y 
Wings: venation, fringing, spines upon wings, taking flight, coordination of 
the wingsreduction of the win@S-2 2-2-2... === =e ee 
Abdomen: Terebrantia, Tulbulitera -22--2e-00- esse eee eee eee 
Sexual charaeters: £35); < 52. scr soe = rte 
Terebrantia: female, ovipositor; male’ 322-2 ee ee ee 
Tubulitera: female; male copul atoms es sae 
Deformities 2 3s. 26525 12.22 e once se eeee eet cee Ae eee ee eee 
Reproduction: bisexual reproduction, unisexual reproduction .....-.-------- 
Dissemination. Loc... 26s. ae Soc eee ok Se ee ee ee 
Development: oviposition, egg, embryology, emergence of the larva, larval 
stage, moits, nymph or pupa, hibernation, length of life..........---.---- 
Keonomié considérations-:.- 2.2.2. i222-c20 es =e ss eee eee eee 
Injurious forms: feeding habits,.2:2.2 2221-2 33-0) eee 
Beneficial forms: predaceous thrips, flower fertilizers. .......--------------- 
Natural checks: insects and acari, etc., plant parasites, rain.....-.---------- 
Artificial checks: insecticides, cultural methods -...........---------------- 
Characters of Thysanoptera ..2..22)..22) 2eee eee ee 
Method of measurements |... + -1-. 2.322 55) Se ee 
Individual variations <2... pe 
Synopsis'or suborders amd tamales ye ees eee eer 
Characters of Terebrantia.. 2.22. j.02 ice ee te ee oe ee 
Characters of Aeolothripide —. 2... 222.2222 jee ee 
Characters:‘of Thripidee ...2.. -.. 3.252 2522 eee 
Synopsis of Thripide) ..-... ss. ..<c5.2 eee See ee ee 
Characters of Tubulifera (Phiceothripidss).. — 22. 22 esas. mee se 
Synopsis of Phloothripids-.. . 252.5222. a eee 
Unclassified ‘descriptions: - .. 2.2.2.2 2 322 oy see 
Fossil Thysanoptera .... 502 22.2.2 5. ees 
General considerations...- ....- 2 .....c02 s-seb oe ee ee ree 
Bibliography... -- 2.2502... 22.0 n se ee 


Index to families, genera and species 
Index :to foed plants: ...... 2.22. 52 2 


Explanation of plates... 2... 2.2.2. Sscc eee Sark nl eget ea cee eM ee eee 
232 





{INDEX TO. FAMILIES, GENERA, AND SPECIES. 


Family names are in small caps. 
names are in small type. 


Generic names begin with a capital, and specific 
Synonyms are italicized. 


References to descriptions are in heavy type. 


Page. 
Acanthothrips ---.----- 188, 196, 198, 199 
LONI Lee eee te aioe ei 168, 169 
PROMO TERT TDA Sache ese ere aes = 87, 
4 89, 90, 93, 99, 102, 103, 104, 108,109, 
124, 126, 186, 216, 217, 218, 219 
SA olothrips -2-.=---- 96, 102, 127, 128, 130 
Pulenrodess= ste eee secs 2s--sec= = 118 
ATT, Se ae EO an I ee 179 
PUN nities eee ee ee ee thse 191 
ampliventralis..-...------------- 202 
Baya phothrips. 2 =- 22 4.-+: 107, 111, 112, 
; 115, 118, 119, 129, 132, 133, 160, 161 
BiCMOS a ne. ere aja Wala See 134, 186 
UmilvoWarsy 0S) sees seseneeoserectce 188 
SSG a renee 105, 111 
Aptinothrips --. 90, 111, 124, 133, 166, 167 | 
aspersus ....-----.-------------- 205 
Prsreiobid os S22 hse oe se 175 
FiCieeeoe ee Sey. fs Soste oe acs ce 119 
PUIG ees eR SS aes 175 
SURG acer eres Ste re eerie = 139 
recrelniseee pe ser oe ey ele 191, 192 
BpieOlOriaso este tan cece aes. a ae 130, 132 
ele igee 2s? aed es oe as cee 170 
We RIEMNG etstey rs es oe So ae 82,110 
BRE tee Se anc eis 79, 209 
Baye to liee oa Ae Soe 2: 118 
mephalothirips.2..--2.~----s+- 188, 194 
Beer UUs ees ee a ede 138, 208 
GIR Ieee ea oes as 2 eae eas eee 172 
Sairothrips 2.5. -..----- 90, 95, 98, 105, 
108, 112, 125, 126, 183, 134, 136, 137 
BESEU sop ee o.oo a eee 119 
Brrelauis 2203 aoe See -emt en 141 
NETS See Rie ele ke carpe 81 
BEOURT IPS OPE re ae he oasis 127, 128 
communis ...-.---------++-- 81, 179, 180 
Romine releases sere afore = celace 206 
Sconnatticornis.......-.----- 90, 166, 167 
STN GUIS Ne Mey yee i fp aiete eee <= 133, 136 
meryptothrips. 5.2. -.-.--<----' 188, 205 
mOynipide .........--++---------- 118 


‘e 


© 


y 





Page. 

Giracsenies be eese aes SOs ide Lp LG 
HmMplsayeteet ) 22 ee oe. hse. 119 
Entomophthora.2— .-------+-2-s 119 
Hury Gotlps: o25'.2)2 ses === 187, 202, 203 
ietaT Ss UE oe Se eae eee 116, 

120, 138, 147, 148, 152, 154, 155, 156 
Rb Chameeer-menee eee ne ee tee meets S 210 
fanciapeninise ss 32 oS. 2 - . Se 168,171 
FAS CIAL ee ce tes | ara ets oe 127, 128, 174 
fISClA LISS eae See 127, 132, 168,174 
HOMO Ae eae eee Se 168, 172 
fOssilig yaar ee eee 212 
fiserpeninisy. 202. ef ene eae see 159 
RUSCUS eee ee See oe ees 148, 154 
PURSY Pili sept Ae een see eee 118 
SEAsshi impasse cae ee 120, 161, 165 
Gyrepieiasee-" 23. fs<Se5-2e 119 
heemorrhoidalis -=--------- 111, 168, 169 
ICIS pee oes. ae See 82,176 
Heliethnipss =.= sos. fssoesaree 87, 91, 97, 

111, 113, 133, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174 
iidolothnips:S: 2+ 2225. <222<=-5- 188, 206 
NGO UALISe set aoe eine ee = = 132, 146 
HABIGNGSUS Aa ot aes Se oe ee ee 119 
Limothrips ....-- 79, 80, 161, 179, 183, 208 
Pamothripsys.: 2. s-2 =.<- 90, 133, 188, 159 
Inithadotheips:)-2-22.-2-—---s-~ 210, 211 
longipennmis: 1.5 -8—- == J=22-- esse 134 
longistylosas. = 2s -2-<-- 2-25-=-= 160 
Macresportum): .23-2..----2=---- 119 
MAGUN Aen ree me ae ee 119 
magnafemoralis ---..------------ 199 
TEES Ge Nees coat 155, 156 
Malacoinmips sas eos 246 cs 188, 200 
LINEN eee res oe pera eat oie a sel 79, 209 
TAL Cee ee ee eerie erecta im = 119 
TANT CALA See ence aeictciea\ reer 154 
MANICALUIG: soos] a= See acim a 105, 133, 134 
Aieoaliae es oso eae nae s<s= se 119 
Melanothripes. sos.) --<----~'=- 210 
TAREE eM ee ere ions emer oie 119 
ESO Gane oo et eee aneeees 118, 158 








i 


934 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. XXVI | 
Page. Page 
ONVORA {o.oo 155 -|) 6=maecul ata ee 157. 
WERVOSUBC = ce bos se eee 148, 155 || 6-maculatucs = ses ee 118, 157 
Ripert ele. os 188 | sphaerosperma:=.2 222222 >ss see 119 | 
PP aim BS we coe ee ee 188 | striata:? S525 a ee nee 81,179 
nied veritris cs. Gas Se eee 154 | striata 2-2 sa eeeeoe eee 81, 161 
Aaa ieee he pet eee 108; 112,133; 18% |: striatusse = eee ee ee 179 
Dedontalig oe eee 148, 152,154. | striatus. 2a eee eee 107, 111, 
onion thrips: 0 2ee 2s sees 120, 179, 183, 184 112, 115, 118, 119, 120, 132, 160, T@mS) 
OshOriil 22 to cnt eee ee 202,208 | styliferd.-— << Soe nee ee 166 — 
Palzcothirips sae. ase ese 211,212 Syrphus Sa 119 . 
PONG Se nee ae Scien eee 157, 158:'|-talael > 2 ee ee Sif. | 
Parthenothrips ES a aot at oranades 87, init 116, Lely 119, 120, NGS 180, 183 | 
90; 91. 102, 111, 133, 175,076,217 |) PaarPipa = sso. 79, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 
perpandel... 2( 2.2. sete seere 197 96, 99, 102, 103, 104, 108, 116, 118, _ 
perplekat:. See eer eae 184 124, 132, 133, 186, 216, 217, 218, 219 
perplexus ee NE eee 108, Le 7) 184 Thrips ye aa ed 79, 80, 81, 118, 127, | 
PHL@OTHRIPIDE ....--------- 87, 89, 90, 134, 148, 145, 146, 148, 152, 155,156, | 
93,96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 114, 157, 158, 161, 166, 168, 169, 176, 183 
118, 186, 187, 215, 216; 2L7, 21S \009 (Ehnips2.< se eee ee eee Sir 
Phimothirypss > sAgees. cones 161, 188, 189 82, 108, 111, 112, 116, 117, 118, Tae 
Phileothripsiss2 222 saves cee lo: 120, 1383, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 209 
82; 110, 118, 188, 195, 196; 197, 209 | TamrpsipEs T 2-2 eeis ee Sir 
Py lloxeras isn anak eee enone 118 || Tisgepsrres’ 22) _ 2) 25ers 81 
puydloxene coo. noe e eee 79, 118. | “Trichethrips 2.2 = oessae 187,191, 192 
IPVSMPT, 25022 5 JOS ee were 81 |*8-fasciatas: 22 se ee eee 128 
IPHYSSEODESS oe Sou saa 2 eee Sl | trtfasctata, a sae ee 128 
Physapus: 22205 Vso eee 147 | txtfasciattiss 22325 See eee 118, 209 
PM BOPUS 2 SIo ee 8 Os 815147, 154,955: | @riphleps (se ao eee 119 
OCPROGUSE ser: Se A eee SOG | ntnitiet= sere es eee 79, 179, 183, 208 
Rseudothmipseesss se ee eee 132133146 |) tritici) =o eee 116, 120, 147, 148, 154 
Raphidothripstsss=esse. ses 133, 158,159 |:‘Trombidiumis.- 22. <5 45s=eeeeee 119 
redtspider® 0 ees. et Deel ee 118, 158 || ‘waelis. S25. 2 a See ae 196 
MUA Meee Ee eee ak a ee GGi4| Eviarstaloils eee 141, 148, 145 
MUMS pee Pe 90;.111, 124, 266; 167 | verbaseiess< 23 ae ee ee 188, 189 
colo thnipseser sae Sea eee 133,157 -| V ESITARSES- ¢2<2 =e ee 81, 82 
SCyMUNUIS ah tee aes eee 119+) ‘vetusta..22 = ..3-2 tS eee ae 211 
SCCHEORTIAN aids ee ae ee 209 | wheat thrips::= sees see 148, 183 
SEMCONTIPS =F Seon. A 184 +] *ytleeses 2 ae ee 194 
Sericothrips..------ 885.102, 133.91419143 |vzonatugis= = eee ee 200 


INDEX TO FOOD PLANTS. 


Generic hames begin with capitals, specific and common names with small letters. 


Scientific names are italicized. 





Page. 
VAD LCS tne as oN er alee Pie 208 
PACIUL ULE Cena) oa etre Ones epee hs Aen 189 | 
BLNBOURCU ern Ae Reg oe ee ag 173 | 
PA OO DUTT aire eae oats an epee 162 | 
MOMS Rca DAN ea) eis: Me aes 162 | 
eM a teeth eal bea ac ae 162 | 
suielt eer el erty ee eet Sao Oe 129, 150 | 
ALLL CO RASS esp rare on ak SL 150 | 
PALO URS Se aa ae Pe ek Ene 173 


Page. 
apple 2.5. che Sa eee 150, 181. 
apricot: 2: 2 52 ees oe eee 153 
AQUabiCd s <see 02 eee eee 162 
arachniferd!;-2 Saeee See eee 162, 
AT GhGix. 28 eee 173 
Arn Nenaleruit 22 = ee ee 162 
Anite. cp paneer 173 
asparagus.:0 43" e eae See 150, 
Aspidium 328 eee 170, 














ie 
No. 1310. NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 2355 
: Page. Page. 
Tee rer ne Pate pal OOS Eumiuses ee ee ee oe 162 
BRE Se oe eee eco Ste 1G2r is Mnelish pea s/f. 1 2.0.2 bes. ece 150 
TES ae ae Oh ME RCCHELES een cee oe ee 181 
Barner re oy. ee BA WO MRE OCIS ee fof ak Se a ais 2 Soe on wk 162 
BEIT Leet as he ee SS fle ENRON ORR eras Wn ee ona see keke es 181 
ertnipeeens eee Cot Nees IS OS EIEMEPICHUUEIS eee eae oe ook tee ee 173 
ere ee a 1S UAC eg 21: | a ee ee ee aS 170 
Memrptweed ...222.5.22.222...2-2- ISAO: i estUCa e. = 225252 eke seks 138, 141, 162 
reeR iy cos ou Lb eck SOM StiEnausss oan es Nes ka Dee 173, 177 
Beenicet ower........-.--.-.--:- UGH | eOntOsOk mae tse ee te 195 
BPE ee ae en EST | RMADERCONS-OONG@o. = = =e Sas aaa se oe 162 
Gis ie Ser er an et. 8 NODE A elChenie eens tee ce cane oe the ee 162 
SIP Noee ee oo ere See ete IS2EIsTOUr-OLClotkess oaks Sete eee 181 
Bara eAG oc hee a eS ee OMS OT MG ONCE eae aa fen 2s oe ee 173 
MNECCOID 2 Sls eet bs TLS 2 HOOs | pardon leek: 5.26 520 5. 226 <5 See 181 
BEERS i oe kee sac sue ioe HSI bSs> | gtomeraids ios 222 bai kn 2s 245524 2 185 
Ree oe i Et te 162i Mepldenrod.=-2.:i.iss<.25: 150, 181, 195 
BETES SE ee ee ie OS Sie eG OSR Liens Se are cee eee 173 
TID Sg aa Se a 1SEs | orandyiora 2... 2.,.2225-202h52-<2%2 173 
LYRE i ES Es aL ea ee MODS Per Syke ae a ele eee i wae 206 
UTD SSS a ae 1162 | grass' 2 ..2- 146, 155, 160, 172, 185, 192, 198 
Been Rts we OP ee oe, OOn |S emaSSed= eee eee oe ers, 129, 132, 135, 
EE a ee 137 145, 150, 156, 167, 185, 189, 197, 205 
BSc om 2 aoe a. eek hs isc es 1814 | shackpentye .c. $= 22<.=a2$sece2 145 
BEBO Wet: © eae con gait Se ies Sie ehandnackmae = te a son cea ee 150 
EE Se) a Sere catia 3 PZ PRIGNE StALG See =e ee cs eee 170 
R= 2 Ps 2 oe be Hi aie Cig 1s iso i ebawinonm lite. eh es oe 145 
I-A eek ee eines ne ee ne oe eieal-allexees saat eee C St oo Ge oe 150, 181 
|. > ae ie ees ilps) FHOMOLO pe Saas <2 225 toh -sa2se eee 150 
RECs ce See x Be oe es SHE | SCCCTOPUMILG. 22 en S22 eee ese ee 162 
BMRIUNCMUM ©. - 2222022552522. iia | shtoneysuckle: = 2222222222 sess 2 150, 181 
EEE ES ae a ee POs AOD eee hee oes Bo See ae 158 
MER rea oe eres Ser Sc SS tee Ay) AY OPONGED a 2.223 5 ssk cusses 150, 173 
mere OO eI 30) ligand. 15OF SI 97-| Wnermiss coos ss oniccccnecsessee525< 162 
HOSUR os <a Be esis Lecisees Sete LPORIMOpSe teas seseceesen sss cst eee 208 
ML RUSSU Mine aise oe Ok te See ee 162 | Jamestown-weed ....-.--..--.-.- 181 
Bemealower = 222.22... 2.2.i2222 SOS iba |p SOTA eee a Sete Se Pe ee 181] 
RIE a erg a ee Bs oe L5G S5s| CINE Crassees os es sealers Se 120, 165 
BITING OO pe ios eee WSs Rei UnU Genistein ea ee 208 
BAB STISS = ere he aaa tines Sts kales sae ate vem eR eal we a et ees 181 
Bema nll 222 bea oT RS PS ede CRUIGE a2 RE Sy peo 9D Ea ok 17%, 
RI ete Se oe see Swe ds a EGO" | PANO sere Seems ooo oe aoe LTO 
MMT pee ine Se See aes ee ANG all IT SEE eer ete erect MS? ee oe er 150 
Meeoumber..... 1.2.2.2... IAG HITS: 18h is lobOtd eels Seteeeer see she Sos. = 173 
NO USL See ee USE AROL ILIV ere ee RC ets eR ae ee oy 162 
Se eee eee ae [Rar etNEN ONS apace Paes aeons ak 181 
Roe Moe SNe sist QOS MNO CRG UNG Bean sat tase Al Sak 150 
ELIS Se ge 150 UeieamimeMonete: = sb oe Sot B Se 181 
mee-tooth violet -.-..---.---..--+ sO yimmllenouitinn eee os oo eS 189 
SE Se eee i nee NEON e ehnee hes Sofas cc ee ace Ste khs 
BERNE So ol os Soo gic ees Gamo eee ee econ 197 
ary Pista MNOOMMOWER = a522 0 cos 2s keees oe 173 
per cre oe Sie UG aleroilleimieateeyhe Bete He OS. oe 181, 191 
a ay T5St oe nasturtiemat? 25524 SL ee 181 
i. 


sah 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 





236 

e Page. 
MEMOTOUUS nic Solon aslo eee Soe eee 162 
NOCLUTIVUNU =~ = os 2 cats ose wiele ea 173s 
SAtsrsee see oe eee eee 129, 130, 141 
oleoll pe eran a lesthe ett mel es Teese an holt ths See hes em Yue tees ene tLe 162 
ONIONS Sane eee see Sees 129, 181, 184 
OLA OG we ses = she rea rete L501 bosiiio 
QUITO poe a ee ee ee 138, 162 | 
Ox-eye Galsyi- =. 2522-492 s-eee 189 
(RON OGNUS oo See ee EE eee 173 
RONCHI Seee ee oe ae eee 132, 137, 162, 185 
Parsley) 2285. Sasaeee =~ eee 18] 
Wea e= Shee wes ak Se nee eee 150 
Nese 222 Fes Se se oe eee 150 
TOCA ee Sere a tee eee secre eee 150 
Pel eG sean een ck ae eee eee 170 
DETIO e as iaars Sees eeeee 197 
DEG ENIUC eae alae eters ee 162 
PRleuim ea es sears Cee 162 
PROG eee ak Se 170 
PROCHUR Ro ee he oe a ee 173 | 
Dime eee Sys Fan: Se es 150, 170, 181 
Pius earn Be Bes ee 2 ener regs 208 
lume As eee eA aa 150, 181 
ROUSE eae et etek corns 120, 138, 162, 165 
DOLALON A eRe tay eee ee eee 150, 158 
MOT UETIBC Rae es 8 ee fan aes 162 
OT LENS Spee ees 120, 188, 141, 162, 165 
PObUINAD Kal 2s eis Ses Soya rere a 181 
CUM CE sats seins ase ee ee 193 
LAS pPHeLtyesee see: Cee ae 150 
TECNClOVEG Ss aeewoe oe eee 150, 189 
CRON Ca prs on es eee 173 
OSC Bal cros chore oe ae a ee a 150 
LOT Gis Sane aE leet hee ee ee 162 
BPRAUD UG i ge Sea eee Boe epha ean a ae 181 
SCUNOLLUN CLC ee eee 132, 162, 185 
SPT OULU ates ae oy ep ke et eo eee a a 162 
shepherd’ shpurse:ss-ces e-0 eee 181 











shrubby Alhéa = esos eee 

silver topic. 22225 See 2 eee 120, IE 
SIMPL EL: eee eee 0 
smartweed 2 /hecte se: e+ Ne eee 146, 150. 
Solidago... X22 a oe oe ee 50 
Specillariac®. 2 S235se eee 1 
Spiranthes = 32228222 eee 50 
squash... 22 252-82 322 seeeee 150, 181 
stoloniferd.- 2222-225 3 eee 2 
StONECIOPp) 222-52 c asec eee eee 
strawberry 22.3: 52422266 see 

StAtUs Ss Sees ee ee eee 
sunflower 2.220022. Sseeee ee ( 
sweet clovers: 3. s2- =e. eae 150, 181. 
sweet william 2-2 265.24. ee ( 
Tanacttum:- 3 52a eee 

talisy : 2 ee eee 129, 130 
timoth y, 2s 223 eo 165 181 
tobaceO: 2s. 28 eee 1 
tomato: 5332 Sess ee ee 173, 181 
trividlis*: =. eee eee ee ee 162 
uth tes eee eee 167, 202 
turnip Ae... Sees Se eee 181 
Ointisask2 a eee 197) 
Verbeng 2 22S hee eee eee 170° 
WINES 23. SSR eee See 170. 
UIPCUVAN 2°. Sho ge 208 
VU GUNUCUS = Sas oe a ee 162— 
Vitis 2.55 es ee eee 173 
WULGOTeS. 5352 hoe eee 130. 
UGGS Sai oS ce eee 132, 162 | 
Weeds... 5scn.2 Soe ae eee 129, 158 | 
Wheat: 2 tote eee oer 129, 150, 181 
white: blast 22223632533 -2es- eee 184 
white clover. -22--s4— 5-2 ooo 189) 
white topic. .<3e58 sesso ee 165 - 
wild. carrots. 228 2 Sass. - 4 eee 135. 
VrCCdits 2 a5 Soa ee eee eee 


195 | 


EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 


In the figures of wings of species of Terebrantia the hind fringes are not fully represented on | 


account of their great length. 


PLATE I. 


Fig. 1. olothrips fasciatus Linneus. Head, prothorax, antennee, and fore legs of | 


2 62 
female. I 


S) 


3. Molothrips fasciatus, end of abdomen of female. 


4. Molothrips bicolor, new species. 


: 62 
female. 


5. Aolothrips bicolor, end of abdomen of female. " 


. Molothrips fasciatus, left fore wing of female. 


6 


189 


Head, prothorax antennze, and fore legs of | 


62 


Fig. 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 237 








~J] 


9. 


10. 


Ti 


sullby 


14. 


15. 


16. 


lft 


18. 


24. 


. Limothrips avere, right fore wing of female. a 


. Sericothrips variabilis (Beach). Left fore wing of female. = 


. Sericothrips variabilis, end of abdomen of male. 


. sEolothrips bicolor, anterior part of abdomen at junction with metathorax 


: , : : 85 
showing first abdominal segment of male. —. 


‘ ; : : : 85 
.Eolothrips bicolor, end of abdomen of male. —. 


: : . : 74 
_Kolothrips bicolor, left antenna of male. oe 


: : oe: 213 
Fore tarsal hook present in both sexes of Molothripid:e. 1 


: ; thee 7 . ee 8) 
Limothrips avene, new species. End of abdomen of female. 2. 


Timothrips avene, end of abdomen of male. = 


62 


PLATE Il. 


: ; : ~ ° ac 85 
Limothrips avenx, new species. End of abdomen of female. T° 
Chirothrips manicatus Haliday. Head, prothorax, antennie, and legs of 
107 
female. —_. 


aie i é : : 107 

Chirothrips manicatus, end of abdomen of male. ae 
P ; ; OR , Shc 62 

Chirothrips manicatus, left fore wing of female. —. 

Chirothrips crassus, new species. Head, prothorax, and antennze of female. 
107 

ee : Bete 107 

Chirothrips crassus, end of abdomen of female. a 


‘ : : 107 
Chirothrips crassus, head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs of male. ls 


: , : 107 

Chirothrips crassus, end of abdomen of male. ae 

Chirothrips obesus, new species. Head, prothorax, antennee, and fore legs of 
: 107 
female. —. 


Chirothrips obesus, end of abdomen of female. eS 


107 


PLATE III. 


Sericothrips variabilis (Weach). Head, prothorax, and antennze of female. 
107 


1 
107 


. Sericothrips variabilis, end of abdomen of female. ae 


107, 
1 


. Sericothrips cingulatus, new species. Head, prothorax, and anter' © of 


female. a 


238 


Fig. 2 


Fig SF 
1g. ov. 


36. 
107 = | 
eee as : ; ele e: 
37. Euthrips tritici, end of abdomen of female. “ie ; 
ATS) setae 107 | 
38. Euthrips tritici, end of abdomen of male. a | 
Dy sat aC Pt sit set es ts Uta 85 : 
39. Euthrips tritici, left fore wing of female. =u .| 
40. Euthrips fuscus, new species. Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs of 
female. LOR | 
1 | 
Bi ne 107 | 
41. Euthrips fuscus, end of abdomen of female. a 
| 
42. Scolothrips 6-maculatus (Pergande). Head, prothorax, antennz, and fore 
legs of female. oe 
Brae Seti : 107 
43. Scolothrips 6-maculatus, end of abdomen of female. —_—- 
1 
44. Scolothrips 6-maculatus, end of abdomen of male. =. 
Ore ene 53 : Se ee 107 
45. Scolothrips 6-maculatus, right fore wing of female. =H 
PLATE Y. 
Fig. 46. Raphidothrips fuscipennis, new species. Head, prothorax, antennze, and for 
oe 8 | 
legs of female. ae ; 
ete agin ode ke , 85 | 
47. Raphidothrips fuscipennis, end of abdomen of female. T | 
Ry eR Sewn ; 2 89 
48. Raphidothrips fuscipennis, left fore wing of female. aE 
49. Anaphothrips striatus (Osborn). Head, prothorax, and antenne of female 


9g 


30. 


50, Anaphothrips striatus, end of abdomen of female. 1 =| 






























PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XX 
aes ce 107 
Sericothrips cingulatus, end of abdomen of female. ao 
Sericothrips cingulatus, end of abdomen of male. a 
Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach ). Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs af 
: 107 ‘ 
female. ane | 
. : 3 s 1 cg 
Pseudothrips inequalis, end of abdomen of female. a :| 
4 | 
Nee hee ‘ : y 107 = | 
Pseudothrips inequalis, right fore wing of female. ae F 
Euthrips nervosus (Uzel). Head, prothorax, antenne, and fore legs of 
: 62 : 
female. e : 4 
4 ; 62 a 
Buthrips nervosus, end of abdomen of female. rc 4 


PLATE IV. 7 





. 
2 


Euthrips nervosus (Uzel). Right fore wing of female. = 


Juthrips tritici (Fitch). Head, prothorax, antennee, and fore legs of female. 





89 
." 








Fig. 


Fig. 


aes a 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 239 





53. 


dd. 
59. 


56. 


59. 
60. 


61. 
62. 


63. 


64. 


69. 


. Anaphothrips striatus, right fore wing of female. 


. Heliothrips femoralis Reuter. Left fore wing of female. 


. Parthenothrips dracenx, lett fore wing of female. 


1 
. Thrips perplexus, end of abdomen of female. ae 


. Thrips tabaci, end of abdomen of female. 
. Thrips tabaci, left fore wing of female. 

. Anthothrips niger (Gepoeay Head, prothorax, and fore legs of female. 
. Anthothrips niger, end of abdomen of female. T 


. Anthothrips niger, left antenna of female. T" 





y~ 


89 
iE 


. Aptinothrips rufus (Gmelin). Head, prothorax, and antennze of female. 


107 
a 
107 


Aptinothrips rufus, end of abdomen of female. ae 


07 


1 
I 
Heliothrips femoralis Reuter. Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs of 
62 


Aptinothrips rufus var. connatticornis Uzel. Antennee of female. 


female. 


Seer et ; : : 62 
Heliothrips femoralis, end of abdomen of female. L 


PLATE VI. 


62 
rT 


. Heliothrips fasciapennis, new species. Head, prothorax, and antenne of 


female. a 


= oe : ; aie =O 07 
Heliothrips fasciapennis, end of abdomen of female. - i 


: ; : met : 167 
Feliothrips fasciapennis, right antenna of female. Sigs 
85 
7 
Parthenothrips dracenx (Heeger). Head, prothorax, antennz, and fore legs 


Heliothrips fasciapennis, right fore wing of female. 


=F 62 
of female. os 
5 


; 62 
Parthenothrips dracenx, end of abdomen of female. = 


Parthenothrips dracenx, portion of reticulation from head of female. 


bo 
—_—_ 
Oo 


62 
a 


. Thrips perplecus (Beach). Head, prothorax, antenne, and fore legs of 


female. “/ 
emale, alba 


— 


07 


107 


. Thrips perplexus, left fore wing of female. —>—- 


1 
PLATE VII. 
Thrips tabaci Lindeman. Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs of | 
107 


f le. 
emale i 


107 
is 
85 
EB 
62 
85 
85 


240 


Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig. 















PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 
75. Anthothrips niger, left fore wing of female. a = 
76. Anthothrips verbasci (Osborn). Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs of - 
‘ 50 = |) 
female. : + 
| bi 
. i, end of abdomen of female. 2 =| 
77. Anthothrips verbasci, end of abdomen ¢ SS aie 
Stn . 85 
78. Anthothrips verbasct, left antenna of female. ris 
79. Trichothrips beachi, new species. Head, prothorax, antennz, and fore legs” 
Vie 50 2 
of female. —. S. 
1 a 
PLATE VII. + 
50 i 
80. Trichothrips beachi, new species. End of abdomen of female. a ki 
é i 
81. Trichothrips ambitus, new species. Head, prothorax, antenne, and fore 
: : 50 a 
femora of female. 7 . 
82. Trichothrips ambitus, end of abdomen ot female. ai 
83. Cephalothrips yucce, new species. Head, prothorax, antennze, and fore legs 
of female. oo > 
50 : 
84. Cephalothrips yucce, end of abdomen of female. i : | 
85. Phlewothrips pergandei, new species. Head, antennze, prothorax, and fore legs 
&, 
= e 
of female. pu 5 
1 ; 
SL SR TSTE : a : ay 50 f 
86. Phicothrips pergandei, end of abdomen of female. i : 
87. Phlwothrips uzeli, new species. Head, prothorax, antennz, and fore legs of 
5 3s 
50 3 
male. —. 3 
ay | 
ya ee , 5 ire Se 50 =| 
88. Phieothrips uzeli, end of abdomen of male. : 
1 
; A 2 tee 4 8 
89. Phleothrips uzeli, under side of right fore leg of male. = 
90. Phleothrips uzeli, upper side of left fore leg of male. = : “3 
PLATE IX. : 
91. Phleothrips uzeli, new species. Head, prothorax, antenne, and fore legs of 
female. o8) ; 
1 \ £ 
92. Phieothrips uzeli, end of abdomen of female. pes i 
& 
93. Acanthothrips magnafemoralis, new species. Head, prothorax, antennze, and 
fore legs of male. 50. + 
1 \ 
: : rr 
94. Acanthothrips magnafemoralis, end of abdomen of male. - $ 
95. Malacothrips zonatus, new genus and new species. Head, prothorax, 
antennze, and fore femora of male. 50) | 
1 
96. Malacothrips zonatus, end of abdomen of male. >. i 
¥ 
% 





NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA—HINDS. 241 


97. Malacothrips zonatus, head, prothorax, antenne, and fore legs of  fe- 





50 
male. —. 
1 
Pees : ae re 
98. Malacothrips zonatus, end of abdomen of female. r 
99. Eurythrips ampliventralis, new genus and new species. Head, thorax, and 


: 62 
fore legs of female. 
100. Hurythrips ampliventralis, end of abdomen ot female. 


’ 


101. Eurythrips ampliventralis, left antenna of female. 


8) 
PLATE X. % 


. 102. Eurythrips osborni, new genus and new species. Head, prothorax, anten- 
62 
r: 


103. EHurythrips oshorni, end of abdomen of female. 


nee, and fore legs of female. 


62 


104. Cryptothrips aspersus, new species. Head, prothorax, and fore legs of 
: 50 
female. 2, 

2 ; ; wer 50 
105. Cryptothrips aspersus, end of abdomen of female. °°. 


106. Cryptothrips aspersus, right antenna of female. . 


7. Idolothrips coniferarum Pergande. Head, prothorax and fore legs of 


99 


vo 
male. = 
‘ : =. vs : ; 50 
108. Idolothrips coniferarum, end of abdomen of male. 1 
: : : save 30 
109. Idolothrips coniferarum, head, prothorax, and fore legs of female. 
110. Idolothrips coniferarum, right antenna of female. i 


111. Thrips tabaci, longitudinal-vertical section through anterior part of body 
showing form of head and thorax and position of nervous system and 


83 


alimentary canal. + 


112. Anaphothrips striatus, surface view of stigma from first abdominal seg- 
716 ‘ 
ments 22 =~. 
ii 
113. Anaphothrips striatus, cross section through stigma from first abdominal 
. 716 
segment. a 
114. Anthothrips verbasci, under side of last two abdominal segments of male; 
: ; 62 
A, notch in base of tube. T 


115. Anthothrips verbasci, under side of last two abdominal segments of female; 
ao 


a 


A, chitinous rod. 7 : 


PLATE XI. 





9 » 
ig. 116. Kolothrips fasciatus, dorsal view of pterothorax of female. e Al, first 


abdominal tergite; A2, second abdominal tergite; M1, mesoscutum; M2, 
metascutum; M3, metascutellum. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 





16 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXV 


: : 2 
¢, 117. Holothrips fasciatus, ventral view of pterothorax of female. ee _C, coxa; 


S1, first abdominal sternite; 52, second abdominal sternite; T, trochanter. | 


eRe 3 : : 62 
118. Heliothrips femoralis, dorsal view of pterothorax of female. TT: A 
abdominal tergite; A2, second abdominal tergite; M1, mesoscutun 


metascutum; M3, metascutellum. 
62 


119. Heliothrips femoralis, ventral view of pterothorax of female. I" ET, en-— 


dothoracic invaginations; MS, mesosternum; MT, metasternum. 


; ‘ ‘ se 115 
120. Anaphothrips striatus, face ol REM Cee =: 





1, first 
1; M2 





ay Sy ql 5 et 
KC, endocranial thickening at — 


base of mouth cone; LI, labium; LP, labial palpi; LR, labrum; MD, 


mandible; ML, internal piercing lobe ef maxilla; MP, maxillary 
MX, maxilla. 


121. Anaphothrips striatus, side view of end of abdomen of female; ovipositor 





: Sy aoeder 107 
lowered into position for use. ——. 
: a 213 
122. _Lolothrips bicolor, under side of antennal segments two to five. i 
sense areas. 
213 


123. Thrips perplexus, upper side of antennal segments two to seven. 
sense cones. 

124. Trichothrips ambitus, upper side of antennal segments two to seven. 
SC, sense cones. 4 


ae ; ° . nue 1 
125. Limothrips avene, dorsal view of pterothorax of wingless male. eI 


lpi; 
palpi; 


ans 
~ 


o 


A 
- 


Peaiettectia ova prary? 


TR 
2 
tere Hee 


150 





07 AT 


first abdominal tergite; A2, second abdominal tergite; M1, mesoscutum,; 


M2, metascutum. 





126. Anthothrips verbasci, dorsal view of head and thorax of female. 


62° Ad 
i 


1s 


first abdominal tergite; A2, second abdominal tergite; M1, mesoscutum; — 


M2, metascutum; M3, metascutellum. 


. 
a 





127. Anthothrips verbasci, ventral view of head and thorax of female. 


62 aie 
; EDs 


endothoracic invaginations; MS, mesosternum; MT, metasternum; S1,_ 


first abdominal sternite; S2, second abdominal sternite. 





e 
S 
oe 


bi ht 
a SDS in aN 


aC NN © 






PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. | 







SS 
ES Ss 
. J YX S 
MELAS VY 





WWMMMAM 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGES 286, 237. 








PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. II 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 237. 








PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. III 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGES 237, 238. 

















PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. IV 






SSS SSS SSS 
35 ; RNS WV WSSSS SS SSS = 


\ SAQA 
SMM OM we oom SS a 


SS en ee ae LO 


YZ LZ, _ .—— — Poe 


4 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


For EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 238. 









PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. V 


SS SS % ye 
oe gm a 


ele 


MYM 










NWR SS 
WIMMER 


NoRTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FoR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGES 238, 239. 









PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. VI 


BIT Fy 
VM MYWII YYW 


\\y 
S 


CREEK —— 


eK 


WEA MAAN 





68s 


WOR MWS = = 


— a 


2D Se ae 
LILLE 


NorRTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 239. 











PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. VII 


a 
— 


AS WS : een 
2S NA RISES SN 
eee ah 





NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 239, 








-U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI_ PL. VIII 





NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FoR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 240, 








U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI_ PL. IX 





NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FoR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 240. 








PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. X 


NORTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 241. 








_u. §. NATIONAL MUSEUM PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXVI PL. XI 





NorRTH AMERICAN THYSANOPTERA. 


FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGES 241, 242. 
























DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND FORTY-SIX NEW 
® SPECIES OF CRUSTACEANS OF THE FAMILY GALA- 
THEIDA, WITH A LIST OF THE KNOWN MARINE 
SPECIES. 


By James E. Brenepicr, 


Assistant Curator of Marine Invertebrates. 


The collection of Galatheids in the United States National Museum, 
upon which this paper is based, began with the first dredgings of the 
U. 8. Fish Commission steamer Albatross in 1888, and has grown 
as that busy ship has had opportunity to dredge. 

During the first period of its work many of the species taken were 
identical with those found by the U. S. Coast Survey steamer Blake, 
afterwards described by A. Milne-Edwards, and in addition several 
new species were collected. During the voyage of the Albatross to 
the Pacific Ocean through the Straits of Magellan interesting addi- 
tions were made to the collection. Since then the greater part of the 
time spent by the A/datross at sea has been in Alaskan waters, where 
Galatheids do not seem to abound. However, occasional cruises else- 
where have greatly enriched the collection, notably three—one in the 
Gulf of California, one to the Galapagos Islands, and one to the coast 
of Japan and southward. 

_ The U.S. National Museum has received a number of specimens 
from the Museum of Natural History, Paris, and also from the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

_ The literature of the deep-sea Galatheid from the nature of the case 
is not greatly scattered. The first considerable number of species were 
described by A. Milne-Edwards from dredgings made by the Blake in 
he West Indian region. Prof. S. I. Smith then described some 
interesting forms from the U. 8. Fish Commission dredgings off the 
east coast of the United States. This was followed by the report 
of the Anomura of the voyage of the Challenger, by Prot. J. R. Hen- 
derson, which contained descriptions of many species of Galatheids 
rom widely separated localities. In 1893 Dr. Faxon published pre- 
liminary descriptions of 24 new species from the A/batross expedition 


PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL Museum, VoL. XXVI—No. 1311. 
. 243 


244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. oil 








to the Galapagos Islands in 1891; also 38 species and subspecies dredged — 
by the Indian survey ship /nvestigator since 1884 have been described 
by Wood-Mason or by Alcock and Anderson. 


Family GALATHEIDZ. 


The Galatheidz, as has often been pointed out by recent writers; 
belong to the Macrura Anomalia, but with more or less brachyuran 
relationships. . 

In form they resemble the true Macrura, and are closely related to 
the Porcellanide, which at first sight, on account of their form and 
habits, would be placed with the Brachyura. 

Most of the Galatheide live on the bottom and, with the exception 
of a few forms like Grimothea and Pleuroncodes, probably do not 
swim freely to any great distance. Some of the genera are blind, 
inhabiting deep water and even abyssal depths, others again have a 
well-developed cornea divided into facets. While many Galatheids 
must prefer a sea bottom affording numerous hiding places, others, — 
as some of the genus Uroptychus, are well fitted for climbing on 
sponges, hydroids, or corals. 

Occasionally a specimen will be found with a small worm tube on 
its carapace, though usually they are as completely free from any 
foreign growth as are any of the more active Crustacea. More fre- 
quently the carapace will be distorted by the presence of an Isopod 
parasite in the branchial chamber. 

This family presents problems in classification of considerable 
interest. The genus M/unidopsis, as now constituted and upheld. by 
some good naturalists, is made to include several of the genera estab- 
lished by A. Milne-Edwards. In a long and able article“ on the sub- 
ject, A. Milne-Edwards and E. L. Bouvier contend for the generic 
distinctness of the groups. With the groups united in one genus, 
the species differ widely in form, more widely than is desirable, 
because the name does not convey to the mind a sufficiently distinct 
picture of the forms designated by it. On the other side of the ques-_ 
tion it may be said that if the genera were divided a satisfactory key 
could not be made on generic lines unless perhaps in the case of 
Galathodes. 

The species placed in the genus Munda come fairly well under one 
generic name, with the possible exception of one or more species some- 
times placed under Gr/mothea, about which much has yet to be learned, 
especially in regard to the young forms, which do not seem to have the 
same development as the young of other species. Individual varia- 
tions within the species are not uncommon. Sometimes the abdomen 
will be unarmed, where usually it is armed. This is more often true 


«Considerations Generales sur La Famille des Galatheides, Ann. des Sci. Natr., (7), 
XVI, p. 191, 1894. 


i ta Sat 


no.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 245 





_ in species having an armature of very small spines, as if chance condi- 


tions more easily pushed aside the less emphatic character. In old 
specimens of some species (and perhaps of all) the spines have a tend- 
ency to become blunted or even aborted, the chelipeds to become 
elongated, and the fingers to be separated by a hiatus. The relative 


lengths of the supraocular spines are as a rule uniform, and, in con- 


nection with others, furnish a very good character. The size and 


arrangement of the spines of the carapace and also of the abdomen, if 


BOA See. 


armed, are important. Correlated with other characters, the width 
of the lines of the carapace, the length and character of the cilia, and 
the size of the granules are of value in determining species. 

Some of the species in the U. S. National Museum are represented 
by but few specimens or even single individuals. In other cases the 
representation is greater. Large numbers of J/uneda iris A. Milne- 
Edwards, were taken on the tile-fish grounds during the first year’s 
work of the U. S. Fish Commission steamer /7%sh //awh. So numer- 
ous in fact was this J/wnida that it gave character to the ground. Yet 
two years later, when the Albatross went over the same ground, the 
hauls of the beam trawl showed that this species, formerly so abun- 
dant, was wanting. ‘Three degrees farther south, however, in latitude 
37° north, numerous specimens were found. 

It will be remembered that the so-called tile-fish (Lopholatilus 
chamaeleonticeps Goode and Bean) was found abundantly during the 
year 1880, and that some time afterwards a vessel passed through 
miles of water covered with dead fish of this species. It was not again 
taken for a long time. The Fish Commission steamer A/batross 
dredged and set trawl lines on the ground time and again without 
taking either tile-fish or J/wnidas; and even farther south, where the 
Munidas were found in abundance, the fish were not to be had. It is 
interesting to note that the bottom Crustacea suffered at the same 
time and probably from the same cause. 

Munida refulgens, M. tenella, and M. pusilia, species with elongated 
chelipeds, have, like J/. cris, been found in large numbers, while J/. 
subrugosa and M. quadrispina, are species with short prismatic cheli- 
peds, and are represented in the collection by a smaller but yet plentiful 
number of specimens. Some interesting, though by no means novel, 
deductions may be drawn from the character and environment of some 
of the genera. 

The mass of ova carried by the female J/unida contains a very large 
number of individuals in comparison with some genera of the family 
living in much deeper water. To count the individuals in the egg 
mass of a Galathea or Munida would be a long task, while to count 
those of a Munidopsis, Galacantha, or Uroptychus would be a very easy 
matter. Some species of Uroptychus live in moderate depths that 
furnish innumerable hiding places. Here there is abundant protection 


246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. ie 





for the individual. The natural inference is that the young indi- 
viduals of the species having large eggs and few in number, do not 
encounter the dangers which must be common to the species having 
numerous eggs, and, asa matter of fact, it can hardly be supposed 
that a Galacantha or a Munidopsis, blind and with limited activity, 
passes an eventful life on the soft bottom of the deep sea. 

Another matter worthy of consideration is that where the brood is 
small and matures near the parent it is not liable afterwards to become 
ereatly scattered, a fact which would be expected to aid in the form- 
ation of races and species in the same way that it is known to have 
done in the cases of nonmigrating birds inhabiting islands or other 
isolated localities. And here it may be remarked that little is known 
of the range of any species in the deep sea. Only a beginning has 
been made. <A dredging station here and there shows a few of the 
forms of life which the dredge chances to bring up from a very limited 
area. Until the sea bottom has been examined to a very much greater 
extent it would seem better to hold that distinguishable specimens 
from distant places represent distinct species rather than subspecies. 

In sharp contrast with those Crustaceans which have few eggs and 
live under conditions where the individual must be better cared for 
are those haying an immense number of eggs, as, for instance, some 
of the shallow-water Brachyura, in which the bulging egg-mass is but 
partly covered by the abdomen, and nearly equals the body of the crab 
in size. Here the eggs are minute and when hatched become free 
swimming and are carried by the currents to distant places to live or 
die, as the place proves suitable or not. This effort of nature is par- 
alleled by the forest tree which yields seed, season after season, during 
a long lifetime and perhaps dies without leaving a single descendant. 
But if this effort has not greatly increased the individuals of the 
species in question, it has always been ready to do so if opportunity 
offered, and in the meantime has helped to sustain the life of myriads 
of other living things. 

In this paper 45 species are described as new. The keys to the 
species were made to include all the Galatheids in the U. S. National 
Museum. Following the descriptions a list of the known species, with 
partial synonymy, has been given. 


DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 
Genus GALATHEA Fabricius. 
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GALATHEA EXAMINED. 


a. With only two spines or tubercles on the front of the gastric area. 
b. Hands without spines except on the margins............---- squamifera, p. 303 
b. Hands with spines on the palm. 
c. Three pairs of spines on the rostrum beyond the basal pair. 
d. Row of four or five spines on the palm. 
é: Palm wide 2s6ise..-. 1.25.52 a ee strigosa, p. 303 





( 
¥ 


* 





No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 947 
e. Palm narrow. 

f. Spines of rostrum weak -.--.--- een eee ean kt andrewsi, p. 300 

j-aSpines OL LOStrUM strone-.. 25-25-52 --- 5-2-2 +e eee intermedia, p. 302 

d. Row of nine or ten spines on the palm of the hand... -.-- orientalis, p. 302 


c. Two pairs of spines on the rostrum beyond the basal pair.californiensis, p. 247 
a. With more than two spines or spinules on the front of the gastric area or none. 
b. With a row of spinules on the front of the gastric area. 


c. Rostrum entire beyond the basal spines -.--..-.-.-.--.--...-. integra, p. 248 
ec. Rostrum armed. 
d. Lines on the carapace strong, elevated, few .............--- rostrata, p. 303 
d. Lines but little elevated, more numerous........-.------ intermedia, p. 302 


b. Without a row of spinules on the front of the gastric area. 
c. Spines on the rostrum weak or none. 


d. No spines on the rostrum beyond the basal pair-------..--- agassizi, p. 300 
d. With spines on the rostrum beyond the basal pair. - ---- paucilineata, p. 249 
c. Spines on the rostrum large...........-.------ dispersa and nexa, pp. 801, 302 


GALATHEA CALIFORNIENSIS, new species. 


The rostrum is more than twice as long as the eyes. It is armed 
with two pairs of stout spines. The sides of the rostrum are parallel 





Fig. 1.—GALATHEA CALIFORNIENSIS, X j. 


between the spines. At the angle formed by the base of the rostrum 
and the front there is a pair of small spines. The carapace lacks but 
little of being as broad as long; the transverse ridges are elevated and 


248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


slightly set with hair. There are six spines on the margin behind — 
the antennal spine. On the gastric region there is a pair of spines 
directly behind the posterior pair on the rostrum. The chelipeds are 
long and stout, very spiny and moderately hairy; the merus has five 
rows of spines; the carpus has three rows on its inner surface and four 
rows on its upperand outer surfaces; the outer surface of the palm has 
three rows of spines which are continuous with rows on the merus 
and carpus. The merus and carpus of the ambulatory legs are spiny; 
there is one row on the crest of the merus and two on the carpus; the 
propodus and dactyl are scabrus. The merus of the maxillipeds is~ 
armed with one long stout spine and one short one. 

Length of a large male from the front to the end of the telson, 61 
mm.; length of cheliped, 100 mm.; length of merus, 38 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station” 2946, lat. 338° 58’ NP: long. 119° 3G 
45” W.; depth, 150 fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20551, U.S. N. M. 


GALATHEA INTEGRA, new species. 


To the eye the rostrum is entire from the spine-like point to the 
spine which forms the inner angle of the orbit; under a lens the lat- 
eral margins are seen to end in spinules at about one-sixth of the dis- 
tance from the apex to the cornea; beyond these spinules the rostrum 
is spine like in shape; behind the spinules the margins run divergently 
back to a point opposite the spines which form the inner angles of the 
eyes, where the direction is changed to parallel; the portion of the 
rostrum between the eyes is excavated in the form of a very open V. 

The outer angles of the orbits are guarded by spines. A little 
behind and to one side of these spines are the smaller spines of the 
antero-lateral angles. 

The carapace is armed on the gastric region with four spines placed — 
in a transverse row. Between this row of spines and the posterior 
margin the median line cuts six long raised transverse lines. In addi- 
tion there are more or less short, intermediate lines. The spines of 
the lateral margin, six or seven in number, are fragile, often wanting. 

The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with a single large spine. 

The chelipeds are elongated, in large specimens, with widely gaping 
fingers; the merus is sparsely set with short, stout spines; the carpus 
has a row of four spines on its upper surface and a row of five or six” 
on the inner margin, but its most prominent armature is a single very 
large spine a little below the inner row. Three rows of spines arm 
the palm; those of the crest are the largest and most numerous. 

Length of carapace, including rostrum, 7.5 mm.; length of cheli- 


“A complete list of the dredging stations of the U. S. Fish Commission steamer 


Albatross, compiled by Mr. C. H. Townsend, will be found in U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion Report for 1900, pp. 393-419. 


i 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 249 








peds, 30 mm. Taken from numerous stations off Honshu Island, 
_ Japan; the types are from Albatross station 3708, in 60 to 70 fathoms. 
Type.—Cat. No. 26168, U.S.N.M. 
Galathea integrarostris Dana, resembles this species. It has a 
rostrum with margins unbroken by spines, but much shorter and 
broader in proportion to its other measurements. If Dana’s figure is 
correct, the inner angle of the orbital sulcus is shaped by an incision 
of the rostrum which forms 
a broad tooth, which can not 
possibly be confounded with 
the sharp slender spine of @. 
integra. 
'GALATHEA PAUCILINEATA, 
new species. 


The rostrum is rather nar- 
row, with a few small spines 
on the sides; at the angle of 
the front and rostrum there 
are two short paired spines, 
which stand out well from the 
margin; those of the rostrum 
proper lie closely along the 
margin. On the front, above 
the insertion of the antenne, 
there is a small paired spine; 
the antero lateral angle is rounded; there are five or six spinules on 
the lateral margin. 

The raised lines that cross the carapace are widely separated and 
little ciliated. The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with a single 
long and slender spine. The ambulatory feet are slightly spinulose 
on the crests of the meral and carpal joints. 

Length of the carapace, 6 mm.; breadth, 5.5 mm. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20552, U.S.N.M. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2818, latitude 00° 29’ 00’ S., longitude 
89° 54’ 30” W., in 392 fathoms. 





Fic. 2.—GALATHEA PAUCILINEATA, xX 3}. 


CERVIMUNIDA, new genus. 


Like Munida, but with a compressed rostrum which is arched so as 
to permit free movement of the eyes, and bears large teeth. 


CERVIMUNIDA PRINCEPS, new species. 


The rostrum in this species is armed with three sharp triangular 
_ teeth, two on the upper margin in advance of the eyes and one below 
E and in advance of the upper ones; in addition to this armature one or 


250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 


more spinules are usually found between the apex and the two teeth 
above. 

The direction of the rostrum is horizontal but opposite the eyes it 
forms an arch, resuming its horizontal direction beyond. In cross 
section the rostrum is triangular with the short side below, the lower 
margins are carinate, the carina running around to the supra-ocular 
spines: the.length of the rostrum from the tip to the base of the free 
portion of the supra-ocular spines is equal to the distance from the 
latter point to the posterior margin of the gastric region. 

The supra-ocular spines reach the middle of the eyes; their free por- 
tions are equal in length to the antero-lateral spines. 

The gastric pair of spines are large and sharp with no intermediate 
armature; in line outside isa small paired spine and in some specimens 
a second much smaller one; an unusual spine in the gastric area is at 
the intersection of the first ciliated line with the median line of the 
carapace; the usual spines occur at the extremities of the ciliated line. 








FIG. 3.—CERVIMUNID* PRINCEPS, X 2. 


There is a single paired spine in the fork of the suture and one in the 
usual place just behind the suture. The lower margin of the merus 
of the maxillipeds has a spine at each extremity. 

The chelipeds are elongated; spines are scattered over the merus 
and carpus; the fingers are longer than the ridge of the palm; the 
movable finger is armed with a row of spines on the inner surface just 
below the ridge; numerous small spines are scattered over all surfaces 
of the palm, except the lower; the chelipeds are hairy in the large 
specimens; the ambulatory legs are squamose and hairy. 

The abdomen is armed. The 12 specimens examined show for the 
most part eight spines on the second and fourth segments; the third - 
segment shows six, seven, or eight spines, but usually six; in the other 
segments the number of spines also varies but not so frequently. 

The length of the largest specimen examined is 147 mm., an 
from the base of the rostrum, 27 mm.; chelipeds, 102 mm. 

Type.—Cat. No. 25464, U.S.N.M., front Albatross station 3698, in 
153 fathoms off Honshu Island, Japan. 









No.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 251 








Genus MUNIDA Leach. 


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS MUNIDA EXAMINED. 


v 

; 1. Abdomen unarmed. 

: a. Rostrum with several lateral spines near the apex.----.----- refulgens, p. 312 
‘ a. Rostrum without spines at apex. 

. 6.) Palm-much shorter than the fingers -... 222.2220 22-2... mexicana, p. 264 
: b. Palm ranging from a trifle shorter to much longer than the fingers. 

; c. Palm and fingers subcylindrical. 

: d. No spines posterior to the middle transverse depression. . simplex, p. 272 


d. With spines posterior to the middle of the transverse depression. 
e. Supraocular spines not reaching the middle of the eyes -debilis, p. 256 
e. Supraocular spines reaching the middle of the eye. ----- irrasa, p. 310 
c. Palm and fingers flattened. 
d. With several spines posterior to the middle transverse depres- 


Slot eae ee sere ates Sac are Salt ae ee. esculpta; p: 270 
d. No spines posterior to the middle depression... .-... quadrispina, p. 269 


2. Second segment of the abdomen armed. 
a. Chelipeds more than four times the length of the carapace, including the 
rostrum; palms subeylindrical, armed with but few spinules. 
. b. Supraccular spines, reaching nearly to the distal margin of the cornea. 
iris, p. 310 
b. Supraocular spines, short, not reaching the cornea -..--.----- pusilla, p. 268 
a. Chelipeds less than four times the length of the carapace. 
b. Gastric spines, with two or three small intermediate spines. 
e. Cornea but little larger than the peduncle. 


d. Merus of maxillipeds armed with one spine -..-.-.-..------. perlata, p. 266 
d. Merus armed with two spines .._-...--..------- microphthalma, p. 311 
: c. Cornea wide, spreading; much larger than the peduncle. 
r d. No spines on the margins of the fingers. 
e. Fingers three times length of palm -.-...-..------ curvamana, p. 307 


e. Fingers not three times the length of palm. 
jf. Rostrum cutlass-shaped, elevated to an angle of 45 degrees above 


Wmeon carapace a mere eS ae enc lSes Jie nt curvatura, p. 253 
7 Romsrum siemoid, horizontal. 62. o22.2.%- 2..--- andamanica, p. 306 

: d. With spines on the margins of the fingers. 

E e. Supraocular spines, reaching beyond the eyes. ----- propingua, p. 312 

: e. Supraocular spines not reaching beyond the eyes. 

5 jf. Fingers straight. 

; g. Spines in the gastric row, six. 

; h. One spine inthe triangular area _.......--- sancti-pauli, p. 312 

=! h. No spines in the triangular area .--...----.-.---- decora, p. 257 

5 g. Spines in the gastric row, twelve -----.------ honshuensis, p. 261 

é Rese ipets GanVeC cones, Cyt lg ee on curvipes, p. 254 

: b. No intermediate spines. 

: c. Fingers much longer than the palm -__-.--....----------- forceps, p. 307 

$ c. Fingers shorter than the palm. 

5 d. Hand bent downward at the base of the fingers, all surfaces spinu- 

% LOS yas ees pee tai eer eRe ee Feet ee eo 5 angulata, p. 252 

: d. Hand not bent, broad, spinulose on outer surface and margins. 

2 


nuda, p. 265 





3. Second and third segments of the abdomen armed. 

a. A pair of spines between the large gastric pair. 
b. Without spines behind the cervical suture. (See 2 above). --decora, p. 297 
db; With spines: behind the: cervical suture -..-......--..--------- obesa, p. 311 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02——18 


252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 





at. a ithout spines between the large gastric pair. 
. With a pair of spines near the middle of the gastric region... .valida, p. 314 | 
4 Without middle gastric spines. ! -- -2 22 33202525 eee media, p. 262 
4. Second, third, and fourth segments of the abdomen armed. 
. Posterior margin of the carapace armed. ¢@ 
Bs Spines of the posterior margin more than two. ‘ 
c. With spines on the cardiac region. 


d.. Cardiac spines one only... ==2.---2 2-52 S22 jee evermanni, p. 307 
d. Conte spines more than one. 

.. Cardiac spines one palr..252222822 23) eee ees perarmata, p. 311 

e.. Cardiac spines in two SOWs=2 222. eee eee hispida, p. 259 

c. Without spines on the cardiac region.....--.-..--------- bamffica, p. 306 


b. Spines on the posterior margin one or two. 
c. Fourth segment of the abdomen with a pair of spines on the anterior 
margin and a single spine on the median line near the posterior margin. 
d. Spines on the middle of the gastric region one or more. 


e. Supraocular spines longer than eyes. ---..-.------!.2-- affinis, p. 305 
e. Supraocular spines shorter than eyes ..-....--.--------- Hlinti, p. 258 


d. Without spines in the middle of the gastric region. 
e. With a row of spines on each side of the cardiac region. -normani, p. 311 
e. Without rows of spines on the branchial region near the cardiac 


region 2 Us -b2uiosse. ee Se eee eee prolixa, p. 318 
c. Fourth segment of the abdomen without median spine. 
d. Supraocular spines longer than the rostral spine... ----- Wench p. 3l0 
d. Supraocular spines not longer than the rostral spine-.-.-stimpsoni, p. 313 
a. Posterior margin of the carapace unarmed. 
b. Chelipeds long and slender; merus cylindrical. ..-----.--.--- tenella, p. 274 


b. Chelipeds short and stout; merus prismatic. 
c. Two or more spines on the outer margins of both fingers of the cheli- 
peds 22 Tea PS 2 SES ee a on eee eee ee constricta, p. 807 
c. No spines on the outer margins of the fingers. 
d. Merus of the maxillipeds unarmed. 


e. Eyes produced beyond the line of the sides... - gregaria, young, p. 308 
e. Eyes not produced beyond the line of the sides .----. gregaria, p. 308 
d. Merus of the masa llipedsianmede =e =a ae eee subrugosa, p. 314 


MUNIDA ANGULATA, new species. 


The carapace is broadest a little behind the middle. The gastrie 
region has eight spines, six of which are in a line behind the oe 
These spines are subequal in size. A single spine is placed on the 
side near the margin of the hepatic area; s ataple spines on the anterior 
branchial regions are the only other spines on the carapace, excepting 
those of the lateral margins. The supraocular spines are about one- 


half the length of the eyes. The rostrum is moderately long and- 


nearly horizontal. The peduncles of the eyes are stout and a little 
longer than usual; the cornea is less dilated. The front retreats from 


the eye spines. _ The inferior margin of the merus of the maxillipeds- 
is armed with two spines. The chelipeds are spiny and spinulose; the 
fingers are eae al and in all Tecoma ene are in contact 


@Oc ene specimens ane an posterior margin a carapace unarmed. 





4 





j 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 253 





throughout the length of their prehensile edges. A striking char- 
acter of this species is the shape of the hand, which is bent downward 
from the base of the fingers. A row of from two to six spinuies 
arms the second segment of the abdomen; in some specimens the 
armature is wanting. 

Length of the abdomen, 9 mm.; length of chelipeds, 20 mm.; 
length of palm, 5.5 mm.; length of fingers, 4 mm. 


ea 
ie 





nk Go «S 
he 


Pa Dnfliny 
Fic. 4.—MUNIDA ANGULATA, x 4. 


Locality.— Albatross stations 2370, 2372, 2406, 2411, 2418, m 2%, 
2, 26, 27, and 24 fathoms. 


fl Pipe —Cat. No. 20532, U.S.N.M., station 2406. 
A 
ie MUNIDA CURVATURA, new species. 


a The rostrum is long, sharp, and a little compressed, beginning at its 
se it curves rapidly upward, so that at its tip its direction is 45 
degrees from the line of the carapace. The supraocular spines 







954 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXV 













diverge but littte, they extend forward nearly to the extremity of the 
eyes. | 
"The eyes are large with a brown iris, which has small, but distinct. 
facets. zt 

The carapace is broadest at about the anterior third, the gastric 
pair of spines are large, a pair of much smaller spines are intermediate, 
outside of the pair is a paired spine, 
equal to the intermediate spines ins 
size: outside of this are one or more) 
very small ones; at the extremities of | 

the first ciliated line are the only other 
rae Stee spines on the surface of the carapace, 

, with the exception of two spinules” 
behind the fork of the cervical suture. The ciliated ridges are rather 
coarse: between the ridges are lines having short cilia. | 

The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with two well-separated. 
spines. 

The chelipeds are short and stout, the spines of the distal extremi- 
ties of both merus and carpus are unusually large. The palms have 
three rows of spines on the outer surface, there are no spines on the 
margins of the fingers. The distal extremities of the merus of the 
ambulatory legs are very large. 

The second segment of the abdomen is armed with eight good-sized 
spines. 

The length of the carapace from the base of the rostrum is 17 mm.;: 
length of rostrum 9 mm. ; length of chelipeds 40 mm. 

Locality.—From Albatross station 3698, off Honshu Island, Japan, 
153'fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 25466, U.S.N.M. 





FIG. 


| 
MUNIDA CURVIPES, new species. | 
| 


The carapace is broadest in the middle; it is crossed by numerous 
strix which are strongly setose. The gastric region is armed with six 
spines, those of the gastric pair are much the largest; two paired spines 
at the side make up the six; the one nearest the side is opposite the 
second spine on the margin, or the one next behind the antero-latera 
spine. Between the gastric spines are three granules, one of whicl 
has a sharp point to be seen only with a lens. Three spiny granules 
are situated close to and behind the gastric pair. The greater part 0 
the rostrum is unfortunately lost; the supraocular spines reach the 
end of the cornea. The peduncle of the antenne is armed as in Munid 
spinosa Henderson, with the exception of the terminal article whert 
the spine is so small that it can not be made out except under a lens 
The eyes are much smaller than in many species of the genus. Th 
merus of the maxillipeds is armed with two long spines; the margil 


® 









between them is straight and not at all as shown in the figure of Jf 
| inosa. The chelipeds are long and rather slender, armed with slen- 
der spines placed for the most part in rows; there are about eighteen 
spines on the merus, large and small; the carpus has at least an equal 
number; there are four rows of spines on the palm; the fingers of the 
Jeft hand are unarmed; those of the right are both armed. 

The second segment of the abdomen is armed with six spines, which 
nearly equal the gastric pair in size; the other segments of the abdomen 


are smooth. 





oa Fic. 6.—MUNIDA CURVIPES, X 1}. 
a2 


_ This species is closely related to Munida spinosa Henderson. It is 
“separated by the lines of the carapace, which are not so strong, by 

e different shape ef the pleura of the abdominal segments, and if 
the Challenger figure is correct, the merus of the maxillipeds is very 
ifferent.¢ 







«Challenger Report, Anomura, J. R. Henderson, XX VII, 1888, p. 128, pl. 111, 
ig. 3, a, b. 










256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXVI,_ 








Measurements.—Length of specimen from the base of the free part 
of the rostrum to the end of the telson 30 mm.; length of the cheliped — 
40 mm.; palm 10 mm.; fingers, 8 mm. ; 

Locality.—A lbatross station 2788, off Port Otway, Patagonia, in 1,050 
fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20533, U.S.N.M. 

MUNIDA DEBILIS, new species. 7 


The carapace is broad in front; the spines of the antero-lateral 
angles are longer than the free portion of the supraocular spines. 





ho 


Ay 
NW 


Fig. 7.—MUNIDA DEBILIS, x 4. | 
There is a row of eight spines on the front of the gastric area and a | 
spine at the extremities of the first continuous ciliated line. Between) 
this line and the gastric row is a ciliated line interrupted at the median 


| 


line by a semicircle of the same character. 
| 
| 


= 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEAN aa NEDICT. Diet 


The rostr um is long a slender: the lateral margins are dentic ‘ulated 
near the apex; the eupraceiilar spines are united to the rostrum for 
‘one half their length. The peduncles of the eyes are short and the 
‘cornea very much dilated. The inferior margin of the merus of the 
maxillipeds i is armed with three spines, two on the proximal half and 
one on the distal angle. ‘The chelipeds are long, slender, cylindrical, 
‘and scabrous; the inner margin of the merus is armed with about six 
large spines; there are three on the upper surface; the carpus has a 
single large spine at the distal inner angle. This species is easily 
distinguished from any other described species from the West Coast 
by its slender elongated che- 
liped in connection with the 
unarmed abdomen. 

Locality.— Albatross station 
9829, lat. 22° 59’ 00” N., long. 
109°55’00” W.,in 31 fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20534, 
U.S.N.M. 


MUNIDA DECORA, new species. 


The carapace is crossed by 
six continuous ciliated and 
granulose lines; between 
these lines are numerous 
other lines of the same char- 
acter, but broken into small 
ares, which are arranged in 
beautiful patterns. The car- 
apace is nearly devoid of 
spines; there are two on the 
gastric area in the usual 
place, with several spinules 
‘in line between and at the my Ah 
sides; posterior to this row 
there are no spines on the 
‘surface. The marginal spines are small. The supraocular spines 
diverge and reach nearly to the extremities of the eyes. The rostrum 
is strong—about twice as strong as the supraoculars—and is serrate 
“near the end, above and below, and on the sides. The peduncles of 
the eyes are very short and much constricted; the cornea is dilated 
vat the sides. The inferior margin of the merus of the maxillipeds is 
armed with two large and widely separated spines, between which 
are one or more spinules. 
The chelipeds are broad, flattened, and hairy. ‘The spines of the 





Fic. 8.—MUNIDA DECORA, X 1}. 





a 


958 PROCEEDL..GS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


dice il margin of fie: merus are Taree: fone of the carpus are smaller, 
There are four rows of spines on the palm—one on each margin — 
and two on the surface behind the gape of the fingers; there are — 
also two spines on the crest of the palm, in a parallel line with the © 
marginal row; a single spine is placed near the middle of the in- 
side of the palm; the inside surface is roughened by numerous spiny 








granules. 

The ambulatory feet are compressed and moderately spinose. The | 
abdomen has a line of spines on the second segment. 

The specimen described is a female measuring 33 mm. from the front 
to the end of the telson; length of larger cheliped, 39 mm.; length of 
palm, 7 mm.; length of fingers, 7 mm. | 

Mera South of Cuba; Albatross station 2133. Lat. 19° 55’ 55” ' 
N.; Long. 75° 48’ 03’" W. In 290 fathoms; eight specimens, one large } 
and seven small. | 

Type.—-Cat. No. 7810, U.S.N.M. | 

One of the largest of the small specimens measures 17 mm. in 1 
length. They differ from the large one taken for the type in having 
but one row of spines on the outside of the palm and several in having | 
the third segment of the abdomen armed with only two spines. The | 
supraocular spines are shorter. 


MUNIDA FLINTI, new species. 


length. The supraocular spines are shorter than the eyes, both the 
rostrum and the supraoculars are smoother than in J/. affines. As in | 
that species the normal number of spines on the gastric area is seven, | 
the middle spine, however, is often wanting, the other spines of the 
‘arapace are the same as in affinzs. The tranverse lines and the gran- 
ules are not crowded as in afin7s, and the cilia do not reach from line | 
to line. 

The armature of the abdomen is the same as in afinds except in the: 
lateral spines, which number two on each side of the central pair on 
the second segment and but one on the third segment, while the fourth | 
segment has only the central pair and a single posterior spine on the: 
median line. The chelipeds are scabrous and spiny; the merus has_ 
about fourteen spines on or near the crest, and here and therea single: 
spine on other parts of the surface. The palm of the hand is densely { 
scabrous, the spinules are few and scattered. The dactyl has a row of | 
widely separated spinules on its margin. The prehensile edges of the) 
fingers are set with hair and armed with well separated teeth; between | 
the teeth the edge is crowded with denticles. 

This species is much like afin/s and stimpsoni in general appear-- 
ance, but very different from either in detail. Named for Dr. J. M., 


| 

| 

| 

‘ 

The rostrum usually extends beyond the eyes about one-half of its ! 











a & 


SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 259 








Mint, U. S. Navy, surgeon on the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 


Fi1G. 9.—MUNIDA FLINTI, X 2. 


; Locality.— Albatross station 2402 in 111 fathoms, two specimens; sta- 
tion 2403 in 88 fathoms; station 2404 in 60 fathoms, eleven specimens. 
| Lype—Cat. No. 9778, U.S.N.M. 


MUNIDA HISPIDA, new species. 


The carapace is broadest at about the posterior third; the breadth 
at the posterior margin is greater than the front. The front is 
fattened, almost transverse between the supraocular spines and the 






260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 
spine behind the antenne. The transverse lines are strong, granulose, ' 
and sometimes spinulose. ; 





7 


33 ere RAS 


are 


a 

SCA ee 
> > 
OES 


oe a at i 


“age eee 
>_> 
Pt 217. 
es) 


> Pe 
eet pe 


SSS 
Riess 





Fie. 10.—MUNIDA HISPIDA, x 3. 


The gastric spines are small; a much smaller pair is placed in advance 
and a little closer together. On the median line of the gastric region 
there are five or six spines, and on a ridge behind these there is a row 






0.1311, SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 261 


= 





Be pinules: at the eae eres are Ene spines obliquely placed; a num- 
ber of spinules are scattered over the anterior portion and sides of 
this area. There are about sixteen spinules on the triangular area; 
-aspine on the branchial area just behind the apex of the triangle, 
and another paired spine just behind this. The posterior border of 
the carapace has an armature of low spines about eighteen in number 
in the figured specimen, and about ten in the smaller ones; the spines 
_of the lateral margin number from seven to ten. 

The rostrum is more than twice as long as the supraocular spines; 
‘itis slightly sigmoid and minutely serrate. The supraocular spines 
area little longer than the eyes, are stout at the base and taper rapidly 

to a sharp point, The merus of the maxillipeds is armed on its in- 
-ferior margin with two spines, which are widely separated. The 
chelipeds are stout, prismatic, and spinose. The merus of the ambu- 
latory feet is triangular in cross section; both upper and lower anterior 
“margins are thickly set with short curved spines. 

The second, third, and fourth segments of the abdomen are armed, 
the second and third with two rows of spines and the fourth with a 
single row; the second row of the double rows is composed of smaller 
“spines, and in all but the largest specimens these are usually wanting. 

Length of the type from the extremities of the rostrum and telson, 
-83mm.; length of right cheliped, 186 mm.; merus, 70 mm.; palm, 53 
-mm.; fingers, 30 mm. 
= Loca Albatross station 2817, Galapagos Islands; A/batross sta- 
tion 2987. Off Lower California seven specimens much smaller than 
the type. 
| Type.—Cat. No. 20535, U.S.N.M. 

_ The variation between the large specimen taken for the type and 
_ the smaller specimens is considerable. The carapace of the smaller 
ones lack many of the spinules, and the spines are Jarger; the fourth 
segment of the abdomen may show only two small protuberances in 
place of the row of spines. The chelipeds are much shorter, and they 
are armed with definite rows of spines; the palm is prismatic, and the 
prehensile edges of the fingers are in contact throughout. ‘The 
“rostrum i in some of the smallest is slightly bent upward. With all 
this variation, however, the specimens intergrade, and in my opinion 
Be ive no eround for separation. 
| 








MUNIDA HONSHUENSIS, new species. 


The rostrum is slightly sigmoid, and is more than twice the length 
of the supraocular spines, which do not quite reach the cornea. 
The spines of the gastric area are sixteen in number—twelve in the 
“gastric row, a pair separated by the first ciliated line, and a paired 
‘Spine at the base of the antero-lateral spine; there is a single paired 
Spine in the fork of the cervical suture and one ack of the fork. 





262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. =i 


a a \ 
eG 





The spines of the merus of the maxillipeds are large and situated at— 
the extremes of the segment. 

The chelipeds are short, stout, and prismatic; the spines of the distal 
portion of the merus are very large, becoming smaller proximally. 

There are four rows of spines on the carpus. The largest occupy 
the crest, the smallest the row on the outer surface near the lower 
margin. Medium-sized spines occupy the rows that arm the inner and 
outer surfaces. The outer margins of the fingers are each armed with 
four rather large spines. 

The second segment of the abdomen is armed with nine spines, which 
are short and blunt. 

The length of the carapace from the end of the rostrum is 16 mm.; 
length of chelipeds, 26 mm. 

One specimen, female, from A/batross, station 3708, in 60 to 70 
fathoms, off Honshu Island, Japan. 

Type.—Cat. No. 25472, U.S.N.M. 

This species is an addition to the: group of which 
Munida militaris Henderson is the typical example. 
It differs in not having spines on the median line of 
the carapace and in its shorter and less divergent 
supraoculars. 

The hands of this species are compressed, the out- 
line of the palms is straight, and not as shown in the 
figure of J/. malitaris in the Challenger report; the 
outer surface of the palms is made up of two planes 
which intersect at the median row of spines. 

Two males were taken at station 3739 in 55 to 65 
fathoms, which differ from the specimen taken as the 
type in that the chelipeds are elongated, and are without any promi- 
nent spines, there are numerous small spines on the merus and carpus, 
afew on the palm, and one or two on the margins of the fingers. 
There is a hiatus between the fingers, the prehensile edges of which 
are set with small teeth even in size and with rouned ends; the hiatus 
which extends the length of the fingers is filled with bristles which 
arise from the lower surface of both fingers. 





FrGg. 11.—MUNIDA 
HONSHUENSIS, 21 


age 


MUNIDA MEDIA, new species. 


The carapace is widest in the middle; the sides are arcuate, the 
anterior portion is armed with six or seven spinules. 

The transverse striz are not crowded; are both granulated and cili- 
ated; the cilia are iridescent. The postocular or gastric spines are 
small; a much smaller paired spine stands at the side in line with them; 
another paired spine is placed farther down near the hepatic region. 
The cervical groove is deep; where it meets the side there is a notch; 
the cilia in both branches are longer than elsewhere. The triangular 


No. 1311, SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 26% 





areolation in the fork of the groove is armed with five or six spinules. 
There are also several spinules on the anterior border of the branchial 
‘region. The posterior border of the carapace is unarmed. 

The rostrum is slender and elongated, equaling in length the width 
of the carapace; the supraocular spines are short, not reaching the 
distal extremity of the cornea. The inferior border of the merus of 
maxillipeds is armed with three slender spines 
proximal being the longest. 











graded in size, the 


cee eed ne ee ee 





Fic. 12.—MUNIDA MEDIA, x 4. 


The eyes are large with spreading cornea. 

The chelipeds are long, slender, and subcylindrical; the merus and 
carpus are armed with slender spines, the palm with spinules. 

The merus of the ambulatory iegs has a row of spines on the upper 
_ margin; in line with these there are five or six on the carpus; the lower 
margin of the propodus has a row of seven spinules. 

_ The second segment of the abdomen has a row of eight small spines 
and the third segment a single pair. The other segments are smooth, 


y 


pt 


264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 









The length of the body from the front to the end of the telson is 
10 mm.; length of the chelipeds, 24 mm.; length of the palm, 5 mm.; ; 
length of the fingers, 4.8 mm. | 

Locality. —Oft Habana, Albatross station 2343, 279 fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 9524, U.S.N.M. ; 


MUNIDA MEXICANA, new species 





aR crus aan ii 
oa Nasi! 
Ne ! 





“if Lean es 
“A ) Ny l NWN \\\ 


Fig. 13.—MUNIDA MEXICANA, 31, 
The carapace is widest at about the beginning of the posterior third; 


from the widest point it tapers forward to a rather narrow front. 
The ciliated lines are unusually distant; the cilia are short. 


No 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEA NS—BENEDICT. 265 



















There are eight spines on the gastric area, six in a transverse line 
and two separated by the length of the first ciliated line. There is a 
paired spine in the fork of the cervical suture; no spines occur posterior 
to these. 

The rostrum is nearly twice the length of the eyes, its upper margin 
is slightly roughened; the supraocular spines are about one-half the 
Jength of the eyes and twice the size of the antero-lateral spines. The 
merus of the maxillipeds is armed on the inferior border with three 
slender spines and by three small denticles and a spine on the opposite 
border. The merus of the anterior feet shows upward of twenty-five 
spines when viewed from above; the carpus is short and is armed with 
spines and spinules; the palm is short and spinulose; the fingers are 
much longer than the palm, and in some specimens have a large hiatus 
near the base. The abdomen is unarmed. 

_ The length of the largest specimen is 12 mm. from the front to the 
end of the telson; length of the chelipeds, 29 mm.; length of dacty], 
10 mm.; length of palm, 5.2 mm. 

_ Locality.—West coast of Mexico, 9 to 783 fathoms; stations 2794, 
2809, 9816, 2826, 2829, 2833, 2988, and 3012. 

f pe. DCit 20536, Gx: New. ; ee ern station 2816, off Galapagos 
‘ Bands. 

Variations: The proportionate length of the fingers varies. 


a 


MUNIDA NUDA, new species. 


ae RPE 


The carapace is broadest anteriorly. The transverse lines are widely 
sic and are almost devoid of cilia; the only unbroken line runs 
ACTOSS the middle of the gastric region; it is conspicuous on account 
of its straightness and its ending at a spine on the sides of the gastric 
region. There are eight subequal spines on the gastric region—four 
in a row near the front and a pair on each side near the hepatic region; 
the larger one of the pair is higher up on the area and at the end of 
the straight carinated line. The front is broad and produced in the 
middle. The supraocular spines are short and stout, not reaching 
more than one-half the length of the eyes. 
_ The rostrum is compressed, serrate above, less so on the sides, and > 
mooth below. The merus of the lower border of the maxillipeds is 
rmed with one large spine. The chelipeds are strikingly different 
rom those of any species examined. They are short; the merus has 
bout ten spines; the largest are on the distal margin; the carpus has 
wo or three large ones on the inner margin and a large number of 
smaller ones on the upper surface; the outlines of the hand are ellip- 
tical; spines run along the borders nearly to the ends of the fingers; 
th ee are upward of fifty spines on the outer surface; the inner sur- 
lace is free from spines. The second segment of the abdomen has 




















266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 





four spines. “Length of body, 12 mm.; length of cheliped, 17 mg 
of palm, 4 mm.; of fingers, 4 mm. > 

Locality. Alhatpods station 2338, latitude 23° 10’ 40” N., longitude 
89° 90! 15” W.; 189 fathoms. One male. Cat. No. 9516, U.S.N.M. | 








Fic. 14.—MUNIDA NUDA, X 4}. 


MUNIDA PERLATA, new species. 


The carapace is broadest in the middle, where it nearly equals tht 
distance from the posterior border to the line of the gastric spines 
In the single specimen obtained there are but two spines on the cara’ 
pace; these are on the gastric area. In line with these, between amt 
outside, are tubercles which in some specimens would probably ocew 
as spines. he ciliated lines are elevated. There are six small spine 
on the margin behind the antero-lateral angle. The eyes are small 









“merus are small, except those of the distal border, where there are 
four very large ones. There are two large spines on the inner margin 
f the carpus and smaller ones elsewhere. The hand is very hairy; 










The second 


~e-)s 


AGO ILE FICE RE TORE ON RAN rag 


Fig. 15.—MUNIDA PERLATA, X 23. 


_ This species in some of its characters superficially resembles small 
specimens of J. propinqua Faxon and of JM. mécrophthalma A. M. 
Edwards. From the first it is distinguished by its small eyes, from 
_ both by the armature of the maxillipeds. The supraocular spines are 
also much shorter in perlata than in mécrophthalma. 

Length from the front to the end of the telson, 24 mm.; length of 
the cheliped, 21 mm.; length of palm, 4 mm.; length of fingers, 4mm. 
 Locaiity.—Station 2808, off the Galapagos Islands; 634 fathoms. 
One female with eggs. 

> Type.—Cat. No. 20538, U.S.N.M. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 19 





ae 


068 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUS 





MUNIDA PUSILLA, new species. 

The carapace is broadest posteriorly; the sides are arcuate. The 
transverse lines of cilia are iridescent. The spines and spinules of the 
gastric area vary in number; the largest are those of the pair behind 
the supraocular spines; in line with these are one or more pairs of 
spinules; there is also a pair close to the hepatic area. There are two 





Fic. 16.—MUNIDA PUSILLA, X 4. 


or three spinules in the fork of the cervical suture and one on the 
branchial region behind the fork of the suture. The sides of the front 
retreat a little to the antero-lateral angle. The supraocular spines are 
less than one-half the length of the eyes. The rostrum is long and 
slender and is raised but little above the horizontal. The superior mar-_ 


JUM. VOL. XXVvnue 


i 


Lape 


“No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 269 


~ 





gin of the maxillipeds is armed with but a single spine. The anterior 
feet in the male are very long and slender; in many specimens there is 
a prominent hiatus near the base of the fingers of one hand; in one 
specimen the hiatus exists in both hands. The spines, or rather spin- 
ules, of the merus are very small; the palm is scabrous, much as in 

. ris. There are but few very small spines on the ambulatory legs; 
the only ones at all prominent are those at the distal ends of the merus 
and carpus. The second segment of the abdomen of many specimens 
has a widely separated pair of spinules; in other specimens with 
correlated characters the spinules are wanting. 

The females are readily distinguished by the shorter and more spiny 
chelipeds. The spinules of the second segment of the abdomen are 
often wanting, as in the males. 

Male: Length of body, 10 mm.; chelipeds, 28 mm.; palm, 8 mm.; 
fingers, 4.5 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2405, Gulf of Mexico; also, at stations 
9120, Caribbean Sea; 2365, 2372, 2406, 2407, and 2640, Gulf of Mexico. 
A lot of three specimens is labeled ** Warsaw, New Providence.” 

Type.—Cat. No. 20539, U.S.N.M. Station 2405. 


MUNIDA QUADRISPINA, new species. 


The carapace is narrowest near the front margin; the posterior 
angles are much rounded. 

There are six spines on the gastric area, four in a line in the usual 
place behind the supraocular spines, and one on the sides near the hepatic 
region; the terminal spines of the line are very weak and small, but 
one spine occupies the anterior branchial region. The marginal spines 
vary from eight to ten in number. 

The rostrum is long and compressed, moderately serrate above and 
slightly so below. The supraocular spines do not reach quite to the 
ends of the eyes; they are united to the rostrum for nearly one-half 
of their length. The eyes are small. The merus of the maxillipeds 
is armed on the inferior border with four spines; the first and last are 
long, the others short. The distal ends of the terminal segments of the 
maxillipeds are rather more dilated than is usual in the genus. 

The anterior feet are well set with spines and spinules. The merus 
has fourteen spines; the carpus about twenty spines and spinules:; and 
the palm upwards of thirty. 

The ambulatory feet are compressed; the meral and carpal joints are 

‘Spiny-—spines short, blunt, inconspicuous. 

Length of a large specimen, 35 mm.; length of palm, 15 mm.; length 
of fingers, 13 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2960; 267 fathoms, 2878. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20537, U.S.N.M. 

Also taken at stations 2861, 2866, 2871, 287 
B170, 3183, 3445, 3449, 3454; 3457, : see 364 
if 





Q7 


8, 2886, 29386, 30538, 3104, 
: » 
) 


, and 3673. One speci- 


. 





270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL, XXV 





men in the collection is labeled Sitka, Alaska, Dr. W. H. Jones, U. Say 
N., 1882, No. 13947. 3 

The merus of the maxillipeds is commonly armed with four spines — 
on the lower border; variations are numerous; while the two medium 
spines are usually smaller than the others. This is not always the 
as they may range from small tubercles to large spines. 





case, 





e 


OREO eee, 





Ak 









3 
ie if 


2 





52 
> 
¥ 


Fic. 17.—MUNIDA QUADRISPINA, * 1}. 


MUNIDA SCULPTA, new species. 5 


The carapace is broadest behind the middle, and is moaerately swol- 
len. The ciliated lines are rather more than usually elevated, and its” 
anterior edges are thickly set with minute denticles. The cilia are. 
worn from the anterior and central portions of the surface, but on the 
region near the fifth pair of legs are intact, and are brightly irides- 
cent; the cilia cover about two-thirds of the space between the line 
The carapace is armed with more spines than is usual in species witl 







0.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. O01 






unarmed abdomens. A row oe ‘bight spines on fhe aaah area 1s 
rranged in size as follows: The gastric pair is the largest: the next 
re.the second and fourth pairs; those of the third pair are little more 
than spinules; a little behind the third and fourth paired spines of 
‘the front row is a spinule, and on the sides are two other paired spines. 
On each of three females there is a denticle near the extremities of a 
ciliated line forming the anterior margin of the posterior lobe of the 


al ht wt 





Fie. 18.—MUNIDA SCULPTA, X 2. 


gastric area. These spinules are wanting in the three males. In the 
fork of the cervical suture are three or four spines; on the border 
behind the suture there is a row of from three to five paired spinules. 
_ The rostrum extends beyond the eyes by more than one-half of its 
length, it is slender, slightly compressed, and is obscurely serrated 
bove. 

_ The supraocular spines extend to about the middle of the eye. The 
ntero-lateral spines equal the supraoculars in length. 


~ 


The inferior border of the merus of ‘ee m: methods is nana with, 
three or more spines on the proximal and one on the distal end. 

The chelipeds are shorter than those of J/. ¢rrasa. The merus has 
three rows of ten or more spines in good alignment; the surfaces on 
each side of the middle row are flat and diverge at an angle of 90 
decrees. There are seven or eight spines on the carpus and two rows 
on the inside of the palm; all of the articles are scabrous throughout. 

The abdomen is unarmed. 

The type specimen is an ovigerous female, and is more nearly perfect 
than the others. Unfortunately, the exact locality is unknown; it is 
labeled ‘‘Caribbean Sea, 1884.” All of the other specimens come from 
the north of Cuba. These specimens differ from the type in having 
the supraocular spines less divergent and in having three spines on 
the merus of the maxillipeds where the type has four; the distal 
terminal spine is also wanting in these specimens. The type measures 
from the front to the end of the telson 32 mm.; width, 12 mm.; length 
of chelipeds, 38 mm.; length of palm, 9 mm.; length of fingers, 9 mm. 

Locality. —Albatross station 2159; 98 fathoms; one male and one 
female. 

(Station 27, Iowa State University Expedition; two males and one 
female.) 

Type.—Cat. No. 8942, U.S.N Y.M. 


MUNIDA SIMPLEX, new species. 


The carapace is broadest behind; the transverse ciliated lines are 
well separated; the cilia are iridescent and extend forward one-fourth 


of the distance to the next line. There are six spines in line near the 


front of the gastric area and a single spine at the extremes of the first 
ciliated line. Two paired spines are situated in the fork of the cervi- 
cal suture, making twelve spines in all on the surface of the carapace. 

The eyes are nee ; the supraocular spines extend to the cornea. In 
the type specimen the lower border of the merus of the maxillipeds is 
armed with a long spine and three rudimentary ones in the other speci- 
mens; the merus has but one or two rudimentary ones. 

The chelipeds are long and cylindrical, and under a lense they are 
lightly scabrous; the scale-like areas are bordered with iridescent cilia, 

The merus has about twenty-five spines, large and small, in a dorsal 
view. ‘The spines of the carpus are small; there isa row of small spines 


near the crest of the palm. The hands are long and a little curved 


inward, and bent slightly downward from the base of the fingers, 
which are a little longer than the palm. In the specimen selected for 
the type the chelipeds are unequal; the left one is the smaller, and 
has the most marked bend at the base of the fingers, making a large 
shallow sinus in the lower outline; the outline of the dacty! is con- 


cave; the curves in the right hand are not so strong as in the left, and 


De, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 
: 


. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 273 


etter moprcsent, she: hands of the three specimens from the other 
: 

The length of the body from the front to the end of the telson is 
14mm. The chelipeds are 34 and 37 mm. in length, respectively, and 
the palm of the right is 9 mm.; the fingers, 9.2 mim. 





Qo aye 


Fig. 19.—MUNIDA SIMPLEX, X 3. 





Type.—Cat. No. 7789, U.S.N.M., from Wibotrose St ation 2169; depth 
78 fathoms. 

A second specimen was taken at station 2320 in 150 fathoms; two 
other specimens were taken at station 2322 in 115 fathoms: the three 
Stations were off Habana, Cuba. 









274 








PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


MUNIDA TENELLA, new species. 





(Se SSO 






se Oud 


Fig. 20.—MUNIDA TENELLA, X 3. 


: 
The carapace is broadest in the anterior-middle, tapering slightly 
forward to the slender spines behind the antenna. The ciliated lines — 


a 





‘No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 275 





re well separated, re oie are enone and slightly iridescent; the lines 
are for the most part unbroken. The gastric pair of spines is small, 
and the other spines of the gastric row are very small; in some 
specimens they should be designated as spinules. There are eight 
spines in the gastric row and two at the extremities of the first cili- 
ated line, making ten spines on the gastric area. A large spine occu- 
pies the area in the fork of the Pe ical suture and a second paired 
spine the border just behind the fork. 

The rostrum is about twice as long as the eyes; two or more 
spinules break the continuity of the sides: the upper border is sub- 
serrate. The supraocular spines are small and reach only about the 
middle of the eyes. 

The eyes are large, the cornea is much inflated, and the peduncles 
are very short. 

The inferior margin of the merus of the maxillipeds is armed with 
a large spine on the proximal part and by a short spine on the distal 
part. The merus of the chelipeds is armed with three rows of spines, 
the inner row with seven, the middle with six, and the outer with nine. 

There are five spines on the carpus, three on the distal border, and 
two small ones on the inner margin. The upper margin of the palm 
has a row of from ten to fourteen small spines. The ambulatory feet 
are spinulose. The second segment of the abdomen has a line of six 
spines, the third and fourth two each. 

Length of a large specimen, from the front to the end of the telson, 
18 mm.; length of chelipeds, 39 mm.; of palm, 9 mm.; of fingers, 
8mm. Taken by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer A/batross at 
several stations off St. Josephs Island, Gulf of California, in from 39 
to 71 fathoms. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20540, U.S.N.M. 

Variations: The gastric row of spines may have six spines in small 
specimens. The rostrum may show several spinules or none. The 
second segment of the abdomen may have but one pair of spines in 
some of the smaller specimens; usually six can be made out under a 
lens. 





Genus MUNIDOPSIS Whiteaves. 
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MUNIDOPSIS EXAMINED. 


a. Eye spines present. 
b. Eye spines short, conical. 
ec. Chelipeds short, bearing but few spines. 


d. Carapace broadest behind; gastric area with six spines. ---- aculeata, p. 315 
d. Carapace broadest in front; gastric area with two spines. subsquamosa, p. 327 
ec. Chelipeds elongated, bearing numerous spines. 
d. Abdomen unarmed. 
e. Auxiliary eye spine at the base of the large eye spine. ----.-.scabra, p. 325 
eA miany eve Spine: Wanting .— 5242.2. 252. Sones. -n- ==. -tannert, p. 327 
321 


4 che yeti SV eS Pec iel on (o/0 EOE See a ce hystrix, p. 
3 b, Eye spines long. 


bo 
~I 
Sa 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. SAV ie 








+. Without spines or teeth on the front behind the antennal pedunele. 


d. With four spines on the posterior margin of the carapace -.--bairdi, p. 317 _ 
d. Without spines on the posterior margin; margin roughened by a large | 
number of sharp granules. ¥ | 
e. Rostrum straight; = =. 2-5 ose ae ee antonii, p. 316 — 
e. Rostrum’ curved. => === see eee beringana, p. 279 
¢. With spines or teeth on the front behind the antennze. 

d. Spines wanting on the gastric area ......---------------spinoculata, p. 327 

d. Spines on the gastric area two or more. 
e. One eye Spine .-.---- = -- <2 + sae oe = a ee crassa, p. 318° 


e. Two eye spines. 
yf. Crest of palms spiny. 
g. Merus of chelipeds with ten to twelve spines (exclusive of the ter- 


minal spines)io 222.222 25 — ose ae ee similis, p. 326 
g. Merus of chelipeds with six to eight spines -...-.----- verrilli, p. 291 
f. Crest of palms not spiny .--.--------------------------- nitida, p. 323 


a. Eye spines not present. 
}. Rostrum broad, with subparallel sides; extends considerably beyond the eyes 
where it terminates in a trident. 
¢. Rostrum long and strongly bent upward, as in Galicantha. 


d. Carapace without spines except on margin ..-.---.-------- expansa, p. 282 
d. Carapace with spines on the surface ...-.------- bee Se ieee gilli, p. 283 


c. Rostral point short, horizontal (Galathodes). 
d. Gastric area armed with two spines or spinules. ! 
e. Palm spiny above and below --.--..=-----=2--.2-_----..- Uri ee 
e. Pali’ not spiny .2 22 52 2222 See = ae ee mina, p. 285 
d. Gastric area without spines or spinules. 
e. Maxillipeds with the inferior margin of merus armed with three spines. 
J: Sides! of rostrum: CONVEX] == en —-— eee eee tridentata, p. 328 
f. Sides of rostrum) straight 222 22-o. 2 se eee bahamensis, p. 278 
e. Maxillipeds with the inferior margin of the merus armed with two spines. 
f. Both spines slender from the base. 
g. Carpus of chelipeds with a single long slender spine -tenuirostris, p. 289 
g. Carpus with three long slender spines. ..--.--------- latifrons, p. 321 
f. Both spines not slender. 
g. Fingers of the chelipeds acuminate from base to tip-acuminata, p. 277 
g. Fingers not,acuminate: —- = 2¢45-02-5- 5= modesta, p. 286 
b. Rostrum not tridentate. 
c, Abdomen unarmed. 
d. Eyes movable. 
e. Gastric area with two very short conical spines -- ---- - - platirostris, p. 324 — 
e. Gastric area without spines. 
jf. With a sharp spine at the anterolateral angle. 
g. Rostrum broadest at base. 


h. Spine of anterolateral angle very short.---.----- cylindropus, p. 281 
h. Spine of anterolateral angle long .........---------- sigsbei, p. 326 
g. Rostrum broadest in the middlewee2s. = eee armata, p. 316 — 
J. Without spine on the anterolateral angle. g 
g. Eyes long, cylindrical 33. cylindrophthalmus, pp. 319, 281 — 
g.*Byes'short: 22.2 ee eee =f Soa polita, p. 324 
d. Eyes immoyable. : 
e. Surface of carapace smooth, punctate =-_ 2225-2. ss=eeeeeee espinis, p. 282 
e. Surface of carapace rough, coarsely granulated ......---- squamosa, Pp. 327, 
c. Abdomen armed with spines or tubercles. a 





Ho.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. ° 277% 
—— Say - 
‘ d. Rostrum armed with ise spines. 


e. Rostrum armed with a single pair of lateral spines. 


7 OMcmon Mane UNAnINed- 2.22.2 2502...5---5---.--2-5 erinaced, ~. 320 
f. Posterior margin armed with spines. 
Pee Spier AOUC WO MK oi mciass == - ten saas- 2! - = +. ------8pinifer, p. 327 
Pop MmesqiiMmerous, (Sinai, 22... kee ee ee sericea, p. 326 
e. Rostrum armed with two or more spines on each side. 
PoebiyGemMiOna Dene att oe oc sl Leese cs. Sos et ee le... opalescens, p. 287 
RaelyeoreuMlerer eS 8 oo. So oe c)s temo v le knee hamata, p. 320 


d. Rostrum not armed with lateral spines. 
e, Armature of the abdomen not confined to the median line. 

f. Armature of abdomen consisting of small conical spines, uniform in 
size, placed in a double row on the second, third, and fourth 
SGOT CT eee ee ey eee ce iahsinic ote nara cies cle wae orto scobina, ~. 325 

. Armature consisting of prominent spines on the median line and a 
single spine on each side. 
g. Spines on the posterior margin of carapace, 2 ..---: serratifrons, p. 326 
g. Spines on the posterior margin of carapace, more than 2-hastifer, p. 284 
e. Armature of abdomen confined to the median line. 
f. Gastric area armed with 1 or more spines or tubercles. 


Ge OsunMeGe PrESseMe ssa ns secacieeciss Sess -- 24. - ss latirostris, p. 321 
g. Rostrum curved upward. 
h. Median line on the gastric area free from spines ----- villosa, p. 330 


h. Median line on the gastric area armed with spines or tubercles. 

i. Orbicular sinus well developed. 
k. Rostrum strongly curved upward and much longer than the 
OWES Se Scie Ss SEE ee robusta, p. 325 
k. Rostrum nearly horizontal and but little longer than the eyes. 
tounsendi, p. 290 

i. Orbicular sinus lacking. 

k. Carapace of nearly uniform width, widest in middle, not cut 


HMO LOWS sem a pasos cr. sobs. 2 oo co sumplem, p. 320 
k. Carapace not uniform in width, cut into lobes by cervical 
sutures. 
I. Broadest near anterior end .........----.- longirostris, p. 322 
l. Broadest near posterior end......--------- curvirostra, p. 319 
jf. Gastric area lacking spines or tubercles. @ 
g. With sharp anterolateral spines...--....c-...----- abbreviata, p. 315 


g. Anterolateral spines wanting. 
h. Rostrum short, broad, concave, apex rounded. 


Lata pace.ai uniiorm width «5-62 -52--.—--.- longimana, p. 322 

i Carapacesproagest in front'. 222... 22262 es e325 = carinipes, p. 317 
h. Rostrum acuminate. 

i. Lateral margins of carapace straight -.......---- quadrata, p. 325 

Zanllateralemarcinsarcuate 3 -2—co-ssese5 cet k sesh aspera, p. 316 


MUNIDOPSIS ACUMINATA, new species. 


The rostrum extends beyond the eyes about one-third of its length; 
the base is broad; the rostral point is twice as long as the lateral 
points. The antennal spines are alittle smaller than the rostral spines. 
The spines of the lateral margin are four in number, including the 





oM. aspera may be an nee: as the rough eae are general on the carapace. 









ye) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





anterolateral spine. The posterior spine is situated just behind the 

branch of the cervical suture, as indicated by a slight notch; the ante-_ 

rior branch of the suture ends in a notch just behind the anterolat-— 
eral spine; both branches are_ 
indistinct, while the groove is 
well marked behind the gastrie 
area, 

The carapace is roughened 
by short, granulose ruge; 
there are no spines on any part 
of the gastric area. The spines 
of the ambulatory legs are con- | 
fined to the crests of merus and 
carpus. The chelipeds have 
spines on the crest and on the 

“\ inner margin of the merus and 
on the distal margin of the 
carpus. . 

The lower margin of the hand 

is nearly straight, with a slight 


aa swelling at the palm andaslight 


Ne - > sinus at the base of the fingers; 


Ape rp the fingers are acuminate, the 
Dl NA OLN Cater: 
Ut chee 


outline of the closed fingers 
See atte eee from the base to the tip is tri- 
FIG. 21.—MUNIDOPSIS ACUMINATA, X 2. ; : X 2 oe 
anguiar. This feature distin- 
guishes the species from all related forms of the subgenus Galathodes. 
The two specimens, one male and one female, were taken by the 
Albatross at station 2663, in 421 fathoms, off South Carolina. 
Type.—Cat. No. 11490, U.S.N.M. 





7 
i) 


MUNIDOPSIS BAHAMENSIS, new species. 


The rostrum is seven-eighths as long as it is broad at the base, 
measured from the base to the base of the lateral points; between the 
points it is three-fourths the length of the base. The lateral teeth are 
large and stand out well from the margin. The inferior margin of 
the merus of the maxillipeds is armed with three spines; the proximal 
spine is broad at the base; the second is as long and is uniform in 
size; the third is short, sometimes inconspicuous or wanting. The 
merus of the chelipeds has two rows of spines and two large spines 
between them; the carpus has a large spine at the inner angle and a 
smaller one at the condyle; the palm is broad and unarmed; in large 
specimens there is a hiatus between the fingers. The upper margins 
of the meral joints of the ambulatory feet bear a row of spines; the 


7. 





0.131. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS--BENEDICT. 279 








as, 


carpal joints have a single spine placed at ine Reel Seale of the upper 
margin. 
_ Length of a large male from the front to the end of the telson, 44 
mm.; length of chelipeds, 51 mm.; length of the carapace, 18 mm.; 
width, 16 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2669, 352 fathoms, off the coast of 
Florida. 
Type.-—Cat. No. 20555, U.S.N.M. 






Cie, 


Fig. 22.—MUNIDOPSIS BAHAMENSIS, x 1}. 


MUNIDOPSIS BERINGANA, new species. 


Three specimens of a Munidopsis were dredged in Bering Sea, 
which at first sight would be called JZ anton/7,; but a careful examina- 
tion shows that Ane texture of the carapace differs, that the rostrum 
is curved and not as in IZ anton//, which, though directed upward, is 
perfectly straight. 

The carapace of the Bering Sea species is, in its texture, more like 


_ @ Allowance must be made for the figure of this species, as the specimens were soft; 


the exuvice still partly attached to one. The small one is, however, hard, and this 


in 


ae 


confirms the specific characters given to the large specimens. The short rugose lines 
of the posterior sides are more marked in the specimens than in the figure. 
t 


§ 


280) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. X 








that of the Jf antonii figured by Henderson in the Challenger Ano- | 
mura. The sharp granules are arranged in short lines or squame on | 
the posterior portion of the carapace. The specimen figured has 
about twenty short, sharp spines on the gastric area. The smallest 
specimen, a male, has fifteen; a large female, with a part of the exu- | 
vie yet attached, has the same spination as a specimen of J/. antonis 
from the Paris Museum of Natural History (taken by the Zalésman), 
but otherwise it is like its companions. The 7a/isman specimen and 
the Bering Sea species agree in being broadest behind and tapering | 
eradually forward; the Challenger figure shows a species slightly nar-_ 
rower a little beyond the middle; the figure of the latter also shows | 





Fig. 23.—MUNIDOPSIS BERINGANA, 


wie 





| 
| 
a slight difference in the spines of the gastric ¢ a single spine in | 
the center where the other species have ine In comparing JZ. berin | 
gana with M. aculeata Faxon, the spination of the gastric area is very 
similar. The cornea of aculeata is much larger than ber/ngana and | 
the eye-spines smaller; the ruge of the posterior portion of the cara-. 
pace are coarse and separated in aculeata, and exceedingly numerous | 
and crowded in beringana | 
Length of the large female, figured from the middle of the pos- 
terior margin to the margin behind the eye, 32 mm.; greatest width, | 
28 mm. 4 
Locality.—F rom Albatross station 3608, neere7c’s fathoms. ‘ 
Type.—Cat. No. 20557, U.S.N.M. i 


_ 
gi 


no.13. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 281 
ee ; 


MUNIDOPSIS CYLINDROPUS, new species. 


_ The rostrum is sharp; the distal one-half is triangular in cross sec- 
‘tion; it extends horizontally forward beyond the eyes by about one- 
half of its length. From the apex to the eyes the upper margin is a 
‘sharp ridge; from this point the ridge is forked, the branches running 
back to the front of the gastric areolation, inclosing a slight triangular 
depression. The antero-lateral angles are right angles with sharp 
apices; that portion of the front which lies between the bases of the 
antennz is much advanced beyond the line of the angles. 

The articles of the antennal peduncles are each about as lone as 
broad; the flagelli are long and thread-like, reaching 
far beyond the chelipeds. 

The carapace is 5.5 mm. in breadth and 6.5 mm. in 
length, measured from the front behind the eve; the 
lateral margin is but slightly arcuate from the middle 
to the front, but much more so posteriorly.. The 
areolations are protuberant; the surface is everywhere 
broken by raised transverse lines varying greatly in 
length. 

The chelipeds measure 20 mm. in length and are ric. 24—Mvsrpor- 
almost uniformly 1 mm. in diameter throughout, the — “8,CY!NPReres, 
palm enlarging to 1.2 mm. at the base of the dactyl. : 

‘The merus and carpus are granulated, while the palm is smooth and 
slightly iridescent; two spines arm the inner surface of the merus and 
two or three the distal margins of both merus and carpus. 

The fingers are shorter than the palm; their prehensile edges are 
thin and minutely dentate. The ambulatory feet are granulated; with 
the exception of a small graduated comb under the dactyls they are 
free from spines. 

The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with two spines. 

The abdomen is wanting in both spines and tubercles; the margins 
of the second, third, and fourth segments are raised, forming deep 
transverse channels. 

This species in its general appearance very much resembles J/un/- 
dopsis cylindrophthalmus, but close inspection shows marked differ- 
ences in many characters. The latter species has a much broader 
Tostrum and smaller eyes; the ‘arapace is much smoother, and its 
antero-lateral angles are rounded. 

This single specimen, a female without eggs, was taken by the 
Albatross at station 3697, in 265-120 fathoms, off Honshu Island, Japan. 
& Lype.—Cat. No. 26163, U.S.N.M. 















z 


Sywws as 


QS, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 











MUNIDOPSIS ESPINIS, new species. 















The rostrum is about three times as long as broad in the middle 
the apex is blunt. The carapace is about as broad as long, subquad- | 
rate: the antero-lateral angle is formed by a broad, triangular, blunt | 
tooth, which projects be yond the base of the rostrum. The marein | 
between the rostrum and the tooth is divided by a triangular projee- 
tion into two parts; the inner part is semicircular. In this the eye is 
immovably fixed both to the front and rostrum. On the margin 
behind the antero-lateral tooth is a double-pointed tooth; behind this 
and in front of a deep transverse depression is a small tooth. 





Fig. 25.—MUNIDOPSIS ESPINIS, X 23. 


This species is altogether without spines, with the exception of two 
on the merus of the maxillipeds. 

The carapace is 7.5 mm. in each dimension. 

Locality.— Albatross, station 2351, 426 fathoms, off Yucatan. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20559, U.S.N.M. 


MUNIDOPSIS EXPANSA, new species. 


The front extends forward horizontally and ends in two points and) 
a sharply upturned rostrum. The carapace is very broad, and, except- 
ing on the margin, is altogether devoid of spines; the surface is rather 
crowded with short, semicircular, raised lines; the antero-lateral angles| 
are formed by triangular teeth, the points of which are directed for- 
ward; behind the angles are two teeth on a small lobe and a third one 
at about the middle of the margin. The merus of the maxillipeds 1s 
unarmed. The distai margins of the meral joints of both the chelipeds 


r 


No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 283 


and ambulatory legs are armed with tubercular spines; the chelipeds 
are much shorter than the body. 

Length of the body from the tip of the rostrum to the end of the 
telson, 52 mm.; length of the chelipeds, 30 mm.; length of carapace 
from the sinus behind the eye, 20 mm.; breadth in the middle, 22 mm. 

Locality.— Station 2663, 421 fathoms, off Florida. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20561, U.S.N.M. 








Wn Orrakect NU 


Fic. 26.—MUNIDOPSIS EXPANSA, 14. 


MUNIDOPSIS GILLI, new species. 


The rostrum projects forward and ends in two horizontal points and 
a sharply upturned rostral point, as in Galicantha. The portion of the 
front behind the rostrum is unarmed. The lateral margins are very 
uneven. A lobe bearing a small spine marks the antero-lateral angles; 
behind the angle is a lobe with two points, followed by a sinus, then 
another short spine or point. There are eight or more small tubercu- 
lar granules on the posterior border and numerous similar granules 
scattered over the carapace and legs The different areolations are 
protuberant; the gastric area is surmounted by three spines, placed 
at the points of an equilateral triangle; there are two short spines on 
the cardiac area. The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with three 
spines; the first is very stout at the base, the second is slender, the 
third is short. 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 20 








984 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





eg 
The Gneneeas are shorter than the body. The second, third, and 
fourth segments of the abdomen are each armed with a single spine. — 
Length of body from the rostrum to the end of the telson, 58 mm.; _ : 
length of carapace from behind the eyes, 24 mm.; breadth, 19.5 mm. 
Localita _—Albatross, station 2629, 1,169 fathonts: off Bahamas 
Islands. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20562, U.S.N.M. 
Named for Dr. Theodore Gill, associate in zoology, U. 5. National 


Museum. 





Fic. 27.—MUNIDOPSIS GILLI, x 1. 


MUNIDOPSIS HASTIFER, new species. 


The rostrum is rather broad, its sides are arcuate, the apex is acute, 
and the margin is cut into small serrate teeth; a prominent carina runs 
from the apex to the highest part of the gastric protuberance. The 
sides and front meet in an obtuse angle which is armed at the apex 
with a small spine. 

The front runs forward from the angle to a point almost under the 
eye, then back around the eye to the rostrum, leaving the eye ina 
semicircular orbit in which the eye moves slightly. 

The carapace is about one-sixth longer than broad, the areolations— 
are protaberant and curiously armed with compressed spines, many 


YN 
ON 
=, 
— 


0.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 2385 


having sharp procur rved points, especially those near the sides of the 
carapace; the gastric area has two large spines of this nature and 
numerous smaller ones. There are two on the median line on the 
eardiac area. The posterior margin of the carapace is raised, the 
middle third is free from spines, but on either side of this space is a 
pair, rather large and procurved. 

The chelipeds are about three times the length of the carapace, not 
including the rostrum; the merus is set with rows of elongated gran- 
ules, the middle inner surface is set 
with three sharp spines on one 
cheliped and with two on the other; 
there are three spines on the distal 
margin. The armature of the car- 
pus is similar; the palm is thickly 
set with small spiny granules below, 
large ones run along the upper mar- 
gin in a well-formed line. There 
is a line of hair along the ridge of 
the movable finger; the hiatus 
formed by the fingers is set with 
hair. The ambulatory feet are 
thickly set with spiny granules. 

The second. and third segments 
of the abdomen are armed with 
spines, the second segment has two 
spines in a central position on the 
posterior margin, and a_ paired 
group of two on tbe surface nearer 
the side; the third segment has a spine on the median line on the ante- 
rior margin and a pair separated by the line on the posterior margin, 
also smaller spines near the sides. 

The carapace of the largest specimen, a female without eggs, is 9.5 
mm. in length measured from the orbit, and 8 mm. in width; the 
chelipeds are 28 mm. in length, the palm at the base of the dactyl 1s 
3.2mm. in width, the fingers are 4.5 mm. long, and the palm 6.8 mm. 

Three specimens were taken at A/batross station 3697 in 265-120 
fathoms, off Honshu Island, Japan. 

Type.—Cat. No. 26164, U.S.N.M. 


MUNIDOPSIS MINA, new species. 





Fig. 28.—MUNIDOPSIS HASTIFER, X 23. 





The rostrum is about as long as broad, measured from its base to 
the base of the lateral points. The distance between the lateral points 
is about five-eights of the length of the base. The carapace is elon- 
gated: the sides are slightly arcuate and armed with four short spines. 
There are two short spines on the gastric area, as in J/. tredens 


qv 


LMAO 


286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 








A. M. Edwards. The merus of the maxillipeds is armed with four 
spines. The first is very broad, but sharp pointed; the second is 
slender: the third and fourth are short. The merus of the right che- 
liped has a row of small spines on the upper margin and three or four 


large spines on the inner surface. The carpus is armed on the distal 
margin with five spines. The palm is slender, a little compressed 
smooth on the sides, granular above and below. 


eneseern>} 


Se owen ae ae 


4 
| 
| 





Fic. 29.—MUNIDOPSIS MINA, X li. 


Length of body from the tip of the rostrum to the end of the telson, 
40 mm.; length of carapace from the front to the posterior margin, 
16 mm.; width of carapace, 12.5 mm. 


Locality.— Albatross station 2818, 392 fathoms, off Galapagos Islands. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20557, U.S.N.M. 





MUNIDOPSIS MODESTA, new species. 


The rostrum is broad; the rostral point is very much fonger than 
the lateral points at its base. 


The antero-lateral and other marginal spines are small for this see- 
tion of the genus. The carapace is inconspicuousty set with short hair; 


: 
‘No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 287 


the hair on the chelipeds and ambulatory legs is long, but not at all 
‘dense. There are no spines on the carapace. 

The inferior margin of the merus of the maxillipeds is armed with 
two short, sharp-pointed teeth. The spines on the merus of the cheli- 
peds vary in number, in most specimens there are four or five on the 
inner surface. There is but a single true spine on the carpus, situated 
at the inner angle. The hands are smooth; the palms are rather 
broad. The ambulatory feet are almost unarmed; the terminal spines 
of the meral and carpal joints are the most conspicuous. 





Fig. 30.—MUNIDOPSIS MODE™.a, X 3. 


~ 
E 


Length of the carapace from the front behind the eyes, 8.5 mm.; 
breadth of carapace, 7 mm.; length from the tip of the rostrum to 
the end of the telson, 22 mm.; length of chelipeds, 22 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2818, 392 fathoms, off Galapagos Islands. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20553, U.S.N.M. 

A number of specimens, one small female with eggs. 





MUNIDOPSIS OPALESCENS, new species. 
The rostrum is sharp pointed, triangular in section, armed on the 
sides with three or four spines irregularly placed. The carapace is 
subquadrangular in shape; the antero-lateral angles are armed with a 


288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. al 





e 





—— 


single spine, which stands out diagonally and curves forward. The 


| 
| 


areolations are very protuberant; three spines arise from the gastrie 


area, a transverse pair near the front and one on the median line 


farther back. There is a large spine on the cardiac area, followed by 
one or more smaller ones; three spines on the post-branchial area are 
in line near the margin; behind the antero-lateral angles there are 
three spines onthe margin. The posterior border is armed with six or 










(Ca 


Fic. 31.—MUNIDOPSIS OPALESCENS, 22. 


more spines. In addition to the spines enumerated there area variable 


number of spinules and spiny granules scattered over the surface. 


The second segment of the abdomen is armed with two large spines; 


anterior to these at the sides are one or more paired spinules. The 
third segment is armed with four spines, a pair on each of the two 
ridges; the anterior pair are the larger. The inferior margin of the 
merus of the maxillipeds is armed with four spines, the third is 


usually the shortest; the superior margin has three or four small 
denticles. 


7 


male and a little arcuate in 


yes. se 


ess SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—B5 SENEDI Cr 289 


= SS a 











3 The chelipeds are icnder: the spines on the merus are distantly 


“placed in three principal rows; there is a very large spine at the inner 
angle of the carpus; many smaller ones are arranged in three rows. 
The palm has a single row of spines on the superior margin; the 
-fingersareshort. Color very light, with bréiliant opalescent reflections. 

Length of a female from the margin behind the eyes to the end of 

the telson, 20 mm.; length of chelipeds, 2 27 mm. 

i Aibarross station 2781 in 348 fathoms and 2785 in 449 
fathoms, off Patagonia. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20558, U.S.N.M. 


MUNIDOPSIS TENUIROSTRIS, new species. 


The length of the rostrum from base to tip is equal to one-half the 
width of the carapace at the antero-lateral angles; the distance 
between the lateral points is 
two-fifths of the length of 
the base. The carapace is 
hairy and devoid of spines; 
the anterior half of the lat- 
eral margin is straight in the 


the female; the margin be- 
tween the spine above the 
antenne and the base of the 
rostrum is transverse; the 
antero-lateral and other 
spines of the margin are 
subequal. 

The inferior margin of 
the merus of the maxillipeds 
is armed with two slender 
spines and one very short 
conical one. There are two 

‘rows of spines on the merus 
of the chelipeds, with two 
large spines between them; 
the hands are flattened and ; 
a little elongated. ac nae 

Length of the carapace Fig. 32.—MUNIDOPSIS TENUIROSTRIS, X 2. 
from the margin behind the 
eye to the middle of the posterior margin is 11 mm.; breadth of cara- 
pace, 9mm.; length of cheliped, 32 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2415, 440 fathoms, off the coast of 
Georgia. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20560, U.S.N.M. 





29() PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


MUNIDOPSIS TOWNSENDI, new species. 


The carapace is a little longer than wide, measuring from the base 
of the rostrum. In shape it is almost as quadrate as J/. quadratus 
Faxon. The areolations are protuberant, and the entire surface is 
thickly set with tubercular granules subequal in size. These granules 
extend to the end of the rostrum. The rostrum is short and narrow, 
extending but little beyond the eyes. A tooth on the margin behind 
the antenne forms the outer angle of the orbital sinus. 

The posterior margin is armed with granules of the same size and 
character as the surface of the carapace. 

The second and third segments of the abdomen are armed each with 
a large tubercle; the tubercles and the surfaces of the segments are 
covered with the same granulations as the 
carapace; the other segments are smooth. 

The upper surface of the merus of the 
cheliped is armed with about fifteen short 
and very stout spines; the lower surface is 
semicylindrical and smooth; the carpus is 
armed with nine to twelve short tubercles. 

The palm is rather longer than the fin- 
gers and a little narrower. On the outer 
surface, in line with the gape of the 
fingers of the right hand, are the three 
largest spines on the cheliped; near the 
crest and parallel with the line of large 
spines is a row of very much smaller ones. 
The fingers are compressed, thin, and 
evenly toothed on the prehensile edges. On the left hand the three 
spines behind the gape are replaced by six smaller ones, and one or 
two of the parallel rows are hardly indicated. 

The merus of the ambulatory feet is tubercular or spiny on the distal 
half, the carpus is tubercular, and the propodus is smooth with the 
exception of a line of three to four conical spines on the upper surface. 

The dactyls are short and much curved. The merus of the maxilli- 
peds is armed with two short, stout spines. 

Length of carapace, from base of rostrum, 
8 mm. 

Named for Mr. C. H. Townsend, who served as naturalist on the 
U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. 

The type is a female with eggs from A/batross station 2818. 

Type.—Cat. No. 26167, U.S. N. M. 





Fig. 33.—MUNIDOPSIS TOWNSENDI, 


QitornOxees 


Ss 


( mm.; greatest width, 


g 


a: SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 291 





ie. 


MUNIDOPSIS VERRILLI, new species. 


The rostrum is slender and triangular in cross section; the upper 


margin runs back as a carina to a point behind the spines of the gas- 


tric region; the rostrum is slightly bent upward. The front from the 
base of the rostrum to a point under the anterolateral spine is nearly 
straight and is at an angle of about 45 degrees to the median line. The 
eyestalks are armed with two spines, of which the inner is much the 
longer. The carapace is iridescent; the short and rather elevated 
ruge are hairy. The abdomen is unarmed. 





Fic. 34.—MUNIDOPSIS VERRILLI, X 12. 
3 


The merus and carpus of the ambulatory legs are spiny. The merus 
of the chelipeds is triangular in cross section; it has four spines on the 
upper ridge and two on the inner; there are five or six spines on the 
carpus, and two prominent spines on the crest of the palm; the pre- 
hensile edges of the fingers are evenly dentate. 

This species is related to W/. brev/inana Henderson and to J. esliata 
Wood-Mason and to M/. nitida Milne-Edwards. 

Taken by the Albatross at stations 2919 and 2923, off southern 
California. 

Named for Prof. A. E. Verrill. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20656, U.S.N.M. 


292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. <i 


Genus UROPTYCHUS Henderson. 
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF UROPTYCHUS EXAMINED. 


a. Lateral margin of the carapace armed with spines or spinules. 
}. Merus without spines, except at the articulation with the carpus. 
ce. Rostrum but little longer than the eves. 


d. Gastric: region SIMO Oth Sessa eye ee eee armatus, p. 330 — 
d. Gastric region rough .... 22-222. 2225225-- 20 ee see = ane se SCONCE an mae 
c. Rostrum about twice the length of the eyes.......--..-...- granulatus, p. 298 


b. Merus spiny. 
ce. Spines on the merus few. 


d. Rostrum broad, triangular, not twice as long as the eyes. ...minutus, p. 296 
d. Rostrum about three times the length of the eyes ___-_..--.: spiniger, p. 298 
c. Spines on the merus numerous. 
d. Without spines on the gastric region) 52-—- 2 eee bellus, p. 3381 
d. With spines on the gastric region. 
e. Spines on the lateral margin short and StOutem es aces pubescens, p. 832 


e. Spines on the lateral margin long and slender. 
f. Chelipeds long and slender;. spines on the crest of the palm larger and 


more numerous than those of the lower margin .--..-.spinosus, p. 333 
f. Chelipeds stout, with spines of the crest and lower margin longer and 
about equal in size‘and number™--45-2 225 se seer eee princeps, p. 296— 


a. Lateral margin of the carapace unarmed. 
). Carapace and legs densely spinulose (including lateral margin) --rugosus, p. 333 
hb. Carapace not spinulose. 
c. Carapace pubescent Pe AOR I ere ee capillatus, p. 293 
c. Carapace not conspicuously pubescent. 
d. Rostrum about twice the length of the eyes. 


_e. Cornea not larger than the eyestalk ........-....-..-- jamaicensis, p. 294 
e. Cornea spreading, much larger than the eyestalk ....--.--- nitidus, p. 332 
d. Rostrum not twice as long as the eves. 
Gs NROS brea Cyr trae eal a ere brevis, p. 292 
e. Rostrum flat, triangular. 
f. Outline of hands arcuate on both margins. ------. ------- uncifer, Pp. 333 
f. Outline of hands straight on both margins. 
g. Rostrum longer than eyesi2 sos e see eee ee occidentalis, p. 332 
g. Rostrum much shorter than eyes -..---------------- scambus, p. 297 


UROPTYCHUS BREVIS, new species. 


The rostrum is short, subeylindrical, and blunt. The only armature 
of the carapace is at the antero-lateral angles, from which a fingerlike 
tubercle extends directly forward. 

The carapace is remarkable for its dimensions, being much broader 
than long; the broadest portion is near the posterior margin; the 
front is about one-half the breadth; the sides are immarginate. 

The merus of the maxillipeds is unarmed. The merus of the cheli- 
ped is cylindrical, armed at the distal upper angle with a single small 
spine; the carpus is a little compressed, with a row of 5 small tuber- 
cles on the upper margin and a spine and 2 tubercles on the distal 
border. The palm is compressed to a thin crest above; the crest is 









10, 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 293 











serrate; the fingers touch only at the tips; a tubercle on each extends 
across the hiatus. The propodal 
joints of the ambulatory legs are 
flattened andcurved, forming more 
than a semicircle in connection 
with the curved dactyls. 
Length of the carapace from the 
‘margin behind the eyes to the end 
of the median line, 5.5 mm.: 
breadth, 6.8 mm.; length of ros- 
trum, 1.5 mm. 
Locality.—Albatross station 
9351 in 426 fathoms, lat. 22° 41’ 
00” N.; long, 84° 16’ 30” W., off 
Yucatan. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20566 U.S.N.M., female with eggs. 


gs 





FIG. 35.—UROPTYCHUS BREVIS, X 13. 


UROPTYCHUS CAPILLATUS, new species. 


The rostrum is as long as the carapace; its breadth at the base is 
equal to one-balf of its length. The carapace is broader than long, 
armed on the lateral margin with a number of spin- 
ules; all surfaces are granular and covered with short 
hair. This speciesismuch nearer to U”. rugosus than 
to any other in the collection; it differs in having a 
dense coat of short hair where in 7ugosus it is long 
and scattering; the spines of the margin of the am- 
bulatory legs are smaller and more numerous in cap- 
ilatus; the upper margins of the propodal joints of 
the ambulatory legs are spiny only on the proximal 
half in rugosus. In this species the whole margin is 
spiny. The chelipeds are wanting in both specimens. 

Length of carapace, 3 mm.; breadth, +mm.; length 


fo UzorrrcHus * of rostrum, 3 mm. 
CAPILLATUS, X 3 3. ‘ 





Locality.— Albatross station 2353 in 167 fathoms, 
fat. 20° 59’ 00” N., long. 86° 23’ 00” W. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20565 U.S.N.M. 





UROPTYCHUS GRANULATUS, new species. 


The rostrum of a large female is 5 mm. long, is broad at the base, 
and sharp at the apex. It is slightly depressed, in conformity to the 
curve of the convexity of the carapace; it is deeply concave at the 
base. The antero-lateral angles are armed with stout spines. Near 
_ this is a smaller spine at the outer angle of the broad and deep orbital 
‘sulcus. The lateral margins of the carapace are very strongly arcuate 
and unevenly serrate. There is a spine on the margin behind the 








anterior branch of the cervical depression and one behind the posterior 
branch. On the carapace near the first spine there is a tubercle which 
in a smaller female is replaced by a spine; in a third and much 
smaller specimen this spine is but slightly indicated and the serrations 
and spines are inconspicuous. 

The surface of the carapace is set with large, well-separated granules, 
The chelipeds are long, cylindrical, and free from spines, except at 
the articulations. The surfaces, however, have the same character of 
granulations as the carapace. The ambulatory legs are smooth; the 
dactyls have a row of short, horny teeth, which form a comb on the 
lower margin. 





By Eats 
AME TUNIS. XS 


Fic. 37.—UROPTYCHUS GRANULATUS, X 1. 


Length of carapace, 11 mm.; breadth between the antero-lateral 
angles, 7 mm.; a little behind the middle, 12 mm.; at the posterior 
margin, 10 mm.; length of chelipeds, 59 mm.; of the palm, 18 mm.; 
of the fingers, 8 mm. 

Taken by the Albatross at station 2818 in 392 fathoms, Galapagos 
Islands. Three females, the two largest with eggs. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20567 U.S.N.M. 





UROPTYCHUS JAMAICENSIS, new species. 


The rostrum is deeply excavated on the basal half of its surface; it 
is flat above and below. The surface of the carapace is moderately 
swollen; the lateral margins are arcuate, ending at the antero-lateral 


294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI.. 


x 


bland 


e 


“ai 


evo. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 295 


angles in a small paired spine. The carapace is smooth, glabrous, and 
punctuate under a lens. The chelipeds are long; the carpus is much 
longer than the merus and equal to the palm; both merus and carpus 
are cvlindrical; the palm is compressed; the fingers are less than one- 
half the length of the palm; the merus and carpus have a spine at 
each of the anterior condyles. 





Fig. 38.—UROPTYCHUS JAMAICENSIS, X 1}. 


Length of the carapace, 8 mm.; greatest breadth, 9 mm.; length of 
the rostrum from the margin behind the eyes, 5 mm.; breadth of ros- 
trum at base, 2.5 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2117, in 683 fathoms, lat. 15° 24’ 40” N., 
long. 68° 31/30” W., Caribbean Sea. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20568, U.S.N.M. 






296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 





UROPTYCHUS MINUTUS, new species. 


2 

- 

> 
e 
rl 


The rostrum is long, sharp, and broadat the base; the sidesare straight. 
The carapace is broadest near the posterior margin; the lateral mar-_ 
gins are armed with six or seven spinules, and converge to a narrow — 
front. The species is 
remarkable for the 
large size of the hands. 
The palm is com- 
pressed; the immobile 
finger is longer than 
the dactyl, which 
closes inside of its 
hooked apex; there 
are several large 
spines on the merus 
and carpus. ‘The pro- 
podal joints of the am- 





Fic. 39.—UROPTYCHUS MINUTUS, x 33. Fig. 40.—UROPTYCHUS PRINCEPS, X 1}. 


bulatory legs have four or five long, slender spines on the lower margin. 
This is the smallest species oon Length of carapace, 3 mm.; 
chelipeds, 10 mm. 
Locality.— Albatross station 2120, in 73 fathoms, off Trinidad. 
Type.—Cat. No. 7833, U.S.N.M. 


UROPTYCHUS PRINCEPS, new species. 





The rostrum is long, sharp pointed, broad at the base and curved 
downward; four or five small spines lie along its margins irregularly 
placed. The carapace is broader than long, flattened, armed on the mar- 
gin with fine, long, slender spines. A row of spines extends across the 
‘arapace a little behind the front; the row is interrupted in the middle. 
There are numerous spinules on the carapace near the margins. | 








No.131. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 297 


—— _ 


The upper distal angle of the merus of the maxilli ipeds is armed 
with a single spine; the corresponding angle of the following joint 
with two. 

There are four lines of spines on the merus of the chelipeds; the 
“spines near the distal margin are long; there are seven rows on the 
“carpus; the palm is compressed and long; eleven spines on the crest 
‘and fifteen on the lower margin; a few spinules are placed on the 
outer surface near the carpus and crest; the inner surface is smooth. 

The ambulatory legs have a single row of spines on the crest of the 
meral and carpal joints; the meral joints have two additional rows 
below. 
The carapace is 12.5 mm. in length and 13.5 mm. broad. The ros- 
trum is 5.5 mm. long; the iiclipeds 55 mm. in length. 
Locality.— Albatross station 2752, in 281 fathoms, lat. 13° 34’ 00” N., 
long. 61° 04’ 00" W., Lesser Antilles. 
Type.—Cat. No. 20564, U.S.N.M. 


UE fPietaak 


“RGN 





UROPTYCHUS SCAMBUS, new species. 


The rostrum is triangular, its apex reaches the base of the cornea. 
The front is cut back into semicircular orbits, which are continuous 
with the rostrum on the inside and 
nearly so with the finger-like projection qm 

at the antero-lateral angles which guard / 4 y) 
the outer angles of the orbital sinus. 
The carapace is broader than long, | 
measuring 7 mm. in length to 8 mm. in 
breadth, it is convex in all directions, 
and has no marginal or other spines; 

the surface is glabrous; the sides are, 
prolonged at the antero-lateral angles 
‘into finger-like processes, which do not suggest spines. In shape the 
carapace is triangular, with rounded posterior apices and the anterior 
apex cut off to make room for the eyes and other appendages. 

The merus of the maxillipeds is unarmed. 

The elongated chelipeds are unarmed, with the exception of some 
slight projections at the distal margins of the merus and carpus and 
two tubercles in the gape of the fingers. 

The ambulatory feet are cylindrical; the dactyls are subprehensile, 
and armed beneath with a row of little spines which are hidden hy a 
dense growth of hair. 

It will be seen by the figures that this species is very closely related 
to Uroptychus brevis of the Antillian region; the subprehensile dac- 
_tyls common to both, in conjunction with the proportions of the cara- 

pace, might well enough warrant generic distinction, if the genus as 
at present constituted was overcrowded, which can hardly be claimed 


for ake 
au 





IG. 41.—UROPTYCHUS SCAMBUS, X 2}. 


298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


The type and only specimen is a female with eggs, dredged by the 
Albatross off Honshu Island, Japan, at station 3706, in 337 fathoms. 
Type.“ ‘at. No. 26165, U.S.N.M. 





UROPTYCHUS SCANDENS, new species. 


The rostrum is about 1.2 mm. in length, narrow, pointed, concave — 
above. The posterior line of the orbital sinus is but little behind the | 
line of the antero-lateral angles. The eyes | 
are cylindrical and about 1 mm. in length. 

The carapace is4mm. in length, measured | 
from the orbit to the posterior margin at the | 
median line and 4.5 mm. in breadth. | 

The lateral margins are spinulose; a few 
spinules are placed along the side of the gas- | 
tric region, replaced on the front of the re- | 
Fic. 42.—URoprycHus scaNDENS, ojon by granules. The antero-lateral angles ; 

os are armed with spines a little 
larger than those of the margin. 

The chelipeds are long, slender, and altogether lack- 
ing in armature, with the exception of a tubercle on the 
prehensile edge of the movable finger; the opposing 
finger has a sulcus into which the tubercle nicely fits. 

The dactyls of the ambulatory feet are short and 
blunt; a fringe of short sharp spines render them pre- 
hensile in no small degree. The carapace and legs are 
set with long fine hair. 

The type and only specimen is a female, with eggs, 
dredged by the <A/batross at station 3715, in 68-65 
fathoms, off Honshu Island, Japan. 

Type.—Cat. No. 26166, U.S.N.M. 


UROPTYCHUS SPINIGER, new species. 













FG. 43.—UROPTY- | 

The rostrum is slender and sharp pointed, concave on —CHUS._ SPINTGEE 
the upper surface of the basal half. The antero-lateral =~ 
angles of the carapace are marked by large and very sharp spines. | 
The lateral margins are armed with spines of uneven size, the one) 
behind the antero-lateral is small, followed by a large one, which in: 
turn is followed by two much smaller ones. 

The meral and carpal joints of the maxillipeds are each armed on: 
the distal upper angle with a single spine. The coxa and ischium of 
the chelipeds are each armed with a single spine; the merus with six) 
very stout spines, three in a transverse row on the proximal portion, | 
two near the middle, and one on the distal margin; there are three or! 
four on the surface of the carpus and four short conical spines on the} 
border next the palm. The merus of the ambulatory legs has two) 
spines on the upper border. | 








No. 1311, SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 299 


we 








_ Length of carapace, 3.7 mm.; breadth, 4 mm.; length of rostrum, 
3 mm.; length of chelipeds, 18 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2152, in 387 fathoms, off Habana. 
Type.—Cat. No. 7795, U.S.N.M. 


Genus PTYCHOGASTER A. Milne-Edwards. 
PTYCHOGASTER DEFENSA, new species. 





Fic. 44.—PTYCHOGASTER DEFENSA, X 1. 


The rostrum is slender and styliform, about twice as long as the 
eyes. The gastric area is armed with seven slender spines similar to 
the rostrum in appearance, but somewhat shorter; one is placed in the 
center of the area and the others at equal intervals from it, forming a 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—02—— 21 


R 


300 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


circle; four spines on the cardiac area form a square; there are six” 
paired spines on the branchial areas and one on the hepatic. 

The first and second segments of the abdomen are each armed with 
a row of large spines; the third, fourth, and fifth segments have a 
large paired spine on the side with a smaller spine close behind it; 
the sixth segment has a group of about twelve spines. The spines of 
the legs are long, slender, and curved, numerous but not crowded. 

This species is distinguished from /. dnvestigatoris Alcock and 
Anderson by the larger size and lesser numbers of the spines on the 
chelipeds and ambulatory feet, and by the armature of the abdomen. 
The spines of the carapace seem to be a little longer in P. defensa, but 
in general the species are closely related. 

Length of body from the margin behind the eyes to the end of the 
telson, 33 mm.; of the cheliped, 104 mm.; of the first ambulatory leg, 
60 mm. 

Locality.— Albatross station 2818, in 392 fathoms, Galapagos Islands. 

Type.—Cat. No. 20563, U.S.N.M. 


LIST OF KNOWN MARINE SPECIES OF GALATHEID&. 
GALATHEA ACANTHOMERA Stimpson. 
Galathea acanthomera Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 252. 
Bonin Islands, between coral, at a depth of 1 fathom. 
GALATHEA ACULEATA Haswell. 


Galathea aculeata HASwELL, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, VI, p. 761; Cat. 
Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 162. 


GALATHEA AEGYPTIACA Paulson. 


Galathea aegyptiaca Pautson, Izsledovaniya Rakoobraznikh Krasnago Morya, I, 
Kief, 1875, p. 94, pl. xu, fig. 1-1b. 


GALATHEA AFFINIS Ortmann. 
Galathea affinis ORTMANN, Zool. Jahrb. System., p. 252, 1892, pl. u, fig. 9. 
GALATHEA AGASSIZI A. Milne-Edwards. 


Galathea agassizi A. M1tng-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 47.— 
A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, 
p. 252; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 17, pl. 1, figs. 6-15. 


West India region. 


GALATHEA ANDREWSI Kinahan. 


Galathea andrewsi KiINAHAN, Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc., Dublin, LH, p. 58, pl. xvi, 
fig. 8. 
Galathea intermedia Bonnter, Bull. Sci. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, p. 180. 
Specimens in the Museum can be distinguished from G. intermedi 
(see key, p. 247); the review is, however, incomplete 


0.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 301 





GALATHEA AUSTRALIENSIS Stimpson. 


Galathea australiensis Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 251. 
Galathea australiensis HaswE.1, Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 161. 


, GALATHEA BREVIMANA Paulson. 
i 


4 
‘ Galathea brevimana Pauuson, Izsledovaniya Rakoobraznikh Krasnago Morya, I, 


i Kief, 1875, p. 95. 

; GALATHEA CALIFORNIENSIS, new species, see p. 247. 

GALATHEA CORALLICOLA Haswell. 

: Galathea corallicola Hasweu, Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 162; Proc. Linn. Soe, 
New South Wales, VI, p. 761. 

f GALATHEA DEFLEXIFRONS Haswell. 


Galathea deflexifrons HAswELL, Proc. Linn. Soe. New South Wales, VI, p. 761; 
Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 163. 


Albany Passage, among Comatulids. 
GALATHEA DISPERSA Spence Bate. 


Galathea dispersa Spence Bare, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool., III, 1859, 
p. 3.—Bonntkr, Bull. Scient. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, p. 154, pl. x1, 
figs. 1-3. (See for synonymy.) 


GALATHEA ELEGANS Adams and White. 


Galathea elegans ADAMs and Wuirr, Zool. Samarang, Crustacea, pl. xu, fig. 7.— 
HasweEL., Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 163. 


Holborn Island, 20 fathoms. 
GALATHEA GIARDI Th. Barrois. 


Galathea giardi TH. Barrots, Crust. Podopht. de Concarnean, 1882, p. 22; Cat. 
des Crust. Marins Recueillis aux Acores, 1888, p. 21, pl. m1, fig. 1. 
GALATHEA GRANDIROSTRIS Stimpson. 
: Galathea grandirostris Strmpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 252. 


Japan, Kagosima Bay, in 5 fathoms. 


GALATHEA INCONSPICUA Henderson. 


a 

t Galathea inconspicua HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 408; 
Voyage of the Challenger, XX VII, Anomura, 1888, p. 122, pl. x11. 

GALATHEA INTEGRA, new species, see p. 248. 

; GALATHEA INTEGRIROSTRIS Dana. 

) Galathea integrirostris Dana, U. 8. Explor. Exped., Crust., 1858, p. 482, pl. xxx, 

| fig. 12. 

4 Dredged at Tahaina, Sandwich Islands. 













- @Galathea integra differs in that the rostrum is very much more acute in integra 
and the merus of the maxillipeds is short and broad, its inner margin armed with a 
_ large spine. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XX I 





302 


GALATHEA INTERMEDIA Lilljeborg. 





Galathea intermedia LittsEBorG, Ofvers. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., 1851, p. 21. = 
Galathea parroceli GOURRET, Décapod. Macrou. nouv. du Golfe de Marseilles, 
Compt. Rend. Acad., CV, 1887, p. 1034. 4 
Galaihea intermedia Bonnier, Bull. Scient. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, 
p: 130. 3 


7 


Bonnier makes G. andrewst a synonym of this species. Of they 
correctness of this I do not feel at all sure. a 






GALATHEA LABIDOLEPTA Stimpson. 
Galathea labidolepta Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 251. 
Cape of Good Hope. } 

GALATHEA LATIROSTRIS Dana. 
Galathea latirostris Dana, U. S. Explor. Exped., Crust., 1858, p. 480, pl. xxx, fig. ae 
Fiji Islands. Among corals and in cavities of the coral rock. , 
Nearly colorless. . 
GALATHEA LONGIMANA Paulson. 


Galathea longimana Pautson, Izsledovaniya Rakoobraznikh Krasnago Morya, I, 
Kief, 1875, p. 94, pl. x11, fig. 2-2a. 


GALATHEA LONGIROSTRIS Dana. 


Galathea longirostris Dana, U. 8. Explor. Exped., Crust., p. 482, pl. xxx, fig. 1 
Fiji Islands. Brought up on a comatula from a depth of 10 


fathoms. 
GALATHEA MACHADOI Th. Barrois. 


Galathea machadoi Barrors, Cat. des Crust. Marins Recueillis aux Acores, 1888, | 
p. 22, pl. u, fig. 2-10.—A. Minne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. Ges: 


Sci. Nat., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 252. 
GALATHEA MAGNIFICA Haswell. 
Galathea magnifica Haswext, Proc. Linn. Soe. New South Wales, VI, p. 761; Cat. | 
Aust. Crust., p. 162. 
GALATHEA NEXA Embleton. 
Galathea neva EMBLETON, Proc. Berwick. Nat. Field Club.—Bonntkr, Bull. Scient. | 
France et Belg., (3), XIX, p. 149, pl. xu, figs. 6,8. (See for synonymy.) 
s| 


GALATHEA ORIENTALIS Stimpson. 


Galathea orientalis Stimpson, Proce. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 252. 
Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 1892, p. 252, pl. 1, fig. 10. ‘ 


In the Strait of Lyimoon near Hongkong, in 25 fathoms. z 
On 


po 


s 





SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 3038 





GALATHEA PAUCI-LINEATA, new species, see p. 249. 


GALATHEA PUBESCENS Stimpson. 







Galathea pubescens Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 252. 
Japan, in the port of Hakodadi, and at the island of Ousima, in 25 
to 35 fathoms. 

GALATHEA PUSILLA Henderson. 


Galathea pusilla HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 407; 
Voyage of the Challenger, X X VII, 1888, p. 121, pl. xn, fig. 1. 


Off Twofold Bay, Australia, in 150 fathoms. 
GALATHEA ROSTRATA A. Milne-Edwards. 


Galathea rostrata A. Mitnr-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 47.— 
A. Mrtne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., (7), X VI, 1894, 
p. 252; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. 1-5. 


; West India region. 
GALATHEA RUFIPES Edwards and Bouvier. 


Gclathea rufipes A. MILNE-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool., 
. (7), XVI, 1894, p. 252; Exped. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 
Brachy. et Anom., 1890, p. 280, pl. xxrx, figs. 4-8. 


Cape Verde Islands. 
GALATHEA SPINOSOROSTRIS Dana. 


Galathea spinosorostris Dana, U. S. Explor. Exped. Crust., 1858, p. 480, pl. xxx, 
fig. 9a. 


Sandwich Islands. 


GALATHEA SQUAMIFERA Leach. 


“A 


Galathea squamifera Leacn, Edin. Encycl., VII, p. 398. 

Galathea fabricti Leacu, Encyel. Brit. Supp., pl. xx. 

Galathea squamifera Leacn, Malacostraca Podophthalmata Britanize, 1815, pl. 
xxvint A., fig. 1.—Bonnier, Bull. Scient. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, 
p. 148, pl. xi, figs.1-5. (For synonymy see this. ) 


Northern Europe. 
GALATHEA STRIGOSA Linnzus. 


Cancer strigosus Linn mus Syst. Nat., 12th ed.,/ 1766, p. 1052, No. 69. 

Astacus strigosus PENNANT, Brit. Zool., 1777, pl. xiv, fig. 26. 

Galathea strigosa Fasricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl., 1798, p. 414.—Bonnier, Bull. 
Scient. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, p. 160, pl. xx1u1, figs. 4-6 (synonymy ). 


: 
| 
; 
| 
7 
| 


Northern Europe. 


GALATHEA SUBSQUAMATA Stimpson. 
Galathea subsquamata Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., X, 1858, p. 252. 


[sland of Ousima. 











304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





GALATHEA VITIENSIS Dana. 


Galathea vitiensis Dana, U. S. Explor. Exped. Crust., 1858, p. 481, pl. xxx, fig. 10a, 
Fijis, about corals. Length, one-fourth of an inch, nearly colorless, . 


GALACANTHA. 
GALACANTHA CAMELUS Ortmann. 


Galacantha camelus OrtMANN, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., p. 257, 1892, pl. 11, fig. 14. 


GALACANTHA DIOMEDE£ Faxon. 


Galacantha diomedeex Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1893, p. 180; Mem. Mus. i 
Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 79 ero lsiexexavauitiexcele 


GALACANTHA FAXONI, new name. 


Galacantha rostrata Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 52; Mem, 
Mus. Comp. Zool., XVIII, 1895, p. 78, pl. B, figs. 1, la. 

The differences which in my opinion separate this species from ; 
C. rostrata of the West Indian region were clearly seen by Mr. Faxon, — 
He had before him seven specimens from stations 3862, 3400, and_ 
3414. His conclusions were that ‘*The A/batross specimens differ — 
constantly from the typical West Indian form in the following partic- 
lars: The spines at the antero-lateral angles of the carapace are more | 
divergent, the anterior spine being more nearly parallel with the axis 
of the body; the posterior spine is relatively longer; the abdomen 
is smoother toward the central part of the segments; the dorsal spine— 
of the fourth abdominal segment is smaller. In other regards there 
is considerable variation among different individuals.” 


GALACANTHA INVESTIGATORIS Alcock and Anderson. 


Galacantha investigatoris ALcock and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, LXIII, — 
1894, p. 173.—Atcock, Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crustacea, 1895, pl. x1, fig. 4. 

Galacantha rostrata var. investigatoris ALcocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 276. 


Arabian Sea, off the Island of Minicoy, 1,200 fathoms. 


GALACANTHA ROSTRATA A. Milne-Edwards. 


Galacantha rostrata A. Mrtnr-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1880, VIII, p. 
52.—S. I. Smirx, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., X, 1882, p. 21, pl. rx, fig. 2; Ann. 
Report U. 8. Fish Com. for 1882, 1884, p. 355.—A. Miine-Epwarps and | 
Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 271.—Faxon, Mem. Mus, 
Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 78, pl. B, figs. 1, la; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., | 
XIX, No. 2, 1897, p. 60, pl. rv, figs. 21-24. 

Galacantha talismani H. Fruno., La Vie au Fond des Mers, 1884, pl. 111.—Eb, 
Prrier, Les Explorations Sous-Marines, 1885, fig. 8, p. 341.—HENDERSON, | 
Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 167, pl. xx, fig. 1. 

Galacantha bellis HENDERSON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 167, 


pl. x1x, fig. 6. ‘ 
Galacantha areolata Woop-Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891, p. 200. f 
z} 


ie 


’ 


— NO.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 805 
| i Munidopsis rostrata 8. I. Smiru, Proc. U. 8. National Museum, VIT, 1885, p. 493; 


Report of the U. 8. Fish Com. for 1885, 1886, p. 45, pl. vi, fig. 1. 
Galacantha rostrata Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust., 1901, p. 275. 


Western Europe and West Indies. 


GALACANTHA SPINOSA A. Milne-Edwards. 


Galacantha spinosa A. M1tNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIIT, 1880, p. 
53.—A. MILNE-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 270; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, p. 56, pl. rv, figs. 
15-20. 


GALACANTHA TRACHYNOTUS Anderson. 


Galacantia trachynotus ANDERSON, Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, LX V, 1896, p. 100.— 
Axcock, Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crustacea, 1896, pl. xxv, fig. 3. 

Galacantha spinosa var. trachynotus AucocKk, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust., Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 277. 


Arabian Sea, 912-931, and 947 fathoms. 


PLEURONCODES Stimpson. 
PLEURONCODES MONODON (M. Edwards.)? 


?Galathea monodon M. Epwarps, Hist. Nat. Crust., II, 1837, p. 276. 

?Pleuroncodes monodon Stimpson, Ann. Lye. Nat. N. Y., VII, 1860, p. 245.— 
Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X XIV, 1893, p. 176; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
XVIII, 1895, p. 72, pl. xv, fig. 3. 


PLEURONCODES PLANIPES Stimpson. 
Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VII, April, 1860, 
p. 245. 
CERVIMUNIDA, new genus, see p. 249. 


CERVIMUNIDA PRINCEPS, new species, see p. 249. - 
MUNIDA Leach. 
Munida Lracua, Dict. Sci. Nat., X VIII, 1820, p. 52. 


MUNIDA AFFINIS A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida affinis A. Mrune-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 48.— 

' A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, 
p. 257; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 53, pl. mt, fig. 14. 

Munida afjinis Benepicr, The Anomuran Collections made by the Fish Hawk 
Expedition to Porto Rico, U. S. Fish Commission Bull. for 1900, p. 147. 


This species was taken off Habana at stations 2169 in 78 fathoms, 
2321 in 230 fathoms, 2329 in 118 fathoms, 2346 in 200 fathoms. Off 
the south coast of Cuba at stations 2129 in 274 fathoms, 2130 in 175 
fathoms, 2131 in 202 fathoms, 2133 in 290 fathoms, 2135 in 250 
fathoms. Off the west end of Cuba at station 2350 in 250 fathoms. 
One lot is labeled station 2138 in, 23 fathoms off the east end of 


ene 


306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 


Jamaica. It is possible that some mistake has been made in this sta-— 
tion number, as this species did not occur in other shallow-water 
dredging. 


es 


ey se 


MUNIDA ANDAMANICA Alcock. 


Munida militaris var. andamanica Aucock, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, ~ 
1894, p. 321; Illus. Zool. of Investigator Crust., 1895, pl. xu, fig. 2; Dese. 
Cat. Indian Deepsea Crust., Indian Museum, p. 242. 

‘* From the Andaman Sea,” ‘* 173-419 fathoms, and from the Arabian 
Sea, in the neighborhood of the Laccadives and Maldives, 210-860 
fathoms.” 

MUNIDA ANGULATA, new species, see p. 252. 


MUNIDA AUSTRALIENSIS Henderson. 


Munida subrugosa var. avstraliensis HENDERSON, Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, 
p. 125, pl. x1, fig. 3. 
The characters given by Mr. Henderson are sufficient for specific 
rank in the absence of intergrading forms. 
Challenger station 162 off East Moncoeur Island, Bass Strait; depth 
38 to 40 fathoms. Several specimens, the majority of which are 
females; the body of the largest measures only 25 mm. in length. 


MUNIDA BAMFFICA (Pennant). 


Astacus bamfficus Pennant, Brit. Zool., IV, 1777, pl. x1, fig. 25. 

Galathea rugosa Fasricius, Ent. Syst., 11, 1798, p. 472; Suppl., p. 415. 
Galathea longipeda Lamarck, Syst. des Anim. sans vert., 1808, p. 128. 

Munida rondeletii Gorpon, The Zoologist, X, 1852, p. 3678, London. 

Munida bamfia Norman, Report on Dredgings, Shetland, 1868, p. 265. 
Munida tenuimana G. O. Sars, Vidensk. Selsk. Forhand. Christ., 1871, p. 257. 


Munida bamfia Bonnier, Bull. Sci. France et Belg., (3), XIX, 1888, p. 164, pl. 
xiil, figs. 7 and 8. 


Munida bamfica A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Crustaces Decapodes 
provenant des campagnes du yacht l’ Hirondelle (1886, 1887, 1888), Pt. 1, 
Brachyures et Anomoures, Res. Camp. Scient., Albert, I, Pt. (, 1894, p.7835 
pl. vn, fig. 1-7; Pt. 12, XIII, 1899, p. 75, pl. rv, figs. 6-16, Monaco. 

The ten figures in the last work referred to show the variations of 
this species. From this work and that of J. Bonnier full synonymy 
and reference can be made out. 

European waters. 


MUNIDA CARIBEA Stimpson. 


Munida caribea Stimpson, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, VII, 1860, p. 244. 
Dr. Faxon says of this: *‘The specimens doubtfully referred to, 
Munida caribea Stimpson, by Prof. 8. I. Smith are Munida tris of 
Milne-Edwards. Stimpson’s Wunida caribea is absolutely indeter- 
minable from his brief notice of it, and the types were burned in the 
great Chicago fire. The name car/bea should then be dropped and 
Milne-Edwards’s zrés and+/rrasa should be retained.” 


(Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XVIII, 1895, p. 73. i 


SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 307 





MUNIDA COMORINA Alcock and Anderson. 


Munida comorina Aucock and ANverson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), I, 
1899, p. 18; Illus. Zool. Invest. Crust., pl. xii, fig. 3. 


MUNIDA CONSTRICTA A. Milne-Edwards. 





~ Munida constricta A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 52.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bovuvirer, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), XVI. 
1894, p. 256; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 40, pl. 11, fig. 5. 


West India region. 
MUNIDA CURVATURA, new species, see p. 253. 


MUNIDA CURVIMANA Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munida curvimana A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. 
Zool., 1894, (7), X VI, p. 256; Exped. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 
Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 287, pl. xxix, fig. 12-16. 


MUNIDA CURVIPES, new species, see p. 254. 
MUNIDA CURVIROSTRIS Henderson. 


Munida curvirostris HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 412. 
Munida militaris var. curvirostris HENDERSON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, 
Delo o ye plan he. 7. 

Habitat.—Station 200, off Sibago, Philippines; depth, 250 fathoms; 
bottom, green mud. An adult male measuring 25 mm. in length (not 
including the rostrum). Station 210, off Zebu, Philippines; depth, 
875 fathoms; bottom, blue mud. An adult female measuring 20 mm. 
in length. 


MUNIDA DEBILIS, new species, see p. 256. 
MUNIDA DECORA, new species, see p. 257. 
MUNIDA EDWARDSII Miers. 
Munida edwardsii Miers, Alert Crustacea, 1884, p. 560, pl. 11, fig. A. 
MUNIDA EVERMANNI Benedict. 


Munida evermanni Brenepict, Anomuran Collections made by the Fish Hawk 
Expedition to Porto Rico, 1901, p. 146, pl. v, fig 4. 


MUNIDA FLINTI, new species, see p. 258. 
European seas. 


MUNIDA FORCEPS A. Milne-Edwards. 


eR ee SIS AHI 


Munida forceps A. M1tNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 49.— 
Perrier, Les Explorations Sous Marines, fig. 109, p. 220.—A. MILNE- 
Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 256; 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 28, pl. 11, fig. 8. 


West Indian region. 


3505 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NA TIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ | 







MUNIDA GRACILIPES Faxon. 


Munida gracilipes Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 179; Mem. =| 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 77, pl. xvi, figs. 2-2b. " 


Gulf of Panama. 
MUNIDA GRACILIS Henderson. 


Munida gracilis Hexperson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 4125 
Challenger Report, X XVII, 1888, Anomura, p. 143, pl. xrv, fig. 4. 


Challenger station 166; depth, 275 fathoms, west of New Zealand, 


Two specimens. 
MUNIDA GRANULATA Henderson. 


Munida granulata HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 409; 
Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 133, pl. xrv, fig. 3. 

Challenger station 173; depth, 315 fathoms, off Fiji Islands. Nine 
specimens. 

Henderson says of this (page 134): ** The second and third abdominal | 
segments bear six spinules each, four of which are arranged on the- 
anterior and two near the posterior margin; the third segment bears five 
spinules, a mesial one being present on the posterior margin, which is_ 
somewhat prominent.” Did he not mean third armed segment rather | 
than third segment, which he had just described? His figure shows 
spines on the second segment only. - 


MUNIDA GREGARIA (Fabricius). 


Galathea gregaria Fasricics, Ent. Syst., I, 17938, p. 473. 
Grimothea gregaria Leacu, Dict. d. Sci, Nat., XVII, 1820, p. 50.—Dana, U. Se 
Expl. Expd. Crust., XIII, 1852, Crust., Pt. ‘1, "py 488) pl. xxi, figy Ie 
Grimothea nove zelandix FruHo1, Passage de Venus, Mission de l’Te Campbell, | 
1874, p. 426. (Institute de France. ) 
Munida gregaria Mirrs, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1881, p. 73. 
Munida subrugosa HenveERsoN, Challenger Report, X XVII, 1888, Anomura, p. 124.) 
Munida gregaria A. Mitxe-Epwarps, Mission Scient. du Cap Horn, Crust., 1891, | 
Pee 2, plait, dig. we 
Guérin’s figure of ‘* Grimotea gregaria” * shows eyestalks as long as 
those of the New Zealand specimen, but it seems to have little else in: 
common, A. Milne-Edwards has given the best account of the differ- 
ences separating this species from JZ. swhrugosa and has shown ina good. 
figure the differences observed between its own adult and immature 
forms. In my opinion the question of the identity of the Cape Hern) 
species with that from New Zealand remains yet an open question, | 
which can only be settled by comparison of a large series of specimens) 
from both localities. | 
The young of Munida gregaria differ more from the adult than is! 
the case with the young of any other species represented in the col.) 


*Guérin, Voyage de la Coquille, I, Pt. 2, 1830, p. 32; Atlas, pl. 1, fig. 1. al 


a a a 


orn Ve 


“= Tre, my . 


No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 3809 


lection. In three specimens from New Zealand, the rostrum is only a 
little longer than the eyes and the supraocular spines are very short 
and much more divergent than in the adults. The eyestalks are pro- 
portionately longer than in any species of the genus in the collection. 
In alcohol the eyes are transverse in direction and extend beyond the 
line of the sides by about one-half of the diameter of the cornea. 
The antero-lateral angles are 
rounded in the young, in sharp 
contrast with the angles of the 
adult, which are armed with a 
large double spine, giving it 
an angular appearance. The 
carapace in the young has the 
two spines on the gastric area 
behind the supra-ocular spines 
and a very small paired spine in 
line with these. The posterior 

zB a . i Fic. 45.—MUNIDA GRE- Fig. 46.—MUNIDA GRE- 
margin of the cervical suture is ee. GARIA, YOUNG, x 21. 
armed with four spines. In 
addition to these spines in the adult there are about eight spines on 
the first ciliated line behind the gastric pair and another pair posterior 
to these. The armature of the abdomen is the same in both forms; 
the maxillipeds are similar, but longer in the young. 

The three specimens from New Zealand range about 45 mm. in 
length while numerous specimens of the adult from the Straits of 
Magellan range from 110 to 115mm. Younger specimens may vary 
much more from the adult form. 





on? ifn 
Ay wl ign yee 
Picea emcee eee | 

] 





MUNIDA HASWELLI Henderson. 


Munida haswelli HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 411; 
Challenger Report, XX VII, Anomura, p. 139, pl. 1, fig. 5. 


Challenger station 163A, depth 150 fathoms, off Twofold Bay, 
Australia. One male and three young. 
MUNIDA HETERACANTHA Ortmann. 
Munida heteracantha Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., VI, 1892, p. 255, pl. 1, fig. 12. 


Japan. 
MUNIDA HISPIDA, new species, see p. 259. 


MUNIDA HONSHUENSIS, new species, see p. 261. 
MUNIDA INCERTA Henderson. 


Munida incerta Henperson, Challenger Report, X XVII, 1888, p. 130, pl. xin, 
fig. 4. 


Challenger station 200, depth 250 fathoms, off Sibago Island, Phil- 
ippines. One imperfect specimen. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XVI. 





d10 


MUNIDA INORNATA Henderson. 





Munida inornata Henperson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 41158 
Challenger Report, XX VII, Anomura, 1885, p. 140, pl. xv1, fig. 6. ¥ 


Challenger station 219, depth 150 fathoms, north of New Guinea, — 


One specimen. 
MUNIDA IRIS A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida iris A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 49.— 
A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 
256; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 21, pl. 11, figs. 2-7. 
Munida caribea? 8. I. Smrru, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., III, 1881, p. 428; VI, 1883, 
p. 40, pl. m1, fig. 11; Report U. 8. Fish Commissioner for 1882, 1884, p. 255, — 
and Report for 1885, 1886, p. 39. 
Munida, species indt. 8S. 1. Smrru, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X, 1882, p. 
Albatross station 2420 
A very 


22 Dla 


Off the eastern coast of the United States. 
inadepth of 47 fathoms, and at numerous other stations. 


abundant species. 
MUNIDA IRRASA A. Milne—Edwards. 


Munida irrasa A. M1itnE-Epwarbs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 49. 
Munida caribeea A. Mitnr-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 49.— 
A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bovuvirer, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, 
p. 256; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 25, pl. 1, figs. 16-20; 
pli mm, fig et: si 


Southeastern coast of the United States and West India region. 


MUNIDA JAPONICA Stimpson. 


Munida japonica Strmpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Phil., X, 1858, p. 252.—Orr- 


MANN, Crustacea of the Semon Collection, 1894, p. 24; Jena.—Mrsrs, Proce. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 51. 


In Kagoshima Bay, Japan, in 20 fathoms. 


MUNIDA LONGIPES A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida longipes A. M1tne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 50.— 
A. Mitnse-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, 3 
p- 257; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 44, pl. m1, figs. 9-135 


West India region. 
MUNIDA MEDIA, new species, see p. 262. 
MUNIDA MEXICANA, new species, see p. 264. 


MUNIDA MICROPHTHALMA A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida microphthalma A. MrutNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1880, VIII, ~ 
p. 51.—Henperson, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 127, pl. - 


111, fig. 4. 


Bi (alah = 





No. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 311 








Munida microphthalma (A. M. Epwarps?) Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

XXIV, 1893; p. 179; Mem. Mus. Comp. -Zool., XVIII, 1895, p. 78.—A. 
Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894. p. 256; 
_— Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 32, pl. 1, figs. 9-13. 


— West India region. 
MUNIDA MICROPS Alcock. 
Munida microps Aucock, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, p. 326; Tllus. 


Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 5; Dese. Cat. of Indian Deep- 
& ‘Sea Crust., Macrura and Anomalia, in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 240. 


MUNIDA MICROPS var. LASIOCHELES Alcock. 


ae oeety 


Munida microps var. lasiocheles Aucocx, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 
p- 327; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1m, fig. 8; Desc. Cat. of 
Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 241. 


MUNIDA MILES A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida miles A. Mtune-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VILL, 1880, p. d1.— 
Henperson, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 126.—A. Mitne- 
Epwarps and Bouvirr, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 256; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 35, pl. 1m, figs. 1-4. 


CVE tT RES 


West India region. 


MUNIDA MILITARIS Henderson. 


Munida militaris HenpERsoN, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 410; 
Challenger Report, X X VIT, 1888, Anomura, p. 137, pl. yrv, figs. 2, 5. 

Munida vitiensis HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 410. 

Challenger station 173, depth 315 fathoms, off Matuku. Station 192, 
depth 140 fathoms, off Little Ki Island. Amboina, 100 fathoms. 


FPG TS IS FERS ERY 


s MUNIDA NORMANI Henderson. 
a Munida normani Henprerson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 408; 


, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 129, pl. xu, fig 5. 
Challenger station 173, off Matuku, Fiji Islands; depth, 315 fathoms. 


MUNIDA NUDA, new species, see p. 265. 


we 


MUNIDA OBESA Faxon. 


Mumda obesa Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1895, p. 176; Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 73, pl. xvt, figs. 1, 1a. 
Gulf of Panama; station 3355 in 182 fathoms and station 3389 in 210 
fathoms. ' 
MUNIDA PERARMATA Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munida perarmata A. Mitnr-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 257; Résult. des Camp. Scient. de ’ Hirondelle (Supp. ) 
et de la Princesse-Alice, Pt. 13, 1899, p. 81; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et 
du Talisman, Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 305, pl. xxx, fig. 1. 





PROM RIE EL SGP, PED! Pr 


European waters. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, ; 
— 


A 
+ 


MUNIDA PERLATA, new species, see p. 266. 


MUNIDA PROPINQUA Faxon. 


Munida propinqua Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 178; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 76, pl. xvi, figs. 1, la. 
Gulf of Panama and near the Galapagos Islands, 385 to 511 fathoms. 


MUNIDA PROXIMA Henderson. 
Munida proxima HenpErson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X Vi, 1885, p. 410; 
Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 135, pl. xin, fig. 2. 
Challenger station 219, north of New Guinea; depth 150 fathoms. 


Three adult specimens, one with ova. 
MUNIDA PUSILLA, new species, see p. 268. 
MUNIDA QUADRISPINA, new species, see p. 269. 


MUNIDA REFULGENS Faxon. 
Munida refulgens Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 177; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 75, pl. xvu. 
Off Cocos Island, off coast of Ecuador, and near Tres Marias Islands; 
depth 42 to 112 fathoms. Sixty-seven specimens. 


MUNIDA ROBUSTA A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munida robusta A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 48.— 
A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvirr, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 
256; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 42, pl. i, figs. 6-8. 


West India region. 
MUNIDA SANCTI-PAULI Henderson. 


Munida sancti-pauli Hexpersox, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1889, 
p. 411; Challenger Report, X X VIT, 1885, Anomura, p. 142, pl. 11, fig. 6. 
St. Paul’s rocks; depth 10 to 60 fathoms. A female with ova anda 
young male. 
MUNIDA SCABRA Henderson. 
Munda scabra Henprerson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 409; 
Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 134, pl. xv, fig. 1. 
Station 192, off Little Ki Island; depth 140 fathoms. Fifteen speci- 
mens. 
MUNIDA SCULPTA, new species, see p. 270. 


MUNIDA SEMONI Ortmann. 


Munida semoni ORTMANN, Crustacea of the Semon Collection, Jena, 1894, p. 24. 


aes ye Se 


0. 1311. aac NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. he 


MUNIDA SIMPLEX, new species, see p. 272. 


” 


MUNIDA SPINICORDATA Henderson. 


Munida spinicordata HeNDERsoN, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 
413; Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, Mou p- 146, pl. xv, fig. 3. 


Challenger station 174d, off Kandavu, Fiji; depth 210 fathoms. A 
male specimen. 


MUNIDA SPINIFRONS Henderson. 


Munida spinifrons HenpErson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., , X VI, 1885, p. 412; 
Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 144, e mY) fies Je 


Challenger station 113a, anchorage off Fernando Noronha; depth 7 
to 25 fathoms. A single specimen. 


MUNIDA SPINOSA Henderson. 


Munida spinosa HenpErson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 408; 
Voyage of the Challenger, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 128, pl. 1, fig. 3. 


Challenger station 320, off Rio de la Plata; depth 600 fathoms; bot- 
tom green sand. Several specimens, the majority of which are young. 


MUNIDA SPINULIFERA Miers. 


Munida spinulifera Miers, Crustacea in Zool. H. M. 8. Alert. 1884, p. 279, pl. 
xxx1, fig. AA—Henperson, Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, p. 128 


Arafura Sea, 32 to 36 fathoms. 


MUNIDA SQUAMOSA Henderson. 


Munida squamosa Henperson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ( 


5), XVI, 1885, p. 409; 
' Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, p. 131, pl. xm, fig. 1. 


Challenger station 219, north of New Guinea; depth 150 fathoms. 


MUNIDA SQUAMOSA var. PROLIXA Alcock. 


Munida squamosa var. prolixa ALcocK, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), NIL, 184, 
p. 322; Illus. Investigator Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 3; Des. Cat. of the Indian 
Deep-Sea Crust., 1901, p. 244. 


MUNIDA STIMPSONI A. Milne-Edwards. 


2 Munida stimpsoni A. Miune-Enwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 

47.—HeEnpDERsON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, p. 126, pl. xrv, fig. 1.—A. 
3 Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvirr, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 257; 
s - Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 48, pl. rv, figs. 1-13.—BENE- 


' pict, Anomuran ee made by the Fish Hawk Expedition to Porto Rico, 
} 1901, p. 147, in U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin for 1900. 

ft 2 

. West India region. 

: 





214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. 4 
——$_____________§ 
# 


MUNIDA SUBRUGOSA Dana. 


Munida subrugosa Dana, U.S. Exploring Expedition, XIII, 1852, Crust., p. 479, 
pl. xxx, fig. 7.—Murrs, Zool. Erebus and Terror, Crust., 1874, p. 3, pl. m1, 
fic. 2; Cat. New Zealand Crust., 1876, p. 68.—Taraion1 Tozzerri, Crust. 


Magenta, 1877, p. 234, pl. xin, fig. 5. 
Galathea subrugosa CUNNINGHAM, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., (Zool. ), X XVII, 1871, 
p- 495. 
Munida subrugosa A. Mrtne-EKpwarps, Mission Scient. du Cap Horn, Crust., 1891, 
p. F. 36; pla, fer: 


MUNIDA TENELLA, new species, see p. 274. 
MUNIDA TRICARINATA Alcock. 


Munida tricarinata Aucock, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, p. 324; 
Illustrations of the Investigator Crustacea, 1895, pl. x11, fig. 1; Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Indian Deep-Sea Crustacea in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 
246. 


Andaman Sea, 112 fathoms; Arabian Sea, off the N. Maldive Atoll, 
210 fathoms. 


MUNIDA TROPICALIS Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munida tropicalis A. M1LNE-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvirr, Bull. Mus. of Nat. Hist., 
III, 1897, p. 364; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, Brachyures et 
Anomoures, 1900, p. 286, pl. xx1x, figs. 9-11. 


La Praya, 75 to 127 fathoms. 
MUNIDA TUBERCULATA Henderson. 
Munida tuberculata Henprerson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1895, 
p. 413; Challenger Report, X XVII, 1888, Anomura, p. 145, pl. xv, fig. 2. 
Challenger station 173, 315 fathoms, off Matuku, Fiji Islands. Two 
specimens. 


MUNIDA VALIDA S. I. Smith. 


Munida valida 8. I. Smrre, Proc. U. S. National Museum, VI, 1883, p. 42, pl. 


Henderson in the Challenger Anomura, page 126, makes this species — 
identical with J/. mcles. A. Milne-Edwards and E. L. Bouvier” make 
it distinct. Several fine specimens in the Museum collection bear out 
the latter view. 


MUNIDA VIGILIARUM Alcock. 


Munida vigitiarum Awucock, Des. Cat. of the Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the — 
Indian Museum, 1901, p. 243. 


«Ann. des. Sci. Nat., Zool.,-(7), XVI, 1894, p. 256 






‘No. 1811. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 315 








MUNIDOPSIS Whiteaves. 


ges a TS 


Munidopsis Wuirraves, Amer. Jour. Arts and Sci., 3d ser., VII, 1874, p. 212. 


— 
roy 
7 


MUNIDOPSIS ABBREVIATA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes abbreviatus A. MItne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p- 5d. 
Munidopsis abbreviata A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 91, 
* larva, ies Ie 
Blake station 195, in 502 fathoms; Martinique. Stations 161 and 162. 
in 583 and 734 fathoms; Guadeloupe. 


MUNIDOPSIS ABDOMINALIS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus abdominalis A. MitNne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 
1880, p. 61.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 282; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 101, 
pl. vu, figs. 7-10. 


Blake station 291. in 200 fathoms. Barbados. 
MUNIDOPSIS ABYSSORUM (Edwards and Bouvier). 


Munidopsis abyssorum A. Mit~ne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Bull. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., III, 1897, p. 365; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 
Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 319, pl. xxx, figs. 15-19. 


European waters. 
MUNIDOPSIS ACULEATA Henderson. 


Munidopsis subsquamosa var. aculeata HENDERSON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 
1888, Anomura, p. 153, pl. xv1, fig. 1. 

Munidopsis subsquamosa aculeata Faxon, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, 
p. 86. 


Challenger station 146, depth 1,375 fathoms, between Marion Island 
and the Crozets, a single specimen; also station 3802, depth 1,450 
fathoms, west of Patagonia. 


MUNIDOPSIS ACUMINATA, new species, see p. 277. 
MUNIDOPSIS ACUTA (A. Milne—Edwards). 


Galathodes acutus A. Mitne-Epwarps, Comp. Rend. Acad. des Sci., 1881, p. 982. 

Munidopsis acuta A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 230; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 
1900, p. 312, pl. xxx, figs. 2-4. 


MUNIDOPSIS ACUTISPINA, new name. 
Munidopsis aculeata A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI,p. 275; Expéd. Scient. du Trayailleur et du Talisman, Brachy- 
ures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 327, pl. xx x1, figs. 1-4. 
A new name is necessary as aculeata was used by Henderson in the 
Challenger Anomura. See under aculeata, above. 


: Proc. N. M. vol. xxvi—0? 99 


RE RRO b78, © 





VOL. XXVI, £ 


516 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
MUNIDOPSIS AGASSIZII Faxon. o 
Munidopsis agassizii Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 182; Mem: 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 88, pl. xvim, figs. 44a. 
Albatross station 3389, depth 210 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 


MUNIDOPSIS ANTONII (A. Milne-Edwards). 
Galathodes antonit A. M1LNE-Epwarbps in Filhol, La Nature, XII, 1884, p. 231, fig. 2. 
Munidopsis antonii HenpErson, Voyage of the Challenger, XX VII, 1888, Ano- 


mura, p. 151, pl. xvut, fig. 1. 
Munidopsis antoni A. MitNE-EpDWARDS and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat. 
Ixpéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 


Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p: 270; 
Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 321, pl. tv, fig. 2; pl. xxx, figs. 20-24. 


MUNIDOPSIS ARIES (A. Milne-Edwards ). 


Orophorhynchus aries A. MitNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880. 
p. 58.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 287; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XILX, 1897, No. 2, p. 111, pl 
rx fies /=1lls pls aioss bee. 

Blake station 236, in 1,591 fathoms, west India region. 


MUNIDOPSIS ARIETINA Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis arietina Aucock and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, XLII, Pt. 
2, 1894, p. 171; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. xu, fig. 3. 


Munidopsis (Orophorhynchus) arietina AucocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the 
Indian Museum, p. 269. 


Bay of Bengal in 1,520 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS ARMATA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus armatus A. Mitnre-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 61.—HeEnperson, Challenger Report, XX VI, 1888, Anomura, p. 159, pl. 
x1x, fig. 5.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 282; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 104, pli 


vill, figs. 11-14. 
Blake station 137, in 625 fathoms, West India region. 
MUNIDOPSIS ASPERA (Henderson). 
Elasmonotus asper HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 416; 
Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 163, pl. x1x, fig. 4. 
Munidopsis aspera Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 188; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 96. 
Challenger station 311, off Patagonia, in 425 fathoms. Upward of a— 


dozen specimens. 


SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 317 





MUNIDOPSIS BAHAMENSIS, new species, see p. 278. 


MUNIDOPSIS BAIRDII (Smith). 







Galacantha bairdii Samira, Report U. 8. Fish Commission for 1882, 1884, p. 356. 
Munidopsis bairdii Smirn, Proc. U. 8. National Museum. VII, 1884, p. 493; Ann. 
Report U.S. Fish Commission for 1885, 1886, p. 649, pl. v, fig. 2.—Faxon, 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 83. 


_ Albatross station 2106, in 1,497 fathoms, off Virginia. 





sane aie: Map pat TaD 


Fig. 47.—MUNIDOPSIS BAIRDII, X 1. 


MUNIDOPSIS BERINGANA, new species, see p. 279. 


MUNIDOPSIS CARINIPES Faxon. 


AEM ete CHA eae ip ah a r 


Munidopsis carinipes Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 189; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 97, pl. xxiv, figs. 1, la, 1b. 

Elasmonotus carinipes Aucock, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 1894, NIII, p. 
333.—A. Mrzne—-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XIV, 
1893, p. 281. 


= Albatross station 3353. in 695 fathoms, off Panama. 
MUNIDOPSIS CENTRINA Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis centrina Avcock and Anxprrson, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIT, 
Pt. 2, 1894, p. 170; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 6. 
Munidopsis (Orophorhynchus) centrina AvcocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the 

Indian Museum, 1901, p. 270. 


Bay of Bengal, in 1,520 fathoms. 





318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XVI. 


MUNIDOPSIS CERATOPHTHALMUS Alcock. 


Munidopsis ceratophthalmus ALCocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 271, pl. m1, fig. 2. 


Andaman Sea, in 480 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS CILIATA Wood-Mason. 


Munidopsis ciliata Woop-Mason, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1891, p. 200.—F axon, Mem. Mus, 
Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 84, pl. xvi, fig. 18. 

Munidopsis brevimana Henprerson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), 1885, XVI, p. 414; 
Challenger Report, Anomura, XX VII, 1888, p. 154, pl. xvi, figs. 1 and 2,— 
Axcock, Illus. Zool. of the Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. xi, fig. 3. 

Munidopsis ( Orophorhynchus) ciliata Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the 
Indian Museum, 1901, p. 267. 

Dr. Faxon’s specimens were from Albatross stations 3353, in 695 
fathoms; 3363, in 978 fathoms; 3392, in 1,270 fathoms; 3393, in 1,020 
fathoms. Five specimens at the four stations. 

Professor Henderson’s specimens were from Challenger stations 191 
off the Arrou islands, in 800 fathoms, and 218 between Papua and the 
Adiniralty islands, in 1,070 fathoms. 

The Indian Museum specimen was taken in the Bay of Bengal, in 
1.310 fathoms. 

Professor Henderson’s figures 1 and 2 in the Challenger report 
probably represent two distinct species; not only the much smoother 
carapace and lack of prominent lateral spines in the young form 
shown in fig. 2, but the remarkable difference in the line of tbe front 
from the antero-lateral angle to the end of the rostrum, if the figures 
are correct, marks a difference not due to age. This is all the more 
likely, as the form shown in fig. 2 was taken at a distance’ from the 
form shown in fig. 1. 

Munidopsis nitida \. Milne-Edwards, from the West India region, 
as has been pointed out by Dr. Faxon, is a closely related species; 
SLX Specimens in this museum from station 2140 off Jamaica show a 
great range in size; five are under 6 mm. in length, and one is 21 mm., 
measured from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior margin of the 
carapace; in all, the lines of the front are much like JA c7liata, as 
shown in Professor Henderson’s fig. 1, while the carapace is much 
more like fig. 2. 


MUNIDOPSIS CRASSA S. I. Smith. 


Munidopsis crassa 8. I. Smrrg, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VII, 1885, p. 494.—A MILNE- 
Epwarps and K. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1894, (7), XVI, p. 275. 
Off the east coast of the United States, Albatross station 2224, in 
2.574 fathoms, latitude 36 





SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 





319 
MUNIDOPSIS CRINITA Faxon. 
; Munidopsis crinita Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 185; Mem. 
& Mus. Comp. Zool., X VITI, 1895, p. 92, pl. xx, figs. 3, 3a. 
Galathodes crinitus A. MitNre-EKpwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool.. 


(7), XVI, 1894, p. 279. 


Albatross station 3384, in 458 fathoms. off Panama. One female. 


MUNIDOPSIS CURVIROSTRA Whiteaves. 


Munidopsis curvirostra W nireAves, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, (3), VII, 1874, p. 
212.—S. I. Surry, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X, 1882 


Ds 2s alvin, ies 2 
and 3. 


Off east coast of North America. 


MUNIDOPSIS CYLINDROPHTHALMA (Alcock). 


Klasmonotus cylindrophthalmus Aucock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, 
p. 333; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 4. 
Munidopsis ( Elasmonotus ) cylindrophthalmus Aucocx, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. 
in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 272. 
Andaman Sea, 188-220, 250, 


and 265 fathoms; Arabian Sea, 406 
fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS CYLINDROPUS, new species, see p. 281. 


MUNIDOPSIS DASYPUS Alcock. 


Munidopsis dasypus Aucock, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, p. 329; 
Illus. Investigator Crust., 1895, pl. xu, fig. 9; Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. 
in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 252. 


Bay of Bengal, off the Andamans, 480 and 561 fathoms; Andaman 
Sea, 498 fathoms: Arabian Sea, 636 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS DEBILIS (Henderson). 


Galathopsis debilis HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 417, 
1885. 


Elasmonotus debilis Henprrson, Challenger Report, XX VII, Anomura, 1888, p. 
165, pl. xvut, fig. 4. 


Challenger station 173, depth 315 fathoms. A male specimen. Sta- 


tion 210, among the Philippines, depth 375 fathoms. A male specimen. 


MUNIDOPSIS DEPRESSA Faxon. 


Munidopsis depressa Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X XIV, 1893, p. 189; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VITI, 1895, p. 96, pl. xx11, figs. 2-2b. 


Albatross station 3425, in 680 fathoms, off Mexico. One male. 


VOL. XXVI, 





320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


MUNIDOPSIS EDWARDSII (Wood-Mason). 





Elasmonotus edwardsii Woop-Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891, p. 201. 
Orophorhynchus edwardsii MitNE-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.,~ 
. ne 
é, 


1894, (7), XVI, p. 287. 


Munidopsis ( Orophorhynchus) edwardsii Aucocx, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in 
q % 


the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 265, pl. 11, fig. 4. a 

; 

Bay of Bengal, in 1,300 and 1,310 fathoms. ~ 
3 


MUNIDOPSIS ERINACEA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Calathodes erinacea A. Mr~NE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 53. 

Munidopsis erinacea Henperson, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 
149, pl. xvi, fig. 4. —A. Minne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., — 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 67, pli 


vil, figs. 9-12. 
Milne-Edwards’s specimens were from a number of stations in the 
West India region in depths that range a little aboye 400 fathoms” 
(steamer blake). 
MUNIDOPSIS ESPINIS, new species, see p. 282. 
MUNIDOPSIS EXPANSA, new species, see p. 282. 
MUNIDOPSIS GILLI, new species, see p. 283. 


MUNIDOPSIS GOODRIDGII Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis goodridgii Aucock and ANDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), I, 
1899, p. 21; Illus. Investigator Zoology, Crustacea, 1899, pl. xiv, fig. 25 
Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 258. 


A single female from off the Travancore coast, 430 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS GRANOSA Alcock. 
Munidopsis granosa Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 
1901, p. 266, pl. m1, fig. 1. 


Bay of Bengal, in 1,520 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS HAMATA Faxon. 


Munidopsis hamata Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 187; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 95, pl. xx1, figs. 2—-2b. 
Albatross stations 3394 and 3395, in 411 and 730 fathoms, Gulf of 
Panama. = 
MUNIDOPSIS HASTIFER, new species, see p. 284. . 
MUNIDOPSIS HEMINGI Alcock and Anderson. ‘ 
Munidopsis hemingi Aucock and ANpERSON, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., (7), _ 
IIT, 1901, px 19; Illus. Zool. of the Investigator, Crust., pl. Liv, fig. 4,.— ALCOCK, — 


Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 251. > 
Off the Travancore coast, in 430 fathoms. . 









‘no. 1511. SOME epee DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 321 
3 MUNIDOPSIS HENDERSONIANA Faxon. 
2 
= Munidopsis hendersoniana Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 190; 
; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 100, pl. xxiv, figs. 2-2c. 
: Orophorhynchus hendersoniana Epwarvs and Bovuyrer, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.. (7) 
< 


XVI, 1894, p. 287. 


 Adbatross station 3393, in 1020 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 


MUNIDOPSIS HYSTRIX Faxon. 


Munidopsis hystrix Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 183; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 89, pl. xrx, figs. 1, 1a. 

Albatross station 3417, in 493 fathoms. Off Acapulco. Stations 
3424 and 3425 in 676 and 680 fathoms. respectively, off Tres Marias 
Islands. 

MUNIDOPSIS INERMIS Faxon. 


Munidopsis inermis Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 191; Mem. 
Mus. Com. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 98, pl. xxi, figs. 2, 2a. 


> 


Albatross station 3354 in 322 fathoms. Gulf of Panama. 


MUNIDOPSIS IRIDIS Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis iridis Aucock and ANpERson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), III, 1899, 
p. 20; Illus. Investigator Zool., Crust., 1899, pl. xurv, fig 


@, 1.—ALcock, Cat. 
Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 255 


Fifty-two specimens from off the Travancore coast, 430 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS LAVIGATA ( Henderson). 


Galathopsis lievigatus HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, 


p. 417. 
Elasmonotus lievigatus Challenger Report, X XVII, Anomura, p. 164, pl. xvi, 
fig. 3. 


Challenger station 219, depth 150 fathoms, North of Papua. One 
specimen. 


MUNIDOPSIS LATIFRONS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes latifrons A. MruNne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 57.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvirr, Ann. Sei. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 
1894, p. 279; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 94, pl. vin, 
figs. 2, 3. 


Blake station 288, in 399 fathoms, Barbados. One specimen. 


MUNIDOPSIS LATIROSTRIS Faxon. 


Elasmonotus latifrons Henperson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 
416; Challenger Report, X XVII, 1888, Anomura, p. 160, pl. x1Xx, fig. 1. 
Orophorhynchus latifrons A. MitNe-Epwarps and I. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. 

Nat. Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 287. 
¢ Munidopsis latirostris Faxon, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VILI, 1895, p. 99. 


Albatross station 3381,-in 1,772 fathoms, off Malpelo Island. One 
f female. Station 3391, in 153 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. One female. 
< 
ie 


3292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


MUNIDOPSIS LEVIS (Alcock and Anderson). 


Bathyankyristes levis Avcock and ANpERsoN, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIII, 
1894, Pt. 2, p. 175; Illus. Zool. of the Investigator, Crustacea, pl. Lv, fig. 3. 

Munidopsis ( Bathyankyristes) levis Avcocx, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the 
Indian Museum, 1901, p. 274. 


Arabian Sea, in the neighborhood of the Laceadives, 636 fathoms. 
MUNIDOPSIS LIVIDA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus lividus A. Mitne-Epwarps, in Ed. Perrier, Les Explor. sous- 
marines, 1886, fig. 242. 

Orophorynchus lividus A. Mrtne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 287, and fig. 12, p. 208; Expéd. Scient. du Tra- 
vailleur et du Talisman, Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 343, pl. rv, fig. 


3) Pls XXX Hos i 22) 
MUNIDOPSIS LONGIMANA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus longimanus A. MitNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 60.—A. Mitnre-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 282; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 106; 

pl. rx, figs. 1-6. 
Blake station 195, in 502 fathoms, Martinique; station 130, in 451 
fathoms, Frederickstad; station 221, 423 fathoms, St. Lucia; station 
188, in 372 fathoms, Dominica; station 222, in 422 fathoms, St. Lucia. 


MUNIDOPSIS LONGIROSTRIS Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munidopsis longirostris A. MitNe-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Bull. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 1897, p. 365; Résult. des Camp. Scient. de I’ Hirondelle et de la Prin- 
cesse-Alice, Pt. 12, 1899, p. 82; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talis- 
man, Crust. Deca., Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 314, pl. rv, fig. 4; pl. 
Xxx, figs. 5 to 9. 


MUNIDOPSIS MARGARITA Faxon. 


Munidopsis margarita Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X XTV, 1893, p. 184; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 91, pl. xx, fig: 2. 
Albatross station 8404, in 385 fathoms. Male and female. Near the 
Galapagos Islands. 


MUNIDOPSIS MARGINATA (Henderson). 


Elasmonotus marginatus Hexprerson, Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, 
p. 416; Voyage of the Challenger, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 161, pl. xrx, 
here ae 

Orophorhynchus marginatus A. MrtNE-Epwarps and FE. L. Bouvrer, Ann. des Sci. 
Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, pp. 286, 287. 


Challenger station 168, off New Zealand; depth, 1,100 fathoms; 
bottom, blue mud. 


80.13. = SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 393 





MUNIDOPSIS MARIONIS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes marionis A. M1tNe-Epwarps, Rapport sur la faune sous-marine, p. 
17 (note). 

Orophorhynchus marionis A. MILNE-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvrer, Ann. des. Sei. 
Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 287; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du 
Talisman, Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 340, pl. xxxu, figs. 14-16. 


European waters. 
MUNIDOPSIS MEDIA Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munidopsis media A. MitNn-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvirr, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), X V1, 1894, pp. 275, 325; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talis- 
man, Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 325, pl. xxx, fig. 25. 


European waters. 


MUNIDOPSIS MIERSI (Henderson). 
Elasmonotus miersi HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), X VI, 1885, p. 416; 


Voyage of the Challenger, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 162, pl. xix, fig. 3. 


Challenger station 173, off Matuku Island, Fiji; depth, 315 fathoms; 
bottom, coral mud. 


MUNIDOPSIS MILLERI Henderson. 


Munidopsis miller’ HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., , XVI, 1885, p. 414; 
Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 155, ay Xvil, fig. 3. 
Challenger station 207, depth, 700 fathoms, off Tablas Island, Philip- 
pines. A female with ova and two males. 


MUNIDOPSIS MINA, new species, see p. 285. 
MUNIDOPSIS MODESTA, new species, see p. 286. 
MUNIDOPSIS MORESBYI Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis moresbyi ALcock and ANDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), II 
1899, p. 22; Illus. of the Investigator, Tonle Crust., 1899, pl. xu, fig. 3.— 
Axcock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crustacea, 1901, p. 259. 


Arabian Sea, off the Travancore coast, 430 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS NITIDA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Orophorhynchus nitidus A. MitNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 59. 

Orophorhynchus spinosus A, M1LNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 98. 

Munidopsis nitida A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, 
Pics vi. hes, 6,7. 


Llake station 163, in 769 fathoms, Guadeloupe. Station 180, in 982 
fathoms, Dominic: 


ie 


Oe 
) (aD 


394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 








MUNIDOPSIS OPALESCENS, new species, see p. 287. 
MUNIDOPSIS ORNATA Faxon. 
Munidopsis ornata Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 186; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 87, pl. xx, figs. 1, la. 


Albatross station 3404, in 885 fathoms, Galapagos Islands. 


MUNIDOPSIS PALLIDA Alcock. 


Munidopsis subsquamosa var. pallida Aucocx, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 
1894, p. 331; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crustacea, 1895, pl. xin, fig. 7. 

Munidopsis ( Orophorhynchus) subsquamosa var. pallida Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep- 
Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 268. 


Bay of Bengal in 1,803 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS PARFAITI (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus parfaiti A. MitNE-Epwarpbs, in Filhol, La Vie au Fond des Mers, 
1885, pl. vi. 

Orophorhynchus parfaiti A. MtLNE-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. 
Nat., Zool., (7), XVI., 1894, p. 287; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du 
Talisman, Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 236, pl. mn, fig. 1; pl. xxx, 
fig. 11-13. 


European waters. 


MUNIDOPSIS PILOSA Henderson. 


Munidopsis pilosa HENDERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 415; 
Challenger Report, X XVII, Anomura, 1888, p. 157, pl. xvu, fig. 4. 
Challenger station 196; depth 825 fathoms, near Philippine Islands. 
One male. 


MUNIDOPSIS PLATIROSTRIS (A. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier. ) 


Orophorhynchus platirostris A. MILNE-Epwarpbs and Bouvigr, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 287; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 114; 
pl. rx, figs. 12-15; pl. x, fig: 3. 
U. S. Coast Survey steamer //assler, December 27-30, 1871, LOO 
fathoms, Barbados. 


MUNIDOPSIS POLITA (S. I. Smith). 


Anoplonotus politus 8. 1. Smirn, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VI, 1883, p. 50, pl. m, fig. 
1; pl. 1, figs. 1-5a. : 
Kast North Atlantic. 
Dr. Faxon says:” ‘As the genus Anoplonotus of Smith does not seem 
to be sufficiently distinct from /Vlasmonotus, it is here merged, with the 
latter, in M/unédopsis.” 








“Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XVIII, 1895, p. 81. 


F 


te 


70.131. = =SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 325 


MUNIDOPSIS POSEIDONIA Alcock and Anderson. 
Munidopsis poseidonia Aucock and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIII, 
Pt. 2, 1894, p. 167; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., pl. x1, fig. 2. 
Munidopsis (Galathodes) posidonia Atcock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in the 
Indian Museum, 1901, p. 263. 
Bay of Bengal, off Madras coast, 210 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS QUADRATA Faxon. 


Munidopsis quadrata Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 188; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 1895, p. 97, pl. xxi, figs. 1, le. 
Elasmonotus quadratus A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bovvrer, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.. 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 282. 
Albatross station 3424, in 676 fathoms, and station 3425 in 680 
fathoms, Tres Marias Islands. 


MUNIDOPSIS REGIA Alcock and Anderson. 

Munidopsis regia Aucock and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LX III, Pt. 2, 
1894, p. 168; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 1; Cat. Indian 
Deep-Sea Crust. in the Indian Museum, 1901, p. 261. 

Arabian Sea, off Colombo, 142-400 fathoms, Andaman Sea. 405 


fathoms. 
MUNIDOPSIS REYNOLDSI (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes reynoldsi A. MitNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
_ p. 56. 
Munidopsis reynoldsi A. MitNr-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XTX, 1897, No. 2, p. 80, pl. v1, 
figs. 1-5. 


Blake station 138 in 2,376 fathoms, Ham’s Bluff. 


MUNIDOPSIS ROBUSTA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes robustus A. M1LNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VITI, 1880, p. 54. 


Munidopsis robusta A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., (7), XVI 
b 
) 


1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 69, pl. v1, figs. 
15-20; pl. vu, fig. 1. 
Blake station 258 in 159 fathoms, Grenada. 


MUNIDOPSIS SCABRA Faxon. 
Munidopsis scabra Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 186; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 93, pl. xx1, figs. 1, la. 
Albatross station 3424 in 676 fathoms, and station 3425 in 680 
fathoms, Tres Marias Islands. 


MUNIDOPSIS SCOBINA Alcock. 
Munidopsis scobina Aucock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, p. 880; Illus. 
Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. xu, fig. 1; Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. 
Indian Museum, 1901, p. 254. 
Northern end of the Bay of Bengal, 193, 240, 272, 405-285, and 409 
~ fathoms. 


¥ 


gy 


. 


326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


MUNIDOPSIS SERICEA Faxon. 


Munidopsis sericea FAXon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X XIV, 1893, p. 184; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 90, pl. xix, figs. 3, 3a. 


OO>( 


Albatross station 3394 in 511 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 
MUNIDOPSIS SERRATIFRONS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes serratifrons A. MrtNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, No. 1, 
1880, p. 55. 
Munidopsis serratifrons Hexprerson, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, 
p. 149, pl. xvi, fig. 3.— A. Mitnr-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, p. 78, pL wi nes 24: 
Blake station 185 in 333 fathoms, Dominica; Challenger station 
56. off Bermuda, in 1,075 fathoms; A/datross station 2154, in 310 
fathoms, off Habana, Cuba. 


MUNIDOPSIS SHARRERI (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Orophorhynchus sharreri A. MttNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIIT, 1880, 


p. 59. 
Munidopsis sharreri A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 


Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2; 
p. 71; pl. vai, fig. 2-0: 


Santa Cruz. in 248 fathoms, steamer Blake. 


MUNIDOPSIS SIGSBEI (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes sigsbei A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 56. 
Munidopsis sigsbei HENDERSON, Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 150, 
pl. xvi, fig. 2.—A, Mr~ne-Epwarpsand Bouvirr, Ann. desSci. Nat., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 83, pl. v; 


fig. 8-26. 





Blake station 200 in 472 fathoms, Martinique. 
MUNIDOPSIS SIMILIS S. I. Smith. 


Munidopsis similis S. I. Smrrg, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VII, 1885, p. 496.—A. 
Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 
1894, p. 275. 


Off the east coast of the United States: A/batross station 2192, lati- 
tude 39°, in 1,060 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS SIMPLEX (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galatnodes simplex A. Mitnre-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 56. 

Munidopsis simpler A, Mitne-Epwarps and Ek. L. Bouvrer, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), X V1, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897,- No. 2: 
p. 89, pl. v, figs. 2-7. 


XN ae . - a ’ re VO a 
Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Vincent, 333 to 982 fathoms. 


xo.1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 397 


§ MUNIDOPSIS SPINIFER A. Milne-Edwards. 


Munidopsis spinifer A. MItne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 54.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvter, Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool., (7), X VI, 
1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 64, pl. vir, figs., 
6-8. 
Blake, station 146, in 245 fathoms; St. Kitts. Station 100 in 250 
to 400 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS SPINOCULATA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Orophorhynchus spinoculatus A. MILNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 
1880, p. 59. 

Munidopsis spinoculata A. MILNE- Se cate and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. 
Nat., Zool., (7), X Vi, 1894, p. 275; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, 
No. 2, p: 75, pl. vi, figs. 8=11. 


Dominica, in 824 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS SQUAMOSA (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Orophorhynchus squamosus A. MitNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 
1880, p. 58. 

Elasmonotus squamosus A, Mitne-EKpwarps and E. L. Bouvirr, Ann. des Sci. 
Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 282; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool, XIX, 1897, No. 2, 
p. 99, pl. vi, figs. 4-6. 


St. Lucia. in 116 fathoms. 
MUNIDOPSIS STYLIROSTRIS Wood-Mason. 


Munidopsis stylirostris \WWoop-Mason, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), 1891, p. 201.— 
Aucocx, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, 1894, p. 328: Illus. Investigator, 
Zool., Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 6. 


Arabian Sea, in 738, 824, 836, and 947 fathoms. 
MUNIDOPSIS SUBSQUAMOSA Henderson. 


Munidopsis subsquamosa HenpERSON, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, 
p. 414; Challenger Report, XX VII, Anomura, 1888, p. 152, ve xvu, fig. 4.— 
Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in Indian Museum, 1901, p. 256; 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 85. 


Challenger, station 237, in 1875 fathoms, off Yokohama. 
MUNIDOPSIS TALISMANI Edwards and Bouvier. 


Munidopsis talismani A. MitNe-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 275; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 
Brachyures and Anomoures, 1894, p. 316, pl. xxx, figs. 11-14. 

Kuropean waters. 
MUNIDOPSIS TANNERI Faxon. 


Munidopsis tanneri Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXTV, 1893, p. 187; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., XVIII, 1895, p. 94, pl. xxur, figs. 1, la. 


Albatross station 3396, in 259 fathoms, gulf of Panama; station 3397, 
in 85 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 


f+ 
open 





328 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 


MUNIDOPSIS TAURULUS Ortmann. 
Munidopsis taurulus OrrMANN, Zool. Jahrb., System, 1892, p. 256, pl-m, figs aes 
MUNIDOPSIS TENAX Alcock. 
Bathyankyristes spinosus Aucock, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIIT, 1894, Pt. 2, 
p. 174, pl. 1x, fig. 2; lus. Zool. Investigator, Crustacea, pl. Lv, fig. 2. 


Munidopsis (Bathyankyristes) tenax AvcocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 273. 


Andaman Sea, off Ross Island, 265 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS TENUIROSTRIS, new species, see p. 289. 


MUNIDOPSIS TOWNSENDI, new species, see p. 290. 


MUNIDOPSIS TRACHYPUS Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis trachypus Aucock and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXIIT, . 


1894, Pt. 2, p. 169; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 2.— 
Ancock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian Museum, 1901, p. 262. 


Arabian Sea. north of the Laceadives, 636 fathoms. 


MUNIDOPSIS TRIZENA Alcock and Anderson. 


Munidopsis triena Aucock and ANDERSON, Jour, Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXITI, 1894, 
Pt. 2, p. 168; Illus. Investigator Zool. Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 5. 

Munidopsis (Galathodes) triena Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 261. 


Bay of Bengal, off the Andaman coast, in 240-290 and 375 fathoms, 
MUNIDOPSIS TRIDENS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Galathodes tridens A. MttNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 
57.—A. Mrtne-Epwarpsand Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., (7), X V1, 1894, p. 
279: Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 96, pl. vu, figs. 13-15; 
pl. vi, fig. 1. 


Blake station 148, in 208 fathoms, St. Kitts. 
MUNIDOPSIS TRIDENTATA (Esmark). 
Galathea tridentata Esmarx, Forhdl. Skandin. Naturt., 7 Méde, (1856), 1857, p. 157. 


Galathodes rosaceus A. MrtNE-Epwarps, Rec. de Fig. de Crust., 1885, pl. x11, 
fig. 1. 


Galathodes tridentatus A. Mitng-Epwarpbs and E. L. Bouvier, Crust. Hirondelle 


et Princesse-Alice, Monaco, 1899, p. 83. 
> Munidopsis rosacea Aucock and ANnpERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1899, (7), 
Depo: 


Miunidopsis ( Galathodes) ? tridentata Avcock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust., Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 264. 


Two hundred and thirty-seven specimens were taken in the Arabian 
Sea, off the Travancore coast, in 480 fathoms.” 






0. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 329 


MUNIDOPSIS TRIFIDA Henderson. 


& 
s 
E 


Munidopsis tritida Henperson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 415; 
Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 156, pl. xv1, fig. 2 


Galathodes trifidus A. MItNE-Kpwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. ae Zool, 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 279. 

Challenger station 310, in 400 fathoms, Sarmiento Channel, Pata- 
-gonia. 

Mr. Henderson describes his specimens as having ‘*a few short hairs 
scattered over the surface.” This is true of the specimens in this 
museum, one from <A/batross station 2781, in 348 fathoms, and one 
from station 2785 in 449 fathoms. Both stations are off the west coast 
of Patagonia at no great distance from the type locality of J/. trifida. 

Alcock and Anderson“ have referred to J/. tr/fida specimens from 
the ‘“‘Arabian Sea, north of the Laccadives, 636 fathoms; Bay of Ben- 
gal, off the Andamans, 480 fathoms; Andaman Sea, 498 fathoms.” 
Contrary to the character of the type and topotypes, these specimens 
are described as tomentose. ‘‘Body and appendages tomentose. 
Carapace when denuded transversely rugose, especially postero- 
laterally.” 

It does not seem at all. improbable that specimens from localities so 
widely separated and differing so much in the amount of hair (the one 
being naked and the other clothed) would show additional diverse 
characters when placed side by side; however, in the absence of inter- 
grading specimens, this character alone renders the forms specifically 
distinct. I therefore propose that the form from the Indian Seas be 
known as Junidopsis tomentosa. 


MUNIDOPSIS UNGUIFERA Alcock and Anderson. 


ores unguifera ALcocK and ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXILI, 
Pt. 2, 1894, p. 172; Illus. Investigator Zool., Crust., 1895, pl. x1, fig. 4.— 
Re doc K, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust., 1901, p. 253. 


Bay of Bengal, in 145-250 fathoms, Andaman Sea, in 490 fathoms. 
MUNIDOPSIS VAILLANTI (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Elasmonotus vaillanti A. MitNe-Epwarps, Comp. Rend. Acad. des Sci., p. 932, 
Dec., 1881.—A. Mrtne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 282; Expéd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, Brach- 
yures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 333, pl. xxx1, fig. 8-10. 


MUNIDOPSIS VERRILLI, new species, see p. 291. 
MUNIDOPSIS VICINA Faxon. 
Munidopsis vicina Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 181; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 85, pl. xvin, figs. 2-2a. 
Albatross station 3360, in 1,670 fathoms, Gulf of Panama: station 
3382 In 1,793 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 


«Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal. LXIII, Pt. 2, 1894, p. 168. 





330 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI._ 





MUNIDOPSIS VILLOSA Faxon. | 


Munidopsis villosa Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 182; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 86, pl. xrx, fig 2. 


Albatross station 3394, in 511 fathoms, Gulf of Panama. 
MUNIDOPSIS WARDENI Anderson. 


Munidopsis wardeni ANDERSON, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, LXV, Pt. 2, 1896, p. 
99; Illus. Investigator Zool., Crust., pl. Lv, fig. 1.—Ancock, Cat. Indian 
Deep-Sea Crust, 1901, p. 257. 
Arabian Sea, in 406, 457-589, 459, and 531 fathoms; Bay of Bengal, 
in 480 and 594-225 fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS Henderson. 


Diptychus A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 61 (name 
preoccupied ). 
Uroptychus (new name) Hrnprerson, Report Voyage Challenger, 1888, p. 173. 


UROPTYCHUS ARMATUS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Diptychus armatus A. MILNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 
59.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bovvirr, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 306.—Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, No. 2, p. 132, pl. x1, figg 
3; pl. xu, figs. 8 and 9. 


Blake station 241; depth, 163 fathoms; Cariacou. 
UROPTYCHUS AUSTRALIS (Henderson). 


Diptychus australis HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 420. 
Uroptychus australis HENDERSON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, p. 
179, pl. xxt, fig. 4. 
Challenger station 171, near the Kermadec Islands; depth, 600 
fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS AUSTRALIS var. INDICUS Alcock. 


Uroptychus australis var. indicus Aucock, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian 
Museum, 1901, p. 284. 
Arabian Sea, off Cape Comorin, 459 fathoms; Bay of Bengal, off 
Ceylon, 805 fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS BACILLIMANUS Alcock and Anderson. 


Uroptychus bacillimanus Atcock and ANDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), IJ, 
1899, p. 25; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1899, pl. xiv, fig. 3.—ALcocK, 
Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. in Indian Museum, 1901, p. 285. 
A young male and female from off the Travancere coast, 430 
fathoms, and an egg-laden female from off Ceylon, 320-296 fathoms. 


"no. 1311. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 331 


5 





t UROPTYCHUS BELLUS Faxon. 


Uroptychus bellus Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 193; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 1895, p. 102, pl. xxv1, figs. 2-2b. 
Diptychus bellus A. MtuNE-Epwarps and Bouvigr, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., 
XVI, 1894, p. 306. 
Albatross station 3354, in 322 fathoms. Station 3355, 182 fathoms, 
off Panama. 


UROPTYCHUS BREVIS, new species, see p. 292. 
UROPTYCHUS CAPILLATUS, new species, see p. 293. 
UROPTYCHUS FUSIMANUS Alcock and Anderson. 


Uroptychus fusimanus Aucock and ANDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), III, 
1899, p. 26; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., 1899, pl. xurv, fig. 4.—ALcock, 
Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian Museum, 1901, p. 283. 


Seven specimens from off the Travancore coast, in 430 fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS GRACILIMANUS (Henderson). 


Diptychus gracilimanus HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 
420. 

Uroptychus.gracilimanus HENDERSON, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, Anomura, 
p: 181, ple xx, fig. 5. 


Challenger station 164B, off Port Jackson; depth, 410 fathoms. 
UROPTYCHUS GRANULATUS, new species, see p. 293. 


UROPTYCHUS INSIGNIS (Henderson). 


Diptychus insignis HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 419. 
Uroptychus insignis HENDERSON, Challenger Report, Anomura, XX VII, 1888, p. 
170; pl--xx1, fig. 1. 


Challenger station 145A, off Prince Edwards Island; depth, 310 
fathoms. 
UROPTYCHUS INTERMEDIUS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Diptychus intermedius A. MrLNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, 
p. 63; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, No. 2, 1897, p. 127, pl. xu, fig. 1-7. 


Blake station 241; depth, 163 fathoms; Cariacou. 
UROPTYCHUS JAMAICENSIS, new species, see p. 29 
UROPTYCHUS MINUTUS, new species, see p. 296. 


UROPTYCHUS NIGRICAPILLIS Alcock. 


Uroptychus nigricapillis ALcocK, Cat. Indian Deep-Sea Crust. Indian Museum, 
1901, p. 283, pl. 111, fig. 3 


Andaman Sea, 669 fathoms. 


Proce. N. M. vol. xxvi—02 93 





332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 





UROPTYCHUS NITIDUS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Diptychus nitidus A. Mitnn-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 62.— 
A. Mrine-Epwarps and Bouvirr, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zeal » (7), SEMA, a 
p. 306; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool.; XIX, 1897, p. 184, pl. x1, figs: 21, 22: pil 
x11, figs. 10-16. 

Uroptychus nitidus Henprrson, Challenger Report, Anomura, XX VII, 1888, p. 

174, pl. xx1, fig. 6. 
Blake station 137; depth, 625 fathoms; Frederickstadt. Station 
227; depth, 273 fathoms. | 


UROPTYCHUS NITIDUS var. CONCOLOR (Edwards & Bouvier). | 


Diptychus nitidus var. concolor A. M1txe-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. — 
Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 306; Résult. des camp. scient. de l Hirondelle | 
(supplément) et de la Princesse-Alice, Pt. XII, p. 87, pl. 1, fig. 2.—Epwarps | 
and Bouvier, Expéd. Sci. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 1900, p. 360, pl. rv, 
pl. xxxul, fig. 15-19. 

Uroptychus nitidus var. concolor M. CAuLurery, Result. de la camp. du Caudan, IT, 
p. 393. 


UROPTYCHUS OCCIDENTALIS Faxon. 


Uroptychus nitidus occidentalis Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXIV, 1893, p. 
192; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 101, pl. xxv1, figs. 1, la. 
Diptychus nitidus var. occidentalis M1LNE-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. 

Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 306. 
Albatross, station 3384; depth, 458 fathoms; off Panama. 
See Uroptychus occidentalis, Key, p. 292. 


UROPTYCHUS PARVULUS (Henderson). 


Diptychus parvulus HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 420. 
Uroptychus parvulus Henperson, Challenger Report, XX VII, 1888, p. 177, pl. xx1, 
fiom: 
Challenger station 310; Sarmiento Channel, Patagonia; depth, 400° 
fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS POLITUS (Henderson). 


Diptychus politus HeNpDERSoN, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 420. 
Uroptychus politus HENDERSON, Challenger Report, Anomura, X X VII, 1888, p. 178, 
pl: vi; tig. 2: 
Challenger station 171, near the Kermadec Islands; depth, 600 
fathoms. 


UROPTYCHUS PRINCEPS, new species, see p. 296. 


UROPTYCHUS PUBESCENS Faxon. 


Uroptychus pubescens Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., X XIV, 1893, p. 192; Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., X VIII, 1895, p. 101, pl. xxv1, figs. 3, a, b. 
Diptychus pubescens A. Mitng-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 306. 
Albatross stations 3354, in 322 fathoms, and 3355, in 182 fathoms, | 
off Panama. S| 
| 


no.131. SOME NEW DEEP SEA CRUSTACEANS—BENEDICT. 333 





UROPTYCHUS RUBRO-VITTATUS (A. Milne-Edwards. | 


Diptychus rubro-vittatus A. MItNE-Epwarps, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), XVI, 
1894, p. 306; Expéd. Sci. du Travailleur et du Talisman, 1900, p. 356, pl. 
xxx, fig. 6-14.—M. Cavuuiery, Résult. de la camp. du Caudan, Pt. De 
1896, p. 393. 


UROPTYCHUS RUGOSUS (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Diptychus rugosus A. MitNe-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 
63.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 
1897, No. 2, p. 124, pl. x1, figs. 4-14. 


West India region, in 95 to 240 fathoms. 
UROPTYCHUS SCAMBUS, new species, see p. 297. 
UROPTYCHUS SCANDENS, new species, see p. 298. 
UROPTYCHUS SPINIGER, new species, see p. 298. 


UROPTYCHUS SPINIMARGINATUS (Henderson). 


Diptychus spinimarginatus HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 
419. 

Uroptychus spinimarginatus HENDERSON, Challenger Report, Anomura, XX VII, 
1888, p. 176, pl. xx1, fig. 2. 


Challenger station 170, off Kermadee Islands; depth, 520 fathoms. 
Y I 
UROPTYCHUS SPINOSUS (A. Milne-Edwards and E. L. Bouvier). 


Diptychus spinosus A. M1LNE-Epwarvs and Bouvier, Ann. des. Sci. Nat., Zool., 
(7), XVI, 1894, p. 306; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 129, 
pl. x1, figs. 15-20. 


West India region. 





UROPTYCHUS TRIDENTATUS (Henderson). 


Diptychus tridentatus Hexprerson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 421. 
Uroptychus tridentatus Hpenprerson, Challenger Report, X X VII, 1888, p. 181, pl. 
Vie tiger ls 
Amboina, depth ? 
UROPTYCHUS UNCIFER (A. Milne-Edwards). 


Diptychus uncifer A. M1LNE-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 63.— 
A. Mitne-Epwarps and Bouvier, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.,(7), X VI, 1894, p. 306; 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, 1897, No. 2, p. 140, pl. x1, figs. 1 and 2; pl. 
xut, figs. 17-29. 

Blake station 232; depth, 88 fathoms; St. Vincent. Station 273; 
depth, 103 fathoms; Barbados. Station 269; depth, 124 fathoms; St. 
Vincent. 





PTYCHOGASTER A. Milne-Edwards. 
Ptychogaster A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 63. 


PTYCHOGASTER DEFENSA, new species, see p. 299. 


334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI,_ 





PTYCHOGASTER FORMOSUS A. Milne-Edwards. 


Ptychogaster formosus A. MitNe-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvirr, Ann. des Sci. Nat., | 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, p. 205, fig. 9; p. 216, fig. 20.—A. MiLnre-Epwarps and | 
EK. L. Bouvier, Expd. Scient. du Travailleur et du Talisman, Crust. Decap. 
Brachyures et Anomoures, 1900, p. 350, pl. 1, fig. 2; pl. xxxu, fig. 1-5. See 
for Synonymy. 


PTYCHOGASTER HENDERSONI Alcock and Anderson. 


Ptychogaster hendersoni Aucock and ANDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 1899, 
p. 23.—Ancock, Cat. Indian deep-sea Crust. Indian Museum, 1901, p. 280; | 
Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 2. 


PTYCHOGASTER INVESTIGATORIS Alcock and Anderson. 


Ptychogaster investigatoris Aucock and ANDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 
1899, p. 24; Illus. Zool. Investigator, Crust., pl. xiv, fig. 1.—A.cock, Cat. 
Indian deep-sea Crust. Indian Museum, 1901, p. 281. 


PTYCHOGASTER LAEVIS Henderson. 


Ptychogaster levis HENDERSON, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 418; | 
Challenger Rept., X XVII, 1888, Anomura, p. 172, pl. xx, fig. 3.—A. MILNE- } 
Epwarpsand E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), X VI, 1894, p. 302. 





PTYCHOGASTER MILNE-EDWARDSI Henderson. 


Ptychogaster milne-edwardsi HENDERSON, Narr. Chall. Exp., I, 1885, p. 900, fig. 330; _ 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), 1885, X VI, p. 418; Rep. Anomura Challenger Ex., | 
MEX VILE 1888; pala, pl saxige 


PTYCHOGASTER SPINIFER A. Milne-Edwards. 


Ptychogaster spinifer A. Mitne-Epwarps, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VIII, 1880, p. 
64.—A. Mitne-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., Zool., (7), 
XVI, 1894, p. 302; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., XIX, No. 2, 1897, p. 118; pli 
1x, fig. 16-22; pl. x, fig. 4-16. 


EUMUNIDA S: I. Smaith: 


EUMUNIDA PICTA S. I. Smith. 


Eumunida picta 8. I. Smirx, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., VI, 1883, p. 44, pl. u, fig. 2; | 
pl. i, fig. 6-10; pl. tv, fig. 1-38; Report Com. Fish and Fisheries, p. 46 || 
(1885), 1886.—A. Mitnr-Epwarps and E. L. Bouvier, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool., (7), XVI, 1894, pp. 211, 230, fig. 14; Expéd. Sci. du Travailleur et du 
Talisman, Brachyures et Anomoures, p. 364, 1900, pl. v, fig. 1; pl xxvu, | 
fig. 26; pl. xxxun, figs. 20-24. 


EUMUNIDA SMITHII Henderson. 


Eumunida smithii HeNpDERson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), XVI, 1885, p. 413; 
Voyage of the Challenger, Report on the Anomura, XVII, 1888, p. 169, pl. | 
Xv, fig. 5. | 





bP RTE YA, TER 


SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY VENERIDA AND OF THE 
NORTH AMERICAN RECENT SPECIES. 


By Witiiam Heartry Datt, 


Honorary Curator, Division of Mollusks. 


This synopsis is one of a series of similar summaries of the families 
of bivalve mollusks which have been prepared by the writer in the 
course of a revision of our Pelecypod fauna in the light of the material 
accumulated in the collections of the United States National Museum. 
While the lists of species are made as complete as possible, for the 
coasts of the United States, the list of those ascribed to the Antilles, 
Central and South America, is probably subject to considerable addi- 
tions when the fauna of these regions is better known and the litera. 
ture more thoroughly sifted. No claim of completeness is therefore 
made for this portion of the work, except when so expressly stated. 
So many of the southern forms extend to the verge of our territory 
that it was thought well to include those known to exist in the vicinity 
when it could be done without too greatly increasing the labor involved 
in the known North American list. 

The publications of authors included in the bibliography which 
follows are referred to by date in the text, but it may be said that the 
full explanation of changes made and decisions as to nomenclature 
arrived at is included in the memoir on the Tertiary fauna of Florida 
in course of publication by the Wagner Institute, of Philadelphia, for 
the writer, forming the third volume of their transactions. The rules 
of nomenclature cited in Part II] of that work (pp. 561-565) are 
those upon which this revision has been founded, and are believed to 
express the opinions of the majority of those who have given thorough 
study to the subject of nomenclature. Authors who do not accept 
the British Association rules, as thus developed, can not expect to find 
their personal views reflected in this revision. 

It may be thought that the subdivision of groups has been carried 
farther than desirable, to which the writer can only reply that in 
tracing the genealogy of our recent species through the Tertiary, 





PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, VOL. XXVI—No. 1312. 


336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVIL 


from horizon to horizon, he has found the minor divisions of yery 
ereat assistance, the more thorough scrutiny and study which they 
naturally require, and which is irksome to superficial students, being 
essential to really thorough work in paleontology, and no small help 
in handling the recent forms. On the other hand, those whose studies 
do not require this insistence on apparently minor characteristics do 
not need to use the sectional names, and may easily fall back on those 
names by which the larger groups are called. 


The family Veneride represents the culmination of Pelecypod evo- | 


lution, so far as this may be represented by any single family. In 
beauty of color and delicacy of color pattern, in multiplicity and 
variety of sculptural developments, in wide distribution and bathy- 
metric range, the Veneridee equal if they do not surpass any other 
Teleodont group. While the shells are often exquisitely beautiful, 
the coloration and appendages of the soft parts are also frequently 
similarly attractive, leading to wonder why parts which are always 
covered by the mud or sand or hidden between the valves should 
develop such beauties. The periostracum is usually thin and incon- 
spicuous, but sometimes by color or quality of surface adds attractive- 
ness to shells otherwise dull or colorless. 

The geographical distribution of groups in the Veneride has some 
marked characteristics, which are especially brought out when the dis- 
tribution is scrutinized by the minor-groups, such as sections. Omit- 
ting fossils, which in the main agree very closely with the recent 
species in distribution, Swnetta and the whole group covered by 
Gafrarium and Lioconcha, except the section Gouldia,; Meretrix, and 
most of the sections of Cytherea, except Cytherea and Ventricola, 
Mysia, Gomphina, Macridiscus; most of the sections of Aatalysia, 
and all the great group of Paphia, except the usually dull and unat- 
tractive Protothaca, are unknown in the waters of the New World. 

On the other hand, 7ransennella, Pachydesma, Hysteroconcha, Cycli- 
nella, and Parastarte appear to be exclusively American. Lutivela 
and Hucallista belong to the southeastern shores of America, Liocyma 
to the boreal seas, Saxidomus and Protothaca to the west coast of 
America, with slight extensions to northeastern Asia and Australasia. 
Venus is originally and typically American, with one emigrant in 
northern Japan. Gemma and Psephidia agree in the main with 
Venus. No member of the group of Circe or Gafrarium occurs on 
the Pacific coast, though I anticipate that Gow/dia will turn up there 
sooner or later. Chionella, Pitaria, Natalysia, and Venerupis are 
almost ubiquitous. Of the Dosiniins only Clementia and Dosinidia 
are known to be residents of America. In harmony with the late 
development and specialization of the family is the fact that of the one 
hundred and thirty-seven species known as American only two exist 
on both shores of North America. Eighteen species extend through 


| 








SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERID.E—DALL. pet 


~ the temperate and boreal regions, belonging to twelve groups, of which 

_ Saxidomus and Psephidia have no representatives known in our trop- 

ical waters. The Tropics in America have representatives of twenty- 

“nine groups, of which Z7vela and Chione are the most prolific a 

“species; none of the other groups exceeds four species. In individuals 

the groups of the Temperate Zone seem to be most prolific, such as 
Venus, Protothaca, Saxidomus, and Agriopoma, and from these the 
greater portion of the food supply derived from members of this 
family by man is obtained. 

The southern limit of the tropical fauna on the west coast of South 
America is near Payta, Peru. On the east coast it descends at least as 
far as Rio de Janeiro, its northern limit reaching the latitude of Cape 
Hatteras offshore and Cape Canaveral on the actual coast. On the 
west coast the temperate fauna meets the northernmost extension of 
the tropical fauna near Point Conception, California. The northern 
limit of thestrictly temperate-region fauna, on the west, is the line of 
floating ice in winter in Bering Sea, about the latitude of the Pribilof 
group of islands. On the east we may put the boundary near Cape 
Breton Island, but, owing to the inshore polar current on this side of 
the continent, the arctic species reach farther south and the census of 
the temperate fauna is more meager than on the more favored north- 
west coast of the continent or the western shores of Europe in the 
same latitude. 

The recognizable ancestry of the Veneride appears in the Upper 
Cretaceous or Lower Eocene. No true Venerid, in the strict sense, 
appears before the Tertiary. The modifications followed through the 
successive horizons are most interesting. Thus, in the Oligocene we 
have //yphantosoma with fine zigzag chiseling of the surface. In the 
Pliocene this sculpture is obsolete and its traces hardly-to be found. 
The recent type has a smooth surface, but when attacked by decay the 
manner in which the shell weathers reveals the zigzag internal struc- 
ture hidden under an apparently normal, smooth exterior, and the 
color-pattern frequently follows a zigzag lineation which is no longer 
expressed in terms of sculpture. 

The beauty of the shells has led in some cases to a traffic in them by 
means of aboriginal trade. Thus //ysteroconcha was long carried to 
the Orient by the Lascar crews of ancient Spanish galleons, and this 
has led to wrong ideas of geographical distribution. J/eretrix is a 
favorite with the Chinese and Japanese, not merely as a source of food 

or ornament, but is incorporated into lacquer work and imitated in 
porcelain or pottery. The common Venus of our own eastern coast 
was the source from which the Dutch and Indians prepared their shell 
money or wampum and ceremonial belts. A south European species 
in ancient times was the emblem of Aphrodite, and in the South Seas 
species of Veneride were largely used for personal adornment. 


338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 7OL-aae 





TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN VENERIDA. 
W.=WEST COAST; E.=EAST COAST. . 


[Extralimital species in parentheses. ] 





Temperate) Tropical 
or Ore- : 
gonian. | Panamic, 

GENUS AND SECTION. 




















Dosinia: 

Dosinidia, = 22..242ck secs te Sooo eee ee eee inte Po aha letes a 
Glementiat 2-22. s2522:5255 eed he ee ee 22 e\ 2: |) 2 
Transennella: 2. 3.2.-..=.2ss- osse soe eee ee ee See eee ee ale oa 
Tye@lay cis ct Sos Sere le ere Sen ae Sear rele ey are cre eee ee ay 

Pachydesma: ; - :..--2.4¢ 122+ 225 sles o's Hake SiS eee ee Pee 
Gafrarium: = 

Gouldiavcss2. wo. 2. fee re ee eee tee ee ae eee 38 
Macroeallista.s.¢.<.2sss282.222 52 s22h Zoe es eee Ld oR oneal Cae i 

Chionella 2 22..5s22522 22 22 Se eee eee eee See hed 1s 
Amaamtis. <2) 2os22 3s. nee ssn cS ae oe = heptane ee eer ee --+-|---) 1) 

Hueallistaj. 2. js joe tes 2b eiereeyae epeste tee ee snes |S Let ee i= 
Callocardiai: 2uc226 22.25. 25 ss ee Se ee ee eee SS Secon ee it 

SAS ORTS ICO ONAN GR = eter re ee a ececiy dale 3 
Pitanlas 2 si... 2204) 0s be iheek Se) ee ee si daleeoat = ee 62 

Ebysteroconchay 22. eos eee Ne by aaa EO ee a SAE evel eee 1 

ame liiconchas: .o5. 3 2ve Ste: ee ee a eee ee = Aa sal 1% 
Cytherea: Jo csoin se bie sot oe See Re eee eee eee eae 3. sae ec]/aall 1 

Ventricola 22 2b ee ee Jo eee a ieee 43 
SSK CLOTS Soci ei moe ae este Se ee arc ce [O22 oe 
Cyclinellas. 2. 2S sc... Sese seks eee ais eee ee eee ee lesa aga) eee eee 1g 
Chionesi = 26) ee eee, ee Ss be etal = S| oO om 

Tim oclea.=2-.2 S225. sae ae ose ee ee eee eee | nae (eae 4 

Lirophora3.j25.2)..22 22452238 Sees ee eee eee brash Soeeed pee 2 
Anomalocardia sn. .occ2c se os saci ane Bee eee eee eae fea es baa 5 
Wi TN US) ols ise sche ere oe te ye tel ee a Ht i 1 2 
Miarceia= 34230204 howd ol te eee a ee ee ee 1 |. aS a 

Venerella)... So... 223 oc ee See ee eee Lit 
Protothaca. secs 2 Se ne ee eee ee 1 |..2) 2 ae 

GCallithacais. co esos 5 es ae eee 1..| 225. |: 222 Soe 
TOC yMas. oooh oot 255s hie ee ee eee eee 3 |> l |e 
Wenerupiss. 3.2 6145-22 sch see eee eee 1h 
Gemma, Pos5 oe 52 fabs shee ee ee Se ee 3 ti)! leg See i 
Parastarte. 2. 22.5202 5-25 205 2 ie eee [eae eee so2 | 
Psephidia.:. 32. 22.002. 2 1. 2a oS | 2)2 2. eos 

‘Totals‘inmeach fauna 2<- 2. 52) Sea eee | 14] 41] 66 | comm 

Speciesmative to) both\ oceanga = see | Bee alee 2 |. 2. 
14) 4.)°64 \3s5e 

Total North! American’ Wemnericdceccg. ee ee ee eee | | loi 








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_ No. 1312. SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDA—DALL. 339 


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1843. 
1844. 


1844. 
1844. 
1844. 
1844. 
1844. 
1845. 
1845. 
1845. 
1845. 
1845. © 
1845. 
1845. 
1845. 
1845. 
1846. 
1846. 
1846. 
1846. 
1846. 
1846. 
1846. 


1847. 
1847. 
1847. 
1847. 
1847. 
1847. 
1847. 
1847. 


1848. 
1848. 
1848. 
1848. 
1849. 


1849. 
1849. 


1849. 
1850. 


' No. 1312. 


SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDA—DALL. 341 


D’Orbigny, Voyage dans Il’ Amérique Méridionale, Paiéontologie. 

Gray, Synopsis of the Collection of the British Museum. 

Deshayes, Magasin de Zoologie, Guérin-Méneville. 

Conrad, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, I. 

Philippi, Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neue oder wenig gekiinnte con- 
chylien, I, Part 2, Venus. 

De Kay, Natural History of New York, Zoology, Part I, Mollusca. 

Hanley, Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells (1843-1856). 

Mighels, Boston Journal of Natural History, IV (1843-44). 

Philippi, Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neue oder wenig gekiinnte con- 
chylien, I, Artemis. 

Potiez et Michaud, Galerie de Douai, II. 

Philippi, Enumeratio Molluscorum Siciliz, TI. (See also Philippi, 1847. ) 

Hanley, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Hinds, Zoology of the Voyage of the Sulphur, Mollusca. 

Jonas, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, I. 

Jonas, Zeitschrift fir Malakozoologie, II. 

Philippi, Zeitschrift fur Malakozoologie II. 

Linsley, American Journal of Science, first series, X LVIII. 

Conrad, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, IIT. 

H. C. Lea, Transactions American Philosophical Society, second series, LX. 

Hanley, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. (See also Hanley, 1843. ) 

Troschel, Archiy fiir Naturgeschichte, XI, Part 2. 

C. B. Adams, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, IT. 

D’ Orbigny, Mollusca Cubana, II, in Sagra, Histoire de l’ile de Cuba (1845-1853). 

Valenciennes, Voyage autour du monde sur la Vénus, 1836-1839. (Plates only.) 

Philippi, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, III. (See also Philippi, 1847.) 

Nyst, Coquilles Fossiles de Belgique. 

Herrmannsen, Index Generum Malacozoorum, I. 

D’Orbigny, Voyage dans l Amérique Méridionale, Mollusques (1846-47). 

Conrad, American Journal of Science, second series, IT. 

Pfeiffer (in) Philippi, Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neue oder wenig 
gekiinnte conchylien, II, Part 18. 

Gray, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Gray, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, XX. 

Chenu, Illustrations conchyliologiques. 

D’Orbigny. (See D’Orbigny, 1845 and 1846. ) 

Adams, Catalogue of the Collection of C. B. Adams. 

Philippi, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, LY. 

Menke, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, IV. 

Philippi, Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neue oder wenig gekiinnte conchy- 
lien. Cytherea et Venus (1843-1847). 

Dunker, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, V. 

Gistel, Naturgeschichte Thierreichs, first edition. 

Forbes and Hanley, British Mollusca, I. 

Linsley (in Gould), American Journal of Science, second series, VI. 

Conrad, Journal Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, second series, I, 
Part 3. 

Conrad, United States Exploring Expedition, Report on the Geology, Ap- 
pendix. 

Deshayes, Traité élémentaire de Conchyliologie, II. 

Menke, Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, VI. 

Philippi, Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neue oder wenig gekinnter con- 
chylien, III, Part 7, Venus et Cytherea. 


342 
1850. 
1850. 
1850. 
1850. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1851. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1852. 
1853. 
1853. 
1853. 
1853. 


1853. 


1853. 
1853. 
1853. 
1854. 
1854. 
1854. 
1855. 
1855. 
1855. 
1855. 
1855. 
1856. 
1856. 
1856. 
1857. 


1857. 
1857. 


1857. 
1857. 
1857. 
1857. 
1858. 
1858. 
1858. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI | 
‘_ 








Reeve, Conchologia Iconieca, VII, Monograph of Artemis. 

Philippi, Zeitschrift fir Malakozoologie, VIT. 

Gould, United States Exploring Expedition, Report on the Mollusca. 

Gould, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, III. 

Recluz, Journal de Conchyliologie, I. 

D’Orbigny, Prodrome de Paléontologie, II. 

Stimpson, Shells of New England. 

Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum, II, Monograph of Cytherea. 

Philippi, Zeitschrift ftir Malakozoologie, VIII. 

Gray, List of British Animals, British Museum, Mollusca. 

Gould, Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, IV. 

Morelet, Testacea Novissima insulze Cubanze et Americ centralis, II. 

D’Orbigny, Prodrome de Paléontologie, ITI. 

Reeluz, Journal de Conchyliologie, III. 

Jay, Catalogue of Shells, fourth edition, supplement. 

Gould, Boston Journal of Natural History, VI, Art. XXIV. 

Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum, II, Monograph of Artemis. 

C. B. Adams, Contributions to Conchology. 

C. B. Adams, Catalogue of shells collected at Panama. 

Leach, Synopsis of the Mollusca of Great Britain, edited by Gray. 

Recluz, Journal de Conchyliologie, III. 

Searles Wood, Crag Mollusca, II, Bivalvia. 

Philippi, Handbuch der Conchyliologie und der Malakozoologie. 

Woodward, Manual of Recent and Fossil Shells (1851-1856). 

Conrad, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, first series, 
VI. 

Deshayes, Catalogue of the Conchifera in the British Museum, Part I, Vene- 
ridee. 3 

Gould, Boston Journal of Natural History, VI, Article XXIV. 

Morch, Catalogus Conchyliorum de Yoldi, IT. 

Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum II, Monograph of Venus. 

Huppé, (in) Gay, Historia de Chile, VIII, Moluscos. 

Huppé, Revue et Magazin de Zoologie. 

Conrad, Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, VII. 

Conrad. See Gould, 1855. 

Carpenter, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Toumey and Holmes, Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina (1855-1858). 

Arthur Adams, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Gould and Conrad, Pacific Railroad Reports, and appendix. 

Carpenter, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Petit, Journal de Conchyliologie, V. 

Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina. 

Jarpenter, Report on the Mollusca of the West Coast of America, in Report 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1856. 

Carpenter, Catalogue of the Mazatlan shells in the British Museum. 

Romer, Kritische Untersuchung der Arten des Molluskengeschlechts Venus, 
bei Linné und Gmelin, Inaugural Dissertation. 

Morch, (in) Rink’s Greenland, appendix on Mollusca. 

H. and A. Adams, Genera of Recent Mollusea, II. 

Deshayes, Journal de Conchyliologie, VI. 

Dunker. See Romer, 1857. 

Jeffreys, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, XI. 

Beau, Catalogue des Coquilles de Guadeloupe, par P. Fischer. 

Holmes, Postpleiocene Fossils of South Carolina. 


_ No. 1312. SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDAW—DALL. 343 


1858. 
1860. 
1860. 
1860. 
1860. 
1860. 
1861. 
1861. 
1861. 
1861. 
1862. 
1862. 
1862. 
1862. 
1862. 
1863. 
1863. 
1863. 
1863. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1866. 
1866. 
1866. 


1866. 
1868. 
1868. 
1869. 
1869. 
1870. 
1870. 
1870. 
1870. 
1870. 
1879. 
1870. 
_ 1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 


Conrad, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, IX 

Gabb, Journal, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, second series, IV. 

Moreh, Malakozoologische Blitter fur 1859, VI. 

Rémer; Malakozoologische Blitter fiir 1860, VII, July. 

Deshayes, Journal de Conchyliologie, VIII. 

Stimpson, Checklist of shells from Maine to Georgia. 

Gould, Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, VIII. 

Gabb, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Morch, Malakozoologische Blatter, VII, pages 194-198. 

Fischer, Journal de Conchyliologie, IX. 

Romer, Monographie der Molluskengattung Dosinia. 

Chenu, Manuel de Conchyliologie, II. 

Romer, Malakozoologische Blatter, TX. 

Gould, Otia conchologica. 

Conrad, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, XTY. 

Reeve, Conchologia Iconica, X1V, Monographs of Dione, Venus. 

Baird, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Jeffreys, British Conchology, II. 

Conrad, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1862. 

Reeve, Conchologia Iconica, XIV, Monograph of Cytherea. 

Carpenter, Supplementary Report to the British Association for 1863. 

Conrad, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1863. 

Rémer, Monographie der Molluskengattung Venus, I (1864-1869). 

Romer, Malakozoologische Blatter, XT. 

Krebs, The West Indian Marine Shells. 

Meek, Checklist of Invertebrate Fossils of North America, Miocene. 

Adams, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, third series, XIII. 

Carpenter, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, XIII. 

Dunker, Novitates Conchologicee, Mollusca Marina. 

Carpenter, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, XV. 

Carpenter, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1865. 

Carpenter, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Gabb, Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, ITI. 

Conrad, American Journal of Conchology, I. 

Guppy, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, XXII. 

Gabb, Paleontology of California, I, Part 1. 

Conrad, Checklist of the Invertebrate Fossils of North America, Eocene and 
Oligocene. 

Conrad, American Journal of Conchology, II. 

Conrad, American Journal of Conchology, IV. 

Pfeiffer, Malakozoologische Bliitter, XIV. 

Gabb, Paleontology of California, IT. 

Perkins, Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, XIII. 

Pfeiffer, Malakozoologische Blitter, XVI. 

Verrill, American Journal of Science, XLIX, March. 

Conrad, American Journal of Conchology, VI. 

Romer, Monographie der Molluskengattung Venus, II (1870-1872). 

M. Sars, Christianiafiordens Fauna, II. 

Binney, Gould’s invertebrata of Massachusetts, new edition. 

Verrill, American Journal of Science, second series, XLIX, Article VI. 

Dall, Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, XIII. 

Dall, American Journal of Conchology, VII, Part II. 

Romer. See 1870. 

Gabb, Topograpby and Geology of Santo Domingo. 


344 


1873 

1874. 
1874. 
1875. 
1875. 
1876. 
1876. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 


1878. 
1878. 


1879. 
1880. 
1880. 
1881. 
1881. 
1881. 
1882. 
1882. 
1885. 
1883. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 


1885. 
1885. 
1886. 
1886. 


1887. 


1887. 
1887. 
1888. 
1888. 
1889. 
1889. 
1889. 
1889. 
1890. 
1890. 
1890. 
1891. 
1891. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1893. 
1893. 
1894. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





Verrill, Report on the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound. 

Monterosato, Journal de Conchyliologie, X XII. 

Tryon, American Marine Conchology (1873-1875). 

Conrad, (in) Kerr, Geological Report of North Carolina, Appendix I. 

Verrill, American Journal of Science, 3d series, X. 

Jeffreys, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, XIX. 

Meek, Paleontology of the Upper Missouri. 

Crosse, Journal de Conchyliologie, X XIV. 

Guppy, Sketch of the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of the Gulf of Paria. 

Arango, Contribucién a la fauna Malac. Cubana, 1878-1880, and Dunker, cited 
in the same. 

G. O. Sars, Mollusea Regionis Arcticee Norvegiz. 

Poulsen (Mirch), Catalogue of the West India Shells in the collection of Dr. 
C. M. Poulsen. 

Stoliezka, Cretaceous Pelecypoda of India. 

Verrill and Smith, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences, V. 

Verrill, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, ITI. 

E. A. Smith, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Jeffreys, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

Dall, Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, IX, No. 2 (July, November). 

Cossman, Journal de Conchyliologie, XXX. 

Dunker, Index Molluscorum Maris Japonici. 

Dall, Science, Ue September 28, 1883, page 447. 

Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, VI. 

Monterosato, Nomenclatura Conchiglie Mediterranee. 

Tryon, Structural and Systematic Conchology, III. 

Whitfield, Brachiopoda and Lamellibranchiata of the Raritan Clays of New 
Jersey. - 

E. A. Smith, Challenger Expedition, Report on the Lamellibranchiata. 

Verrill, Transactions Connecticut Academy of Sciences, VI. 

Dall, Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, XII, No. 6. 

Cossman, Catalogue Illustré des Coquilles Fossiles de l Eocene des Environs 
de Paris, I. 

Cossman, Catalogue Illustré des Coquilles Fossiles de Eocene des Environs 
de Paris, II. 

Fischer, Manuel de Conchyliologie. 

Barrois, (in) Zittel, Traité de Paléontologie, II. 

Sowerby, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Jousseaume, Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France, I. 

Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, XII, No. 773. 

Dall, Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, X VIII. 

Dall, Bulletin United States National Museum, No. 37. 

Heilprin, The Bermuda Islands. 

Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, XII. 

Stearns, Proceedings United States National Museum, VIII, No. 815. 

Yates, Santa Barbara Society of Natural History, Bulletin No. 2. 

Pilsbry, List of Mollusca collected by Frederick Stearns in Japan. 

Dall, The Nautilus, V, July, 1891. 

Stearns, The Nautilus, V, July, 1891. 

Dall, The Nautilus, V, April, 1892. 

Bush, Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, X XIII, No. 6. 

Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus, Mollusques de Roussillon, I. 

Stearns, Proceedings United States National Museum, XVI, No. XXV. 

Dall, Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, XXV, No. 9. 


« 


~ yo. 1312. SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDA—DALL. B45 








1895. Dall, The Nautilus, IX, May, 1895. 

1895. Whitfield, Miocene Mollusca of New Jersey. 

1896. Locard, Annales de |’ Université de Lyon, Campagne du Caudan. 

1896. Dall, The Nautilus, X, No. 5, September. 

1896. Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, X VIII, XIX. 

1897. Wagner, Transactions Wagner Institute of Science, V. 

1898. Verrill and Bush, Proceedings United States National Museum, XX, No. 1139. 
1898. Locard, Expéditions scientifiques du Trayailleur et du Talisman, IT. 

1898. Bucquoy, Dautzenberg et Dollfus, Mollusques Marins du Roussillon, I. 

1898. Posselt, Conspectus Fauna Gronlandize. 

1899. Dall, Transactions Wagner Free Institute of Science. III, Part 5. 

1900. Chiamente, Revista Italiana Sci. Nat., XX. 

1900. E. A. Smith, Proceedings Malacological Society of London, IV. 

1900. Sacco, I molluschi dei terreni terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria, X X VIII. 
1901. Dall and Simpson, Report on the Mollusks of Porto Rico. 

1901. Jousseaume, Le Naturaliste, Septembre, 1901. 

1901. Whitfieid and Hovey, Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, XI. 
1902. Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, XXIV. 

1902. Dall, Proceedings United States National Museum, XXYV. 


Family VENERID. 
The subdivisions adopted are characterized as follows: 
Subfamily DOSINIIN 45. 


Hinge with three left and three or four right cardinals, usually with 
an anterior left lateral fitting into a pit in the opposite valve and some- 
times a developed posterior right lateral. Siphons long and united to 
their tips; foot large, arcuate, without a byssus or byssal groove; shell 
usually orbicular and generally more or less compressed, with a dis- 
tinct pallial sinus. 

A. Anterior and sometimes posterior laterals present, the lunule 
impressed, but not distinctly limited. 


Genus DOSINIOPSIS Conrad, 1864. 


= 


Type, ). Meckit Conrad. Eocene. 

Shell orbicular, heavy, concentrically striated, with a thick, polished 
periostracum; lunule impressed, but not circumscribed distinctly, and 
there is no defined escutcheon; inner margins smooth; pallial sinus 
short, free, acutely angular, and ascending; hinge strong, with corru- 
gated nymphs and a strong rugose left anterior lateral fitting into a 
rugose pit in the opposite valve; right valve with a stout distinct pos- 
terior right lateral, which fits into an excavated socket in the left 
valve. 

This is the only genus of the family with a distinctly developed 
posterior lateral tooth, and if it were not for the number of cardinals 
and the presence of a pallial sinus it might be referred to Cyprind. 


8346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VoL. anil 





» 


Gapeomee Hora Conrad, 1870. Type, &. cretacea Goad: Cre-9 
taceous. 

This is still imperfectly known, but differs from Dos/nopsis chiefly 
by being smaller, more delicate, and of a more elongated form. 

Subgenus Pelecyora Dall, 1902. Type, ¢ ‘ytherea hatchetigheénsis 
Aldrich, 1886. Eocene. 

Shell orbicular, with rugose nymphs, simple anterior lateral and 
socket; no posterior lateral; the pallial sinus narrow, angular, ascend- 
ing; the cardinals entire except the right posterior one, which is bifid; 
otherwise as in Dosindopsis, though the only known species is very 
much smaller than the known species of Dosiniopsis. 

This group differs from Dos/n/ops/s by its smooth lateral and socket, 
and by the absence of the posterior lateral and socket, and by its rela- 
tively deeper pallial sinus. From 4a the same characters, as well 
as the nonbifid left cardinals and orbicular form, suftice to distinguish 
it. The rugosity of the nymphs is more like the semiradial ruge in 
Tivela than the fine granulations of the type of Dosinzopsis. 


B. Anterior lateral tooth and a defined lunule present. 


Genus DOSINIA Scopoli, 1777. 


Type D. africana Hanley (Le Dosin, Adanson, 1757). 

This is Cytherea (sp.) Bolten, 1798; Orbsceulus a and £, Megerle, 
1811; Arthemis (Poli) Oken, 1815; Asa-(Leach) Basterot, 1825; Aretoé 
Risso, 1826; Hivoleta Brown, 1827; Artemis Conrad, 1832; Arctoa 
Herrmannsen, 1846; Cerana Gistel, 1848; Assa (Leach) Gray, 1851; 
Amphithea Leach, 1852; but not Dosina Gray, 1838. 

Section Dosinia s. s. 

Lunule impressed, small; escutcheon narrow, elongate, flattish, bor- 
dered on each side by a ridge or keel, at which the concentric sculpture 
tends to become lamellose; middle cardinals often grooved or bifid, the 
other teeth smooth; pallial sinus angular, ascending, usually narrow 
and extended forward at least halfway from the posterior to the 
anterior adductor; valves moderately convex. 

The form of the escutcheon differs in this group from an obscure 
flattening, often unequal in the two valves, to a distinctly keeled area 
with sculpture differing from that outside the boundary, but in the 
series of species almost every gradation between these forms may be 
observed. 

Section Orbiculus Megerle, 1811. Type, Venus exoleta Linneus. 

In this section there is no escutcheon, the pallial sinus is very long 
and narrow, and the anterior lateral is strong. 

Orbiculus a Megerle, founded on Venus prostrata Linneeus, is au 
typical Dos/n/a. Most of the generic synonyms cited under the genus — 
were based on the common European species which is the type of this 


(0. 1312. SYNOPSIS oe THE VENERIDA—DALL. 347 









section. The young do ae vetain any corrugations on the posterior 

cardinals. 
Section Austrodosinia Dail, 1902. Type, Cytherea anus Philippi. 

New Zealand. 

f Lunule deeply impressed, escutcheon impressed and bordered by 

prominent keels; pallial sinus short and angular; anterior lateral and 
the pit into ee ot is received, and usually some of the anterior car- 
-dinal teeth sharply corrugated; the middle cardinals bifid. 
_ This group is represented in New Zealand and Japan. 
_ Section Dosinesca Dall, 1902. Type, Artemis alata Reeve. 

Areas of the lunule and escutcheon pouting mesially, defined by a 
deep sulcus, forming a posterior wing which recalls Phacotdes; sculp- 
ture of fine, rather distant, saarp lamelle, sometimes with radial stria- 
tion; pallial sinus deep and angular. 

_ This group is distributed in Australia and Japan. 

— Section Dosinorbis Dall, 1902. Type, Artemis bilunulata Gray. 

_ Japan. 

_ Lunule and escutcheon deeply impressed, the former surrounded by 

a larger area bordered as is the escutcheon by a lamellated keel; valves 

compressed, beaks produced, sculpture on the middle of the disk 
obsolete, becoming lamellz laterally; pallial sinus short, angular; 

right posterior margin grooved beyond the hinge plate, to receive the 
beveled edge of the opposite valve. 

_ This large and remarkable species appears to be unique in the genus. 
In the young the dorsal margins pout on each side of the ligament. 

Section Dosinidia Dall, 1902. Type, Venus concentrica Born. 

Valves, suborbicular, subcompressed, white, with a sculpture of 
concentric grooving, never lamellose, furnished with an obvious peri- 
ostracum; lunule small, impressed; escutcheon absent; pallial sinus 
ample, ascending, angular in front; posterior cardinals serrate or cor- 
rugated in the nepionic young, smooth in the adult. 

This group is confined to the tropical and warmer temperate seas of 

America. 

Section Dosinella Dall, 1902. Type, Cytherea angulosa Philippi. 
East Indies. 

Valves suborbicular with a shallow flattish lunule; the escutcheon 
narrow, flattish, hardly defined; pallial sinus ample, ascending, deep, 
bluntly rounded at the anterior end; anterior lateral and posterior right 
cardinal teeth absent or obsolete. 

There are a few small species in which the bight of the pallial sinus 
is rounded, but in this large form the contrast between the blunt 
rounded form and the angular form usual in the genus is so marked 
that, after some hesitation, taking the obsolescent hinge-teeth into 

consideration, it seemed advisable to separate it sectionally, 


Proc. N. M. vol. xxvyi—02 24. 





348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





C. Lateral teeth absent, no lunule or escutcheon. 
Genus CYCLINA Deshayes, 1849. 


Type, Venus sinensis Gmelin. China seas. 

Soft parts like Dosinia; shell orbicular, concentrically and radially 
striate, without lunule or escutcheon; inner margins crenate; pallial 
sinus angular, ascending; teeth as in Dosenia, but without laterals, the | 
posterior right cardinal obsolete. | 

It is not Cyclinus Kirby, Coleoptera, 1837. 


Genus CLEMENTIA Gray, 1842. 


Type, Venus papyracea Gray. | 

Soft parts as in Dosinia, according to Woodward; valves thin, con- — 
centrically undulate, convex, without lunule or escutcheon; inner — 
margins simple, sharp; pallial sinus subangular, ascending; three car- 
dinal teeth in each valve, the posterior right cardinal bifid; lateral — 
teeth absent. 

This is Blainvillia Huppé, 1854, not of Desvoidy, Diptera, 1830. 


Subfamily MBERHTRICIN 4. 


An anterior lateral tooth present; though sometimes obsolete, traces — 
of it can always be detected in normal specimens. | 


Genus GRATELOUPIA.Desmoulins, 1828. 


Type, Donax irregularis Basterot. Miocene. 
Valves elongate-oval, concentrically striate; three cardinals in each — 
valve, the posterior right cardinal fused with the nymphal rugosities; _ 
the pallial sinus long and acute, reaching to the vertical of the anterior — 
lateral lamina. ; 


Subgenus Cytheriopsis Conrad, 1865. Type, Cytherea hydana Con- — 
rad. Eocene. * 

Valves trigonal, recalling 77vela, the left posterior cardinal fused — 
with the nymphal rugosities; the pallial sinus short and rounded. 

This is not Cytheropsis McCoy, 1849, and if the two names are © 
judged incompatible, might be called Grateloupina. It is probably — 
the precursor of Grateloupia and Tivela. 


Genus TRANSENNELLA Dall, 1883. 


Type, 7. conradina Dall. 

Shell small, having the general form and coloration of Tivela, but a 
hinge with three cardinals in each valve, the middle left cardinal bifid, 
and an elongate left lateral received into a socket in the opposite valve; 
the hinge has no rugosities, the lunule but not the escutcheon is defined, 
internal margins sharply tangentially grooved with numerous sulci; 
the pallial sinus angular, free, obliquely ascending. 































No. 1312. SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDE—DALL. 349 





Tropical and subtropical waters of America; receding in time to the 
Miocene. This group is unique in the family in the peculiar sulcation 
of the inner margin, which is only paralleled elsewhere once among 
the Astartide. A Pacific coast species is viviparous. 


Genuss bh bVinie AY rimk, L807. 


_ Type, Venus corbicula Gmelin (= V. mactroides Born). 

Shell. porcellanous, solid, smooth externally with a dehiscent perios- 
tracum; the coloration variable with a tendency toward dark brown 
and purple; valves trigonal, subequilateral, with prominent beaks and 
‘a short ligament; lunule large, faintly defined, escutcheon not detined; 
pallial sinus small, free, rounded in front; hinge variable with anterior 
Jaterals and from three to six cardinals, partiy rugose and some of 
which may be bifid. Habitat, subtropical and tropical seas. 

Section Zivela s. s. Type, Venus mactroides Born. 

_ Valves trigonal, with smooth interior margins, usually a pilose 
‘periostracum over a polished surface; cardinals varying in different 
“species. 

_ This is 7rigona Megerle, 1811, not Jurine, Zymenoptera, i807; and 
perhaps Dollfusia Cossmann, 1886, which 1 know only by figures. 
‘The group is unique in the variability and occasional large number of 
‘cardinals, which are perhaps due to splitting up of the originally 
ingle posterior cardinals. 

Section Pachydesma Conrad, 1854. Type, Donawx stultorum Mawe. 
Shell very large and ponderous, with smooth interior margins and 
thick vernicose periostracum; hinge with four cardinals in each valve. 
This is Trigonella Conrad, 1837, not of Da Costa, 1778. It is a 
Californian type. 

Section Lutivela Dall, 1891. Type, /. perplera Stearns, Argentina. 
Shell small, elongate-trigonal, with crenulate interior margins, thin, 
polished periostracum, three left and four right cardinal teeth. 

_ This type points the way toward Suwnetta. 


Genus SUNETTA Link, 1807. 


Type, Donax scripta Linneus. 

Shell variable in form, smooth or concentrically sculptured, polished, 
often with vivid coloration; with an impressed, unequally divided 
lunule, larger in the right valve, and a deeply excavated escutcheon; 
posterior end of shell shorter than the anterior; pallial sinus wide, 
short, and rounded; inner margins conspicuously crenate; three cardi- 
nals in each valve, and rather elongate anterior laterals. 

Eocene of south Europe and tropical seas of the Old World. 
Section Svacttas. s. Type, Donaw seripta Linneus. 

Shell elongate-ovate, more or less inequilateral, the edge of the 
osterior cardinals finely rugose; sculpture concentrically sulcate or 
triate, 


ea Rs RIM 







850 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI, 








This is Cuneus Megerle, 1811, not of Da Costa, 1776; and Merog 
Schumacher, 1817. 

Section Solanderina Dall, 1902. Type, S. solandri Gray. 

Shell inflated, smooth, subequilateral. 

Section Sunettina Jousseaume, 1901. Type, S. sunettina Jousseaume, 
S. menstrualis Menke, ete. 

Shell suborbicular, compressed, smooth. 


Genus GAFRARIUM Bolten, 1798. 


Type (by elimination), Venus pectinata Linneus. 

Shell equivalve, subequilateral, with a simple or slightly sinuous — 
pallial line; three cardinals in each valve, entire or faintly grooved, 
and the usual anterior laterals; surface sculptured. Tertiary and 
recent warm seas of the Old World. 

Section Gafrarium Bolten, s. s. : 

Surface with strong, chiefly radial, more or less dichotomous sculp- — 
ture, that of the posterior slope differing from the rest; valves — 
moderately convex, umbones subcompressed with a narrow lunule and 
feebly defined escutcheon; pallial line simple, inner margins of the 
valves crenate, the ligament sunken but not immersed; middle left 
cardinal feebly grooved. 

This is Paphia Oken, 1815, not Bolten, 1798, or Lamarck, ‘soul 
Crista Romer, 1857; and Circe, species, of many authors. 

‘Section Radiocrista Dall, 1902. TES Venais pubeternmna ema 
Journ. de Conchyl., VIII, 1860, p. 381, pl. xxv, figs. 1,2. Tertiary. 


a! 


Shell with the form of Chionella the disk ari anterior part ele-— 
gantly, regularly, concentrically sulcate; margins of the dorsal area — 
behind separated from the sulcate area by strong radial ribbing; the — 
lunule not definitely circumscribed, but with its margins thickened and ‘ 
surface concentrically striated or smooth; escutcheon elongate-ovate, — 
equally parted between the valves, nearly smooth. Interior? 

The horizon and internal characters of this remarkable fossil are 
unknown, but it is provisionally located here, pending further 
information. ; 

Section Gouldia C. B. Adams, 1847. Type, Thetis cerina Adams. 

Shell small, reticulately sculptured, the radials toward the ends of 
the valves, and the concentric sculpture in the middle of the disk 
stronger; there is no specialized posterior area; moderately convex, — 
the umbones not compressed; pallial line slightly flexuous behind, 

‘ardinals and inner margins of the valves entire. 

Warm-temperate and tropical seas. 

This group is Thetis C. B. Adams, 1845, not of Oken, 1815, or 
Sowerby, 1826. It is not Gouldia Bonaparte (aves), 1850. It is th 
only representative of the Gafrarium ov Circe group in American 
Tertiary or recent seas, and has not yet been found on the Pacifie 
coast. R 


















1312. SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDZ—DALL. 351 








Beh rcnis Circe Sehainchor as pe, Venus scripta Linneus. 

Shell compressed, with only concentric sculpture, with smooth com- 
“pressed beaks, narrow lunule and escutcheon; pallial line simple, inner 
“margins oe posterior right cardinal grooved; ligament deeply 
‘sunken, but not entirely immersed. 

. Section Parmulina Dall, 1902. Type, Circe corrugata (Dillwyn) 
-Deshayes. 

Shell with the umbonal region flattened and coarsely divaricately 
ribbed, the rest of the surface concentrically sculptured; disk (except 
‘the umbones) convex; pallial line slightly flexuous, inner margins 
‘finely crenulate; lunule and escutcheon narrow, flat, the ligament 
depressed; cardinals entire or faintly grooved. 

Section Circenita Jousseaume, 1888. Type, (. arabica Lamarck. 

Valves convex; surface feebly concentrically sculptured, the beaks 
‘not compressed; posterior slope without specialized sculpture; lunule 
distinct, narrow, escutcheon hardly defined; ligament hardly depressed; 
pallial line with a minute sinus, the inner margins of the valves entire. 





¥ 


Genus LIOCONCHA MoOrch, 1858. 


Type, Venus castrensis Linneus. 
_ Shell solid, porcellanous, suborbicular, smooth or concentrically 
‘seulptured, vividly colored; lunule sharply circumscribed, impressed, 
but no defined escutcheon; ligament almost immersed, pallial line 
‘slightly flexuous, inner margins smooth, anterior left and posterior 
right dorsal margins grooved to receive the beveled edge of the oppo- 
site valve; anterior lateral large and strong; three smooth, entire 
cardinals in each valve. 

Tropical seas of the Old World. 


Genus MACROCALLISTA Meek, 1876. 


Type, Venus nimbosa Solander. 

Shell ovate, microscopically radially lineated, with low concentric 
waves, or smooth, with vivid coloration and vernicose periostracum; a 
defined lunule, but unequally divided between the valves; no defined 
escutcheon; internal margins smooth, pallial sinus free, auple, pointed 
in front and horizontally directed; cardinals three in each valve, 

‘smooth and entire, except a bifid right posterior tooth. 

Section Macrocallista s. s 

Shell much elongated, the pallial sinus short, the posterior cardi- 
nals slender and elongated. 

The type is better known as Cytherea or Callista gigantea (Gmelin) 
Lamarck. 

Section Chionella Cossman, 1886. Type, Cytherea ovalina Deshayes. 

Shell ovate-trigonal; pallial sinus long; the posterior cardinals 

short. 


352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 





5 This is Chione Gray, 1838, not Megerle, 1811, or Gray, 1851; Dione 
Gray, 1851, not of Hiibner, Lepidoptera, 1816; and Calista Moreh, 
1853, not of Leach, 1852. 


Genus AMIANTIS Carpenter, 1863. 


Type, Cytherea callosa Conrad. 

Shell ovate, concentrically waved, with vernicose periostracum; 
lunule and a linear escutcheon, defined; inner margins smooth; pallial 
sinus ample, acute in front, free below, slightly ascending; anterior 
cardinal very thin; anterior laterals large and strong. 

Section Am/iantis s. s. 

Shell with two obscure radial ribs internally, near the middle of the 
disk; posterior cardinals elongated, strong, the right one bifid, the 
other teeth entire; the posterior left cardinal and the edge of the right — 
nymph rugose; the posterior right dorsal margin beyond the hinge ~ 
plate grooved to receive the edge of the opposite valve. Californian. © 

This is called Amyantis by Stoliczka, 1871. 

Section Eucallista Dall. 1902. Type, Cytherea purpurata Lamarck, ~ 

Shell with the posterior cardinals short; the opposite faces of the- 
nymphs with interlocking rugosities; the teeth smooth; interior with-— 
out radial ridges. ? 

Lamarck himself called attention to the remarkable corrugated areas 
of this shell which recall those of V.-mercenaria. It is a Brazilian 
species which has been confounded with one from west America. 


Genus MERETRIX Lamarek, 1799. 


Type, Venus meretrix, Linneeus. 3 
Shell trigonal, plump, thin, nearly equilateral, smooth with a verni- 
cose periostracum, a peculiar olivaceous tone of coloration; lunule — 
and escutcheon not circumscribed or distinctly defined; three cardi-— 
nals in each valve and well-defined anterior laterals; the middle left 
and two anterior right cardinals entire, smooth, the others grooved or” 
bifid; right nymph and posterior left cardinal corrugated; anterior — 
left and posterior right dorsal margins beyond the hinge plate sharply _ 
grooved to receive the edge of the opposite valve; internal margins 
smooth; the pallial line with a shallow arcuate flexuosity, but no 
angular sinus; ligament hardly depressed. 

Distribution chiefly in the China seas, Japan, and the Indo-Pacific — 
region. 

This group is Cytherea (Lamarck) and Citherea Roissy, 1805, and 
Lamarck, 1806; Cytherea Defrance, 1818; Vympha Mérch, 1853, not 
Fitzinger, 1826; and Jeretrix, ex parte, Deshayes, 1853. 





No. 1812. SYM OFEIS est THE VED ee DA—DA ues 358 


Genus CALLOCARDIA A. Adams, 1864. 


_ Type, C. guttata A. Adams. 
Shell ovate, plump, thin, concentrically striated with more or less 
involute umbones; pallial sinus nearly obsolete; lunule feebly cireum- 
ae not impressed, escutcheon not defined; left anterior lateral 
received between two obsolete laminz in the opposite valve; three 
-eardinals in each valve not radiating from a point under the umbo, on 
the dorsal valve margin; the two anterior left cardinals continuous 
above and separated from the valve margin by a sulcus; the anterior 
-and posterior right cardinals similarly connected, and dorsally sepa- 
-yated by a groove from the margin; the arch of the two left cardinals 
fits over the middle right cardinal, the arch of the outer right cardinals 
over that of the two left ones, so that the middle right and the pos- 
terior left cardinals remain isolated; the dorsal margins beyond the 
hinge plate, in front in the left and behind in the right, are grooved 
_to receive the beveled edge of the opposite valve. 
In this group the teeth retain in the adult state the conditions which 
normally obtain in the early stages of hinge development as shown by 
Bernard. 
_ The group is identical with Caryatis (part) Rémer, 1862, not of 
-Hiibner, 1816; Veneriglossa Dall, September, 1886; and Atopodonta 
~Cossmann, October, 1886. It is distributed in tropical and temperate 
seas and goes back to the Eocene in time. 

The type was named Callocardia quttata by A. Adams in 1864. In 
1888 Mr. Sowerby renamed it Cytherea isocardia on account of the 
existence of a Oytherea (Callista) guttata of Romer. The latter, 

however, was not described until 1866, so that it does not antedate 
-Adams’s name. If Rémer’s form is entitled to specific rank, it will 
not require a new name, as under the present arrangement it will be 
_Teferable to the genus Macrocallista, section Chionella. 
_ Subgenus Agriopoma Dall, 1902. Type, Cytherea texasiana Dall, 
- 1892. 
i This differs from the typical Callocardia by its large, heavy, and 
chalky shells, without the involute umbones or any color pattern, and 
_ by the presence of a deep and angular pallial sinus. It is more north- 
ern in distribution than Ca/locardia proper, and more limited in geo- 
graphical range, though receding to the Eocene in America. The 
peripheral species indicate a transition in the cardinals of the right 
_ valve toward the conditions found in the following group: 


Genus PITARIA Rédmer (em.), 1857. 


Type, Venus twmens Gmelin. 
Shell trigonal, plump, concentrically striate or rippled, with an incon- 
~ spicuous periostracum and delicate coloration; lunule circumscribed, 


wo eg Ba 


835 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL M OSEUM. VOL. XXVI. 
354 


but the escutcheon not defined; inner margins smooth, pallial sinus 
ample, elongate, somewhat ascending, pointed in front; middle car-— 
dinal stout, the others slender; the posterior cardinals feebly grooved, 
the others entire; the cardinals of the right valve discontinuous where 
they touch the dorsal margin and not separ ated from the latter by a 
groove; anterior late ral Agee distinct; nymphs and teeth smooth; 
dorsal margins grooved as in J/eretriz. Widely distributed in the 


wt 
= 


scpatapsileba 


a 


or ns * 
oa 


Tropics. 
Romer’s original name, Pitar, is a vernacular African word, not— 


‘eally entitled to be used without Latinization, for which, in 1862, he ~ 
substituted Caryatis, which is preoccupied in Lepidoptera since 1816. 
It is probable that a Latinized form as above should be adopted for — 
the group. 4 

Section Pitaria s. s. Type, Venus twumens Gmelin. 
Shell smooth or eh concentric striation, usually convex, subtrig- — 


onal or ovate, with a pointed sinus. ¥ 
Section Hyphantosoma Dall, 1902. Type, Cytherea carbasea Guppy, — 
1866. Oligocene. i 


Shell with zigzag sculpture on the surface like Zeat/venus Cossmann, 
of the Venerine series. 

Section Zirelina Cossmann, 1886. Type, Cytherea tellinaria” 
Lamarck. Eocene. 

Shell pointed behind with a Tellina-like twist to the valves, which are — 
concentrically striate; hinge as in /¢arza,; pallial sinus short, bluntly i 
rounded. . 

Subgenus Hysteroconcha Fischer, 1887. Type, Venus dione Linneus. — 

Shell subtrigonal, plump, concentrically laminate; lunule and escutch- — 
eon defined by incised lines and impressed, the lamin: becoming spinose — 
near the boundary of the escutcheon; shell with tinted coloration not_ 
in patterns; inner margins smooth, pallialsinus linguiform, ample, free, — 
slightly ascending; hinge as in Pitaria, the edges of the nymphs finely — 
granular and the stout middle cardinal sometimes obscurely channeled. 

Tropical American waters. : 

This is Dione Gray, 1847, not Gray, 1851, nor Hiibner, 1816; and — 
Venus Megerle, 1811, not of Lamarck, 1799. 2 

Section Lamelliconcha Dall,1902. Type, Cytherea concinna Sowerby. — 

Shell trigonal, subcompressed, concentrically ribbed or laminate, — 
without spines; the edges of the nymphs smooth; otherwise like 
Hysteroconcha. 

Tropical seas, especially in Americe 








Genus CYTHEREA Bolten, 1798. 

aes - ; = a 

Types (by elimination), Venus puerpera Linneus, V. rugosa Gmelin, i 
and V. verrucosa Linneus. ; 
Shell large and rotund, convex, with strong predominantly concentrie 
sculpture with well-marked lunule and escutcheon, the latter unequally 


= 








No. 1312, . SYNOPSIS OF THE ene E—DALL. 355 


mecced, larger in fhe ae eave: umbones plump, felament deep 
seated; cardinals large and partly bifid; anterior lateral small, papilli- 
form; inner margins crenate; pallial line with a short rounded sinus. 
Subgenus Cytherea Bolten, S..Ss Type, Ve CUS Puerpera Linnzeus. 
Shell large, reticulately sculptured, the right portion of the escutch- 
‘eon produced over the sunken ligament; lateral tooth minute. 
Tropical seas. 
This is Antigona Romer, 1857, not Schumacher, 1817. 
Section Clausina Brown, 1827. Type, Venus verrucosa Linneeus. 
Shell large, strongly concentrically lamellose, with obscure divari- 


eating radials toward the ends; right portion of the escutcheon not 


overlapping the ligament; pallial sinus small, narrow, angular. 

Tropical and temperate seas. 

This is Venusarius (Dumevril) Froriep, 1806 (not binomial); Dosina 
Gray, 1838; Venws Swainson, 1840, not Lamarck, 1799; Cal/sta (Poli) 
Leach, 1852, not Mérch, 1853; Cal/ista Fischer, 1887, but not Clausina 
Romer, 1857. 

Section Ventricola Romer, 1857. Type, Venus rugosa Gmelin. 

Shell large with strong, distant, evenly spaced concentric lamelle, 
between which are smaller concentric threads; pallial sinus small, an- 
gular, lunule deeply impressed; right part of the escutcheon obsolete. 
_ Tropical seas of both hemispheres. 

Subgenus Aphrodina Conrad, 1868. Type, Meretrix tippana Con- 


rad. Cretaceous. 


Shell concentrically striated, with a circumscribed lunule, but no 
defined escutcheon; inner margins smooth, pallial sinus ample, free, 
ascending, rather rounded in front; hinge with three cardinals in each 


valve, the right posterior cardinal bifid; an elongate anterior lateral 


corrugated on both sides and received into a pit with similar corruga- 


tions; nymphs smooth. 


This form wants the posterior lateral and the granular nymphs of 


Dosiniopsis, and differs from Cyclorisma by its form, the presence of 


an anterior latéral and a defined lunule. 
Subgenus Antigona Schumacher, 1817. Type, Cytherea lamellaris 


‘Schumacher (+ Dosina lamarckii Gray). 


Shell having the form and sculpture of a Chéone (Megerle), but with 


a lamelliform well-developed anterior lateral entering a socket in the 
right valve; the posterior right cardinal broad and deeply bifid; pal- 
lial sinus small, triangular. 


Schumacher’s type has been confused with Chione cancellata, but an 
examination of his figures and references makes his meaning plain. 

Section Antigona s. s. 

Shell rather elongate, with profuse concentric lamellation crenu- 


lated by fine radial ribs; lunule deeply impressed, the ligament 


a 


exposed, the overlap of the escutcheon small. 
This is not Antigonus Hiibner, 1816, or Antigona Romer, 1857. 


356 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. VOL. XXVI 


rene Artena Conrad, 1870. Type, Venus staminea Conrad. 
Miocene. 

Shell trigonal or short, with acute concentric laminz, between which 
are minute elevated concentric lines; lunule not deep; escutcheon 
large, not overlapping; posterior right cardinal narrow, laminar; other 
features as in Antigona. ; 

This section bears to Antégona much such a relation as Ventricola 
does to typical Cytherea, inthe other subgenus. It was called Ar tenia 
by Tryon in 1884. 

Subgenus Circomphalus Morch, 1853. Type, Venus plicata Gmelin 
(= V. dysera Linneus pro parte). 

Shell cordate, compressed, with distant elevated reflected lamina 
which have leaflike expansions near the posterior border; lunule and — 
escutcheon, impressed, striate, sharply limited, cudeq ual: divided — 
between the valves; ligament deeply sunken; inner margins crenate, 
pallial sinus small, triangular; anterior right and posterior left cardi-— 
nals slender, laminar, entire, the others bifid; a minute pustular ante-_ 
rior left inter present. z 

This is Anartis Tryon, 1884, not of ae 1829, or Romer, 1857; : 
and Chiona Romer, 1857, not of Moreh, 1853. V. calophylla Hanley, 















also belongs here. : 
Subgenus Lepidocardia Dall, 1902. Type, Chione floridella Gray 
(+ Venus africana Philippi). e 


Shell small, compressed, donaciform, smooth or concentrically — s 
striated, polished; lunule defined, but thee is no defined escutcheon; 
internal margins smooth; pallial sinus linguiform, pointed in front, — 
horizontally directed, partly confluent with the pallial line below; 
dorsal margins beyond the hinge plate grooved; teeth delicate, the — 
anterior laterals well developed, the posterior right and anterior two 
left cardinals more or less distinctly grooved. 

Though compressed, this form recalls Gomphina by its external G 


characters. : 
Genus SAXIDOMUS Conrad, 1837 5, 
Type, S. nuttallii Conrad. i 


Shell large, rude, chalky, ovate-quadrate, with low beaks, and con- — g, 
centric usually feeble sculpture; the ligament is strong and not ‘ 
depressed; there is no defined lunular area or escutcheon; internal — 
margins smooth; pallial line with a deep, rounded sinus; ee within 
three cardinals in each valve; the posterior right cardinal bifid; anterior — 
laterals closely adjacent to the cardinals, one of the left ones often ins 
line with the anterior cardinal. s 

Shores of the North Pacific. : 

This group has been generally misunderstood and placed, as by 
Deshayes, near Zapes. His group of radial sulcate Saaidomus, of 1853, 







so. 1312 SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDE— ‘DALL. 857 





all belong to Callithaca. The icnior fea is So ¢ ear to o then ‘ardi- 
nals that it has heen counted in with them. The animal is meretricine. 
with lone, closely united siphons. The group on the Pacifie coast 
recedes to the Eocene in time. 


Ww 


Subfamily VHNERIN_E. 
ANTERIOR LATERAL TEETH ABSENT. 
Genus CYPRIMERIA Conrad, 1864. 


Type, ©. excavata Morton. Cretaceous. 
Pallial line feebly flexuous behind. 
Subgenus Cyclorisma Dall, 1902. Type, Cyclothyris carolinensis 
Conrad. Cretaceous. 
_ Pallial line deeply sinuated. 
' This is Cyclothyris Conrad, 1875; not of McCoy, Brachiopoda, 1844. 
& Genus THEDTIRONIA.Stoliczka, 1871. 

Type, Thetis major Sowerby, 1826. Cretaceous. 

_ Surface granulose; pallial sinus high, angular vertically ascending; 
no lunule or escutcheon. This is Zhet7s Sowerby, 1826, not of Oken, 
“1815. 
_ Subgenus Thetiopsis Meek, 1876. Type, 7) c7rcularis Meek and 
“Hayden, Cretaceous. 
é Smaller and smoother, the sinus shorter and irregular at its anterior 
_ basal part. 
This is Zethiops’s Fischer, 1887. 


F 





Genus MYSIA (Leach MS.) Lamarck, 1818. 


SOS gt 


ORE AT ee. 


Type, Venus undata Pennant. 
Siphons separated; hinge with two right and three left cardinal 
teeth; a circumscribed Rane. but no escutcheon. European. 

This is Lucinopsis Forbes fai Hanley, 1848, but not J/ys/a Gray, 
(1847. 


- 


Genus Cw OCLUNEEMA Dall, 1902. 


Type, Dosinia tenuis Recluz. 
Three cardinal teeth in each valve; otherwise like J/ysca. American. 
This genus extends to the Oligocene in time. 


Genus CHIONE Megerle, 1811. 


Type, Venus cancellata Lamarck. 

Three cardinal teeth in each valve; pallial sinus short, angular; 
tunule and escutcheon defined, sculpture cancellate, inner margins of 
the valves crenate; concentric sculpture dominant. 

Subgenus Chione s. s. Type, V. cancellata Lamarck. 


Pe TS LE RDO Feat Me Le Cy 8 BS 





358 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vou: <a 


i 





This is hia Morch, 1853, and of Rémer, 1857; Cireomphalus 
Adams, 1857; and Omphaloclathrum Tryon, 1884, not Mérch, 1853, — 
It is not Chion Scopoli, 1777; Chionis Forster, 1788; Chione Desvoidy, — 
Diptera, 1830; Chionca Dalman, 1816; nor Chéone Gray, 1838. Inta— 
few of the larger species like C. gnidia, a feeble fourth cardinal is — 
sometimes present in the right valve below the ligament; and the right 
posterior dorsal margin behind the ligament is sometimes grooved to — 
receive the beveled edge of the opposite valve. In Gomphina alone 
have I found any anterior grooving of the margin in the left valve. 
The siphons are separate and short, the cardinals entire or feebly 


APY Rae ote 


channeled. 

Section Chione s. s. (See above.) 

Section Zimoclea Brown, 1827. Type, Venus ovata Pennant. 

Sculpture predominantly radial, the concentric element feeble, the 
escutcheon smooth; the middle left and two posterior right cardinal 
teeth grooved. 

This is Z tasiphaé Leach, 1852, not Risso, 1826; Lewkoma Romer, 1857, 
and Leucoma Stoliczka, 1871, not of Stephens, 1829; Cytherea H. and 
A. Adams, 1857, not of Bolten, 1798; d/urcia (part) Romer, 1857, not 
of Koch, 1835. 

Section Clausinella Gray, 1851. Type, Venus fasceata Da Costa. 

Sculpture of broad concentric waves and fine concentric striz, the 
radials obsolete; the waves not pinched out behind; the ligament 
covered by the margin of the valves when closed. 

This is Zucleica Leach, 1852. 

Section Livophora Conrad, 1864. Type, Venus athleta Conrad; a 
recent species is V. paphia Linneeus. 

Sculpture of broad concentric waves, attenuated and often conspicu- 
ously lamellose distally; radially striate; ligament exposed; the edges 
of the right nymph and posterior left cardinal with interlocking rugos- 
ities. 

This is Clausina Romer, 1857, not of Brown, 1827; Anaztis (paphia) 
Fischer, 1887, not of Tryon, 1884; and Anaztis (part) Rémer, 1857, 
not Anaitis Duponchel, 1829. 

‘Section Volupia Defrance, 1829. Type, V. rugosa Defrance, Eocene 
of Hauteville. 

Shell small, sculpture superficially resembling Zirophora, but with 
lunule and posterior area defined by a deep sulcus dividing the disk 
into three areas crossed by thick, swollen, concentric ribs; beaks high — 
and curved; hinge of three teeth, of which one is bifid; pallial line not 
sinuated ¢ 

In placing this shell here I have followed Fischer, since the species 
has not been well figured and the descriptions given of it are far from 
clear. I have not been able to obtain specimens for examination. 
From the very obscure figure of Defrance I should have suspected — 


SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERIDA—DALL. 359 





“this shell to be eneneid ome to belong somewhere in the vie inity a 
Fifer. Gabb. 

é Section Chamelea Morch, 1853. Type, Venus gallina Linneus. 
Sculpture of narrow, close concentric waves or low lamelle, without 
‘distal lamellation or radial sculpture; teeth entire; ligament exposed; 
the escutcheon and lunule smooth. 

This is Ortygia Brown, 1827, not Boie, 1826; Hermione Leach. 1852. 
not of Blainville, 1828; Orthygia Morch, 1853; Chamelwa H. and A. 
Adams, 1857; J/urcia (part) Romer, 1857, not of Koch, 1835. and 
probably Parvivenus Sacco, 1900. 

Subgenus Gomphina Mérch, 1853. Type, Venus wndulosa Morch. 

Valves more or less rostrate, the surface usually smooth and pol- 
ished, inner margins entire; dorsal margins gooved and beveled 
beyond the hinge plate; the posterior right and two anterior left 
cardinals grooved; ligament exposed. Pallial sinus short, free, and 
rounded in front. 

Section Gomphina s.s. Type, V. wndulosa Morch. 

Valves usually heavy, solid, and very tumid: the lower edge o% the 
right nymph and the upper edge of the left posterior cardinal with 
reciprocal rugosities. 

_ This is Marcia (H. and A, Adams part) Chenu, 1862, and Tryon, 
1884, not of Fischer, 1887; //emitapes Stoliczka, 1871, not Romer 
(part) 1857; not Gomphina Chenu, 1862. 

~ Section Macridiscus® Dall, 1902. Type, Venus equilatera Sowerby. 

Valves more equilateral, trigonal and compressed, less heavy and 
sometimes with feeble striation distally; nymphs and teeth entire, 
smooth. 

This is Gomphina H. and A. Adams, 1857, not of Mérch, 1853. 


Genus ANOMALOCARDIA Schumacher, 1817. 


Type, Venus fluctuosa Linneus. 

Valves rostrate, with a vernicose periostracum, sculpture obsolete 
mesially; the inner margins crenulate, the ligament exposed, the lunule 
and escutcheon impressed; cardinal teeth entire, three in each valve, 
the anterior right cardinal feeble, sometimes obsolete; pallial sinus 
small, angular, sometimes nearly obsolete. 

Section Anomalocardia s. s. 

Surface with predominantly concentric sculpture, vernicose perios- 
tracum. and the adjacent surfaces of the posterior left cardinal and 
right nymph minutely rugose. America and West Africa. 

This is Zriqguetra Anton, 1839, after Blainville, 1818, but not of 
Conrad, 1846; it is Cryptogramma Morch, 1853. 

Section Anomalodiscus Dall, 1902, Type, Cytherea squamosa Lamarck. 

Surface with reticulate subequal sculpture, a dull papery periostra- 

cum, and the hinge without rugosities. Indo- China. 


= 


S or 
j a Fr rom Meer not from “akpos. 


x 


360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



























Genus VENUS (Linnzeus) Lamarck, 1799. 


Type, Venus mercenaria Linneus. 

Shell large, heavy, earthy, trigonal; with faint radial and stronger 
concentric ‘lamellar sculpture; lunule and escutcheon well defined; 
internal margins crenulate; pala sinus small, triangular; there a 
two bifid cardinals in the left valve, one bifid and two anterior simple — 
cardinals in the right valve, with a rugose area in each valve repre-_ 
senting a supplementary cardinal below the ligament, the rugosities” 
interlocking when the valves close; the ligament is strong and wholly 
exposed; the posterior dorsal margin of the right valve grooved to- 
receive the edge of the left valve. The genus is American. 

It is Wercenaria Schumacher, 1817, and Crassivenus Perkins, 1869. 


Genus MARCIA (H.and A. Adams, 1857) Fischer, 1887. 


Type Venus exalbida Dillwyn. 
Shell large, subquadrate, concentrically lamellose and striated, with. = 
out radial sculpture, and with a dull, earthy surface; internal margins 
smooth; pallial sinus small, angular, free; hinge with three left and_ 
four right cardinals, the middle ones larger and grooved above. Aus-— 
tralasia and southern South America. q 
Subgenus Marcia s. s. (See above.) 
This isa Venus without hinge rugosities, radial sculpture, or mar-_ 
ginal crenation. There is a well-defined lunule, but no defined” 
escutcheon; the ligament is exposed. 
It is Aatelysia (part) Romer, 1857, not of Tryon, 1884. : 
Subgenus Katelysia (ROmer, 1857) Tryon, 1884. Type, Venus sa 
larina Lamarck. | 
Shell rounded-trigonal, subeompressed, very inequilateral, sculp 5 
tured with concentric riblike ridges, sharper distally, polished, por-_ 
cellanous, with no radial sculpture; coloration lively, anterior end 
sharper; lunule smooth, circumscribed, escutcheon defined only by — 


bane of the Sesocits ralve. ‘South Seas. 
Section Aatelysia s. s. (See above.) fs 
The inequilateral ovate form of these shells is quite striking. 
Chamelea Chenu, 1862, not Mérch, 1853; I/wreia (part) Rémer, 1857, 
not Koch, 1835; and Catelysia Fischer, 1887, are synonymous. . 
Section Femitapes Romer, 1857. Type, Venus rémudaris Lamarck. 






SYNOPSIS OF THE VENERID.E—DALL. 361 





Shell trigonal, tumid, with a keeled escutcheon and short, rounded 
pallial sinus. 

This is otherwise essentially like the preceding section, but ow ing to 
e different form appears very distinct. It is not Hemitapes of 
Stoliezka Tryon, and Fischer. 

k Section Venerella Cossmann, 1886. Type, Venus hermonvillensis 
pehy es. Eocene. 

_ Shell small, ovate, concentrically striate; lunule large, circumscribed. 
escutcheon not aeaned: internal margins smooth; pallial sinus small 
free, ascending, pogeded in front; eee cardinal teeth in each valve, 
the margin of the hinge plate excavated at the interspaces; posterior 
right cardinal long, bifid; the other teeth entire. 

These forms are distinguished from the smaller species of Autelysia 
chiefly by the form and disposition of the teeth. 

Section Mercimonia Dall, 1902. Type, Venus Bernayt Cossmann. 
Eocene. 

Shell small, ovate, concentrically striate, rather tumid; hinge nor- 
mal, the posterior left cardinal slender, not elongated; posterior right 
cardinal grooved; margins entire; the pallial sinus nearly obsolete. 

This is MWercenaria Cossmann, 1886, not of Schumacher, 1817. The 
species included in Cossmann’s list which possess a small but deep 
pallial sinus might be referred to Venerella, from which they hardly 
differ. 

Section Zeativenus Cossmann, 1886. Type, Venus texta Lamarck. 

Eocene. 
Shell ovate, convex, sculptured by fine obliquely reticulate or 
divaricate subequal threadlike ridges; lunule small, circumscribed, 
escutcheon bordered by a radial ridge; internal margins smooth, 
pallial sinus small, angular, free; three cardinals in each valve, the 
right posterior cardinal broadly bifid; the right posterior dorsal mar- 
gin behind the hinge plate grooved to receive the edge of the opposite 
valve. 

Section Samarangia Dall, 1902. Type, Venus quadrangularis Adams 

and Reeve. 

_ Shell rounded-quadrate, subcompressed, white, with a dull surface; 
sculpture of concentric striation, more forcible distally; internal mar- 
gins smooth; lunule unevenly divided between the valves, smaller in 
the right valve; escutcheon not defined; pallial sinus moderate, angu- 
Jar in front, free below; three cardinals in each valve, the middle left 
and two posterior right cardinals bifid; hinge strong. 

The species belonging to this group aresmassive and solid. V. /en- 
ticularis Sowerby is an example. The anterior left and posterior 
vight dorsal margins are grooved behind the hingeplate to receive the 
beveled edges of the opposite valve. 





362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 





Genus PAPHIA Bolten, 1798. 


not Linneus). 
Cardinals, three in each valve; the anterior right and posterior 


left cardinals entire, the others often bifid. 

Subgenus Paphia s. s. 

Valves elongate-oval, subcompressed, with close concentric riblets 
covered by a vernicose periostracum and without radial sculpture; ; 
coloration brilliant; escutcheon and lunule narrow, smooth, impressed, , 


me | 


the lunule unequally divided, the right portion encroaching on the: 
left; inner margins smooth; the pallial sinus free, ample, rounded in) 


front, obliquely ascending. f 
rn c 0 : P Metra ays i 
The species are of warm temperate and tropical seas in the eastern 


hemisphere, and are reported from the Tertiaries of South Europe - 


since the Eocene. Autapes Chiamenti, 1900, and Callistotapes Sacco, 
Uy > 
| 


L900, are synonymous. | 
Section Baroda Stoliczka, 1871. Type, Venus fragilis D’Orbigny. . 
Cretaceous. : 
Valves elongate, thin, with purely concentric sculpture; the poste- 
rior cardinals elongated, sometimes grooved, the others simple; pallial 
sinus ample, horizontal, rounded in front; margins entire. 3 
This group appears to be the Mesozoic precursor of Paphia. The 


Tertiary Zaurotapes craveri (Michelotti) Sacco, seems hardly distinet: 
/ es | 






from Laroda. 
Section Jcanotia Stoliczka, 1871. Type Psammobia impar Zittel, 


Gosau. Eg 
This is stated to differ from Baroda only by the presence of more! 

. i. 

or less radial sculpture. 4 


Section Parutapes Stoliezka, 1871. Type, Venus tertile Gmelin. & 

Valves elongate, turgid, smooth or feebly concentrically sculptureds| 
lunule circumscribed, narrow; escutcheon undefined; middle cardinals | 
bifid as in Paphia; inner margins: entire; pallial sinus obliquely | 


ascending, small, squarish anteriorly. 7 
This is Zeatrix Romer, 1857, not Sundeval, 1833. 4 
Section Protapes Dall, 1902. Type, Venus gallus Gmelin (on ve 

malabarica Dillwyn). Bp 


Valves trigonal, closely concentrically ribbed, with no radial sculp-) 
ture; a yernicose periostracum; a large elongate impressed lunule, no! 
differentiated escutcheon; smooth inner margins; an ample, obliquely 
ascending pallial sinus, rounded in front; the two anterior and the; 
left posterior cardinals entire, the others bifid; all the teeth short and 
concent